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•..:  • 

John  Ellerton. 


Being  a  Collection  of  his  Writings  on  Hymnology 





its  of  Cawow  €lUtimt  iutb  0%r  leabhtg  pignut  Win 






NEW  YORK:  E.   £  J.   B.  YOUNG  &  CO. 




iiebmub  Jfnmd*  (ieorp  (gllevton,  Jft.Jt. 






THIS  book  is  the  development  of  a  very  limited 
design.  The  original  intention  was  merely  to  re- 
print (at  the  desire  of  many  who  were  interested  in 
Hymnody)  the  papers  on  "  Favourite  Hymns  and 
their  Authors,"  which  Canon  Ellerton  had  written 
for  the  Parish  Magazine,  and  which  subsequently 
re-appeared  in  the  Church  Monthly,  prefixing  to 
them  a  Sketch  of  the  Author's  Life  and  Works.  But 
it  was  soon  perceived  that  his  most  important  con- 
tributions to  Hymnology,  apart  from  his  own 
hymns,  were  those  articles  which  he  had  composed 
for  the  Churchman's  Family  Magazine,  Church 
Congresses,  or  for  special  occasions,  and  that  the 
work  would  be  a  far  more  valuable  contribution  to 
the  literature  of  the  subject  if  these  were  included. 
Then  among  the  Canon's  papers  were  found  drafts 
of  several  original  hymns,  translations,  and  poems 
which  could  not  be  omitted. 

The  Sketch  of  the  Author's  Life,  while  it  still 
remains  but  a  sketch,  could  not  have  attained  to 
any  degree  of  completeness  had  it  not  included 
much  interesting  matter  connected  with  the  com- 
pilation of  the  chief  Hymnals  now  in  use,  and  thus 
the  work  grew  to  its  present  size. 

It  is  obvious  that  these  pages  could  never  have 

viii  PREFACE 

been  written  but  for  the  kind  co-operation  of  many 
with  whom  the  Canon  had  been  associated,  both 
in  friendship  and  in  work.  By  far  the  greater 
share  of  the  labour  has  fallen  upon  his  eldest  son, 
the  Reverend  Francis  George  Ellerton,  who  under- 
took the  heavy  task  of  examining  his  father's 
papers,  and  selecting  from  among  them  such  as 
threw  light  upon  his  hymnological  work.  Had  the 
idea  of  constructing  a  complete  biography  been 
entertained  there  would  have  been  no  lack  of 
material.  To  him,  therefore,  both  for  his  zeal  in 
collecting  matter  for  this  tribute  to  his  father's 
memory,  as  well  as  for  much  valuable  counsel  in 
the  construction  of  the  work,  my  gratitude  must, 
in  the  first  place,  be  gratefully  expressed. 

To  Canon  Erskine  Clarke,  late  proprietor  of  the 
Parish  Magazine,  and  to  Frederick  Sherlock,  Esq., 
proprietor  of  the  Church  Monthly,  my  best  thanks 
are  due  for  generously  giving  me  permission  to  re- 
publish  anything  from  Canon  Ellerton's  pen  which 
had  appeared  in  their  periodicals,  as  well  as  to  use 
the  original  blocks  for  the  portraits  of  the  hymn 

To  the  Right  Reverend  Edward  Henry  Bicker- 
steth,  Lord  Bishop  of  Exeter,  I  am  greatly  in- 
debted for  the  loan  of  a  correspondence  between 
his  lordship  and  the  Canon  on  the  subject  of  the 
Hymnal  Companion  to  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer; 
and  also  to  the  Reverend  Prebendary  Godfrey 
Thring  for  a  similar  favour  with  regard  to  the 
Church  of  England  Hymn-Book. 

Very  cordially,  too,  must  I  thank  Mrs.  Carey 
Brock,  not  only  for  allowing  me  to  see  and  make 


use  of  the  letters  which  passed  between  her  and 
Canon  Ellerton  while  the  Children's  Hymn-Book 
was  in  preparation,  but  also  for  allowing  me  to 
submit  to  her  revision  the  chapter  describing  that 

To  W.  M.  Moorsom,  Esq.,  one  of  the  Canon's 
staff  of  lay  workers  at  Crewe,  I  owe  the  graphic 
picture  of  Mr.  Ellerton's  work  in  that  place  as  a 
parish  priest,  and  for  permission  to  print  the  useful 
paper  on  the  "  Bondage  of  Creeds." 

I  have  also  much  pleasure  in  acknowledging  the 
assistance  I  have  received  from  the  Venerable 
Archdeacon  Thornton,  the  Reverend  Gerald 
Blunt,  and  the  Reverend  John  Julian,  D.D.,  whose 
monumental  work,  the  Dictionary  of  Hymnology, 
has  been  of  infinite  use  in  correcting  dates  and 
verifying  references. 

Nor  can  I  sufficiently  express  my  obligations  to 
the  Reverend  James  Mearns,  curate  of  Whitchurch, 
Reading,  and  assistant  editor  of  the  Dictionary  of 
Hymnology,  for  his  kindness  in  correcting  the 
proofs  of  the  first  part  of  the  book,  and  offering 
many  valuable  suggestions. 

My  last,  but  by  no  means  least,  acknowledgment 
of  kindly  co-operation  must  be  offered  to  Professor 
Henry  Attwell,  K.O.C.,1  one  of  the  late  Canon's 
most  intimate  and  most  valued  friends.  To  him  I 
am  indebted  not  only  for  the  loan  of  some  of  the 
Canon's  charming  letters,  but  also  for  kindly 
revising  the  whole  of  the  book  while  passing 
through  the  press. 

The  plan  I  have  adopted  in  gathering  into  one 
1  Knight  of  the  Oaken  Crown  of  Holland. 


view  each  of  the  Hymnals  treated  of  entailed  of 
necessity  some  repetition,  but  it  is  hoped  the 
arrangement  will  be  found  sufficiently  clear  and 
satisfactory.  If  the  work  should  be  instrumental 
in  preserving  some  records  of  the  life-work  of  one 
of  the  Church's  sweetest  poets,  if  it  should  be  the 
means  of  making  known  many  of  his  hymns  which 
else  might  have  lain  unpublished  and  unknown,  it 
will  not  have  been  written  in  vain. 


St.  Wilfriths,  Chichester, 
May  17,  1896. 




BOYHOOD — CAMBRIDGE  ...  ...  ...  ...          1 5 

THE   DEATH    OF    BALDUR  ...  ...  ...          25 

1850 — 1872 

EASEBOURNE — BRIGHTON — CREWE    GREEN  ...          32 

THE    BONDAGE   OF   CREEDS  ...  ...  ...         40 


1872 — 1876 
HINSTOCK       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...          6 1 



BARNES  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...          66 

CHURCH  HYMNS  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...       72 

THE  CHILDREN'S  HYMN-BOOK     ...         ...         ...       87 




1884,  1885 



VEYTAUX                    ...             ...  ...  ...  ...  99 

PEGLI           ...             ...             ...  ...  ...  ...  102 

AN    ITALIAN    POOR-HOUSE  ...  ...  ...  109 


WHITE    RODING           Il6 

HYMNS   ANCIENT   AND    MODERN                   ...             ...  130 

THE    LAST   HYMNS                 138 

THE   CLOSE               ...             ...             ...             ...             ...  156 


CONCLUSION  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...       178 



OF    ENGLISH    HYMNODY       ...  ...  ...       185 



III. — ON     THE     PRINCIPLES     ON     WHICH     A     HYMN- 
BOOK    SHOULD    BE    CONSTRUCTED...  ...       223 

BOOKS    AT    PRESENT  245 


CONGRESS,    1871     ...  ...         •  ...  ...       260 



HYMNS    AND    HYMN-SINGING                ...  ...             ...  266 

HYMNS    AND    HYMN-BOOKS  ...             ...  ...             ...  276 

AN    AUTHORIZED    HYMNAL   ..,             ...  ...             ...  284 


HYMNODY    ...                             ...  ...  288 


JOHN   COSIN    AND    THOMAS    KEN       30! 


THE   WESLEYS    AND   TOPLADY              ...             ...             ...  316 

WILLIAM    COWPER    AND   JOHN    NEWTON        ...             ...  323 

REGINALD    HEBER   AND    HENRY    HART    MILMAN       ...  329 

JAMES    MONTGOMERY                ...             ...             ...             ...  337 

HENRY    FRANCIS    LYTE            344 

LATORS...            ...             ...             ...             ...             ..,  350 

JOHN    KEBLE   AND   JOHN    HENRY    NEWMAN                ...  359 


CHARLOTTE        ELLIOTT       AND        FRANCES        RIDLEY 

HAVERGAL           ...             ...             ...             ...             ...  381 

HORATIUS    BONAR    AND    HIS    HYMNS                ...             ...  387 


SOME    FAMOUS    EASTER    HYMNS          39! 

SOME  FAMOUS  ADVENT  HYMNS      ...                     ...  397 

CHILDREN'S  HYMNS  BY  MRS.  ALEXANDER           ...  405 

INDEX           '       4*5 





THERE  are  some  men  the  records  of  whose  lives 
have  an  interest  for  the  many,  and  there  are  others 
whose  memory  will  only  be  treasured  by  the  few. 
Every  particular  illustrating  the  career  of  one  who 
has  been  a  ruling  power  in  Church  or  State,  or  a 
shining  light  in  literature,  science,  or  art,  is  justly 
regarded  as  among  the  most  precious  things  which 
the  present  can  inherit  from  the  past  or  bequeath 
to  the  future.  But  although  of  less  common  in- 
terest, the  memorials  of  many  a  life  passed  in 
comparative  obscurity  may  be  very  precious  ;  and, 
within  the  orbit  in  which  they  are  designed  to 
move,  be  as  highly  prized  as  those  of  earth's  great 
ones.  Quiet  lives  may  make  but  quiet  reading, 
lacking  the  excitement  of  stirring  scenes  and 
startling  actions ;  still,  there  are  times  when  it  is 
a  relief  to  turn  from  the  study  of  those  who  lived 
in  the  full  glare  of  the  world's  observation  to  the 
simple  narrative  of  some  favourite  poet  who  sang, 


so  to  speak,  in  the  shade.  In  fact,  the  one  is  as 
necessary  as  the  other  if  we  are  to  form  an  ade- 
quate conception  of  all  the  minds  which  mould  an 
age.  A  work  on  birds,  to  be  complete,  must  include 
the  nightingale  as  well  as  the  eagle,  or  one  on 
flowers  must  not,  while  it  describes  the  rose,  despise 
the  violet. 

The  present  sketch — and  the  reader  is  begged 
to  remember  that  it  is  only  a  sketch,  not  designed 
to  be  a  finished  portrait — is  an  attempt  to  record 
for  the  lovers  of  sacred  song  the  outlines  of  a 
very  sweet  singer,  one  whose  life  was  quite 
uneventful,  who  was  heard  rather  than  seen,  but 
some  of  whose  hymns  are  as  immortal  as  those  of 
St.  Ambrose,  St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux,  or  of 
Venantius  Fortunatus.  The  present  generation 
is  rapidly  giving  place  to  a  younger ;  its  facts 
and  personalities  are  fast  fading  into  memories. 
If  the  records  of  those  who  have  adorned  it  by 
their  lives  or  writings  are  to  be  preserved  for  those 
who  shall  come  after  us,  they  must  be  harvested  at 
once  before  they  become  dimmed  by  distance  or 
altogether  lost ;  and  we  believe  that  in  every  succeed- 
ing age  there  will  be  some  who  will  be  glad  to  pos- 
sess a  few  particulars  of  the  life  of  John  Ellerton, 
pronounced  by  Matthew  Arnold — no  mean  author- 
ity— to  be  the  "  greatest  of  living  hymnologists." 

John,  the  elder  son  of  George  and  Jemima  Frances 
Ellerton,  was  born  in  London  on  Saturday,  Decem- 
ber 1 6,  1826,  and  baptized  in  the  parish  church  of 
St.  James,  Clerkenwell,  on  the  sixteenth  of  the 
following  month.  He  came  of  a  Yorkshire  family, 
and  Ellerton  Priory,  a  small  house  in  Swaledale, 


near  Richmond,  now  in  ruins,  indicates  the  locality 
from  whence  it  derived  its  name.  Having  but  one 
brother,  eleven  years  younger  than  himself,  and  no 
sisters,  he  was  practically  an  only  child,  a  fact  which 
must  have  materially  tended  to  foster  the  peculiar 
shyness  and  sensitiveness  of  his  temperament. 
The  memory  of  his  parents  was  throughout  his  life 
a  most  precious  and  sacred  thing.  "  I  used  to 
feel,"  such  are  his  own  words,  "  how  happy  my 
father  and  mother  were,  even  more  than  how  good 
they  were ;  and  yet  I  knew  even  then,  and  know 
still  better  now,  that  they  had  many  sorrows  and 
anxieties.  They  had  no  personal  religious  doubts 
or  fears  ;  their  delight  in  prayer,  in  hymns,  in  the 
Bible,  and  occasionally  in  spiritual  converse  with 
one  or  two  friends,  was  most  true  and  deep  and 
real ;  there  was  no  mistake  about  it.  It  never 
occurred  to  me  to  connect  their  religion,  even  in 
its  severest  denunciations  and  gloomiest  fore- 
bodings for  the  world,  with  the  faintest  shadow  of 
cant  or  unreality ;  and  in  their  family  and  with 
intimate  friends  there  was  plenty  of  merriment 
and  fun.  My  father  especially  overflowed  with 
humour,  with  quaint  sayings  and  stories,  all  per- 
fectly good-humoured  and  kindly.  Often  do  I 
laugh  to  myself,  even  now  all  alone,  at  some  of  his 
overflowings  of  mirth  at  which  there  are  now  none 
left  to  laugh." 

To  his  mother  especially  the  shy  and  sensitive 
boy  was  indebted  for  the  guiding  of  his  opening 
mind  into  those  channels  of  thought  which  it  never 
afterwards  forsook.  She  was  a  woman  of  con- 
siderable literary  ability,  and  among  the  many 
\  '  n 


short  stories  which  proceeded  from  her  pen,  How 
Little  Fanny  Learned  to  be  Useful  still  holds  its  own 
as  a  delightful  tale  for  children.  She  was  left  a 
widow  in  1844,  and  she  and  her  son  lived  on  in  the 
old  house  at  Ulverston  until  he  went  to  Cambridge. 
She  then  left  the  house  for  a  time  and  went  to  live 
in  a  smaller  one  at  Norham-on-Tweed,  which  also 
belonged  to  the  family.  It  was  here  that  John 
Ellerton  passed  all  his  college  vacations,  and  from 
here  one  memorable  summer  he  went  with  his 
mother  to  the  Lakes,  and  he  often  used  to  speak 
of  his  delight  in  spending  whole  days  in  a  boat  on 
Windermere,  devouring  Wordsworth  and  Tennyson. 
His  mother  was  so  devoted  to  him  that  she  could 
never  bear  to  be  away  from  him  for  long,  and  on  his 
leaving  Cambridge  she  followed  him  to  his  first 
curacy  at  Easebourne,  and  afterwards  to  Brighton. 
In  both  places  she  helped  him  much,  in  the  schools 
at  Easebourne,  and  in  district  visiting  at  Brighton. 
On  his  appointment  to  Crewe  Green  she  accom- 
panied him,  and  shared  his  home  there  till  her 
death  in  March  1866. 

It  was  in  London  that  the  early  boyhood  of  the 
future  poet  was  passed,  and  where  his  earliest 
religious  impressions  were  received.  How  deep 
and  lasting  these  impressions  were  may  be  gathered 
from  his  own  "  Recollections  of  Fifty  Years  Ago." * 
"  On  the  whole,"  he  writes,  "  the  religious  world  at 
that  time  was  rather  gloomy.  The  great  fight 
against  slavery  had  been  won,  so  completely  won 
that  some  of  the  most  earnest  abolitionists  began 

1  A  paper  contributed  to  the  All-Saints  Scarborough 
Parish  Magazine. 


to  think  that  the  great  Emancipation  of  August 
1834  had  been  rather  an  -extreme  and  hasty 
measure.  There  was  no  great  social  or  theological 
battle  to  fight;  religious  people  talked  about 
Edward  Irving  and  his  followers,  but  they  too  had 
dropped  out  of  notice  a  good  deal  by  1837.  I 
thought  of  him  chiefly  as  an  open-air  preacher,  for 
more  than  once  on  Sunday  mornings,  on  my  way 
to  St.  John's,  Bedford  Row,  with  my  father,  had  I 
had  a  vision  of  that  marvellous  face  and  form,  in 
his  little  movable  wooden  pulpit,  sometimes  in 
pouring  rain,  holding  an  umbrella  over  his  head 
with  one  hand,  as  he  poured  forth  his  fervid  oratory 
to  a  scanty  group  of  hearers  outside  the  walls  of 
the  great  prison.  But  the  favourite,  the  inexhaust- 
ible subject  of  talk  among  serious  people  was 
unfulfilled  prophecy.  The  Irvingite  movement 
(as  people  would  call  it)  had  popularized  Millen- 
arian  speculations  among  many  who  resisted 
steadily  all  belief  in  the  new  'Miracles'  and 
'  Tongues.'  Names  now  utterly  forgotten  of  writers 
on  prophecy  formed  the  staple  reading,  I  am  afraid, 
for  a  good  many  of  the  religious  folk  among  whom 
I  lived  ;  and  their  speculations  turned  chiefly  on 
the  chronology  of  the  future — in  what  year  the 
Jews  were  to  be  restored,  Popery  to  be  destroyed, 
and  the  Millennium  to  begin.  Some  great  event — 
I  believe  the  final  overthrow  of  the  'ten  king- 
doms '  of  Europe,  including  England,  and  accom- 
panied by  troubles  hitherto  unheard  of — was  pre- 
dicted for  1844.  Boy  as  I  was,  I  entirely  believed 
in  this  calculation,  which  was  pictorially  set  forth 
in  a  great  coloured  chart ;  so  much  so,  that  when 


1841  came  I  remember  being  quite  shocked  at  my 
father  for  letting  some  ground  to  a  tenant  on  a 
seven  years'  lease." 

"  In  those  days,"  he  continues,  "  I  was  taken 
several  times  to  Exeter  Hall  to  some  of  the  great 
religious  meetings,  often  to  those  of  the  Church 
Missionary  Society,  and  always  rejoiced  when  a 
'  real  missionary '  got  up,  instead  of  the  usual 
London  clergyman  with  his  usual  platform  address. 
There  were  of  course  exceptions  among  them, 
conspicuously  Hugh  Stowell  and  Hugh  McNeile. 

"  The  impression  generally  made  on  the  mind  of 
a  rather  precocious  and  sensitive  boy  by  this 
religious  atmosphere  was  that  the  world  was  very 
wicked,  the  country  going  from  bad  to  worse,  and 
no  hope  for  anything  but  the  great  Revolution 
which,  among  untold  miseries,  was  to  usher  in  the 
'  Day  of  the  Lord.'  And  yet  within  the  charmed 
circle  of  those  who  used  to  meet  at  my  father's 
house  there  was  much,  very  much  of  peace,  bright- 
ness, and  happiness  such  as  I  seldom  see  now." 

His  parents  used  to  take  their  two  children,  John 
and  George  Francis,  to  spend  every  summer  with 
an  uncle,  Dr.  John  Ellerton,  who  owned  a  small 
property  at  Ulverston  in  Lancashire,  which,  upon 
his  death  in  1838,  passed  to  his  brother  George, 
and  the  family  in  that  year  left  London  and  settled 
in  Ulverston.  John,  twelve  years  old,  now 
began  his  school-life,  for  what  instruction  he  had 
hitherto  received,  in  addition  to  the  inestimable 
training  he  had  been  daily  experiencing  at  the 
hands  of  his  Godly  parents,  had  been  in  private 
academies.  Now  he  was  sent  to  King  William's 


College,  Isle  of  Man,  where  he  remained  till  the 
death  of  his  father  in  1844.  He  afterwards  spent 
a  year  at  Brathay  Vicarage,  Ambleside,  reading 
with  the  Rev.  C.  Hodgson ;  from  thence  to  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  matriculated  at  Trinity  College  in 
1845.  The  close  of  his  boy-life  was  marked  by 
two  events  :  the  death  of  his  father  and  of  his  young 
brother,  both  in  the  same  year,  could  not  fail  to 
have  a  lasting  impression  on  the  mind  of  one  so 
sensitive  as  the  youthful  poet,  and  may  have  tended 
to  give  that  sub-melancholy  colouring  to  his 
character  which  continued  through  life. 

At  Cambridge  he  came  into  contact  with  men 
of  very  different  calibre  from  those  of  St.  John's, 
Bedford  Row.  The  conversation  to  which  he  now 
listened,  or  in  which  he  bore  a  part,  was  not  so 
much  upon  "the  little  horn,"  or  "the  mark  of  the 
beast,"  as  upon  those  great  questions  concerning 
the  Church  and  Society  which  were  then  engrossing 
the  minds  of  the  leaders  of  thought  in  both  Uni- 
versities. Now  it  was  that  he  made  the  acquaintance, 
amongst  others,  of  Henry  Bradshaw  and  Dr.  Hort, 
and  his  lifelong  friendship  with  these  eminent 
scholars  dates  from  this  period.  Now  also  it  was  that 
he  came  under  the  influence  of  Frederick  Denison 
Maurice.  In  a  letter  written  many  years  after- 
wards he  writes,  looking  back  on  his  College  days, 
"  I  was  first  attracted  by  one  or  two  of  his  pamph- 
lets ;  then  I  fagged  on  at  The  Kingdom  of  Christ  > 
but  did  not  get  as  much  out  of  it  as  I  ought  at  the 
first  time,  probably  because  I  was  miserably  ignor- 
ant of  theology,  and  only  had  got  up  stock  formulae 
of  evangelicalism,  which  I  had  to  produce  in 


themes  for  a  private  tutor.  But  I  think  the  books 
that  helped  me  most  at  first  were  Maurice's  Lord's 
Prayer^  Prayer  Book,  and  The  Church  a  Family'' 
He  goes  on  to  say, "  after  three  or  four  of  his  books 
you  will  be  accustomed  to  his  peculiarities,  the 
strange/tfj//^  of  deep  insight,  the  reverent  hesitation 
and  fear  of  misstatements  which  makes  people  call 
him  hazy ;  and  his  worst  fault  in  the  eyes  of  the 
common  herd  of  readers  is,  that  he  refuses  to  tell 
you  what  your  opinion  is  to  be,  but  will  have  you 
think  about  a  question,  and  generally  leaves  you 
with  the  impression  that  you  have  been  talking 
nonsense  very  positively  in  all  you  have  hitherto 
said  about  it."  And  here  let  me  state  once  for  all 
what  I  believe  to  have  been  the  tone  and  colour  of 
his  Churchmanship.  No  one  of  the  three  great 
schools  of  religious  conviction  could  claim  John 
Ellerton  as  its  partisan.  He  always  seemed  to  me 
to  combine  in  himself  the  distinguishing  excellency 
of  each — the  subjective  piety  of  the  Evangelical,  the 
objective  adoration  of  the  High,  the  intellectual 
freedom  of  the  Broad.  He  has  told  me  he  had 
celebrated  with  the  Revised  Liturgy  of  the  Church 
of  Scotland  with  no  less,  perhaps  greater,  satisfac- 
tion than  with  the  humbler  and  less  primitive  ritual 
of  the  Anglican  Communion.  Absolute  reality, 
utter  sincerity,  always  struck  me  as  the  governing 
spirit  of  his  devotion.  No  ritual  was  too  ornate, 
provided  it  was  real,  founded  on  the  traditions  of 
Catholic  antiquity,  and  embodied  the  purest  princi- 
ples of  worship ;  but  anything  approaching  un- 
reality, sham,  show,  or  mediaeval  sentimentalism  his 
soul  abhorred.  It  seemed  as  though  his  feelings 


on  this  matter  were  founded  on  such  passages 
as  "The  Lord  is  Great,  and  cannot  worthily  be 
praised ; "  "  O  worship  the  Lord  in  the  beauty 
of  holiness;"  "  Glory  and  honour  are  in  His  pre- 
sence :  "  "  A  son  honoureth  his  father,  and  a  servant 
his  master :  if  then  I  be  a  Father  where  is  mine 
honour  ?  and  if  I  be  a  Master,  where  is  my  fear  ? " 

The  records  of  his  college  days  are,  at  this 
distance  of  time,  necessarily  scanty  and  fragment- 
ary. One,  however,  who  ,was  his  contemporary, 
and  continued  his  firm  friend  through  life,1  in 
kindly  answering  my  request  for  some  information 
relating  to  this  period,  writes  thus : — 

"  I  wish  I  could  give  you  any  help  in  writing  a 
sketch  of  our  dear  friend  John  Ellerton  ;  but  nearly 
half  a  century  is  a  long  time  to  look  back,  and  it 
is  all  that  since  I  first  knew  him  at  Cambridge. 
What  I  most  distinctly  remember  of  him  is  the 
impression  he  made  on  us  all  at  a  small  literary 
society  got  together  chiefly  by  Hort  and  himself, 
which  we  called,  somewhat  ambitiously,  The  Attic 
Society.  We  met  at  each  other's  rooms,  and  read 
original  papers,  I  think  on  any  subject  we  chose 
individually.  Ellerton  charmed  us  all  by  his  poetic 
taste,  and  his  contributions  (sometimes  original, 
and  sometimes  translations  from  classic  authors) 
were  rendered  still  more  striking  by  the  fine,  deep, 
emotional  tone  in  which  he  read  them  to  us.  I 
think  he  delayed  taking  his  degree  through  deli- 
cate health,  which  obliged  him  to  go  down  for  a 
year,  so  that  his  intercourse  with  us  was  somewhat 
broken.  I  do  not  think  he  took  much  interest  in 
1  The  Rev.  Gerald  Blunt,  Rector  of  Chelsea. 


the  ordinary  out-door  life  of  the  University,  but  in 
all  subjects  of  the  highest  kind  he  had  a  wide  and 
extensive  knowledge,  and  felt  the  keenest  attraction. 
He  was  then,  as  ever  afterwards,  one  of  the  best 
and  noblest  specimens  of  what  a  fine  and  pure 
Evangelical  training  can  produce  when  it  widened 
out  into  the  more  excellent  way  of  Maurician  High 

While  an  Undergraduate  at  Trinity  he  made  his 
first  public  essay  as  a  poet  in  competing  for  the 
Chancellor's  Medal  for  an  English  poem  on  The 
Death  of  Baldur.  His  effort  gained  the  honourable 
distinction  of  proxime  accessit ;  and  it  displays, 
besides  a  considerable  acquaintance  with  northern 
mythology,  unmistakable  indications  of  a  high 
poetic  gift.  Unfortunately  an  attack  of  small-pox 
prevented  his  going  in  for  the  Honour  Examination, 
and  he  was  obliged  to  pass  with  an  aegrotat  degree  ; 
after  taking  this  in  1849  he  spent  a  year  in  Scot- 
land engaged  in  tutoring  and  reading  for  Holy 
Orders.  Doubtless  he  would  gladly  have  passed 
this  time  at  one  of  the  Theological  Colleges  which 
had  already  begun  to  spring  up  in  some  dioceses. 
At  Chichester,  for  example,  which  had  been  founded 
by  Bishop  Otter  in  1839,  and  at  this  time  was 
presided  over  by  Philip  Freeman,  he  might  have 
received  much  useful  guidance  and  assistance  pre- 
paratory to  his  entering  the  diocese  as  a  curate. 
For  it  was  in  Sussex  that  he  received  the  title  for 
his  first  curacy,  and  in  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
Chichester  that  he  was  ordained  Deacon  by  Bishop 
Gilbert  on  St.  Matthias'  Day,  February  24,  1850. 



KoU   ff    tV  CKpVKTOlfft  %fp<OV 

fZXe  Qed.  JjffjiioTt,1' 

roX/acr  <$',  ou  yap  tivd&ig  TTOT'  tvtpQtv 

K\ai<i)v  TOVQ  tpQtpivovg  dvw. 

Eurip.  Alcest.  983. 

Thee  too  in  her  hands  irrefugable 

Bonds  the  Power  hath  clutcht  : 

Yet  endure  ;  for  not  ever  shalt  thou  draw  thee  from  Below 

Upward,  by  weeping,  the  perished. 


Frigga,  his  Queen. 
Thor.  } 

Baldur.  I  Children  of  Odin. 

Loki,  the  evil  principle.  J 

The  ^Esir,  or  Gods,  generally  spoken  of  as  sons  of  Odin. 
Bragi,  the  Bard. 
Freya,  the  Queen  of  Love. 
Niord,  the  Sea  God. 
Hel,  or  Hela,  the  Sovereign  of  Niflheim   the    Death   Kingdom, 

daughter  of  Loki. 
Nanna,  wife  of  Baldur. 

Forseti,  the  Principle  of  Justice,  his  Son  and  Successor. 
Berserks,  retainers  of  Odin. 

Asgard,  the  dwelling  of  the  Gods,  centre  of  Earth. 
Idavoll,  the  central  spot  of  Asgard. 



LIST  to  a  Norland  lay,  which  many  a  time 
To  some  bluff  sea-king  by  his  Yuletide  fire 
The  Skalds  have  sung  ;  which  liveth  yet  for  us 
In  the  fair  dreamland  of  that  elder  faith. 

There  came  a  woman  to  the  shining  gates 

Of  Asgard,  and  to  golden  Fensalir 

The  hall  of  Frigga.     Frigga  sate  alone, 

A  wan  sad  smile  upon  her  face,  like  that 

A  sungleam  from  a  clouding  sky  lights  up 

On  some  dark  water  ;  for  her  thoughts  were  far 

In  deeps  of  time  to  come.     But  she  was  ware 

Of  a  low  footfall,  and  downlooking  then 

Slowly  the  pale  light  died  from  off  her  brow. 

She  saw  her  kneeling  at  her  feet — a  crone 

Wrinkled  and  cripple,  and  bowed  down  with  years. 

Then  asked  of  her  the  Queen  of  Gods  and  men 

"  Whence  comest  thou  ?    A  messenger  from  where 

The  mighty  Gods  are  met  ?     Say,  knowest  thou 

Their  pastime  there  ?  "    Answered  that  beldame  gray, 

"  Mother  and  Queen  of  ^Esir,  I  am  come 

From  thence,  in  sooth,  much  marveling  ;  for  all 

The  Gods  are  gathered  there,  and  Baldur  stands 

Over  against  them  ; — stones  and  spears  at  him 

They  cast,  and  o'er  him  glancing  broadswords  flash, 

And  arrows  hurtle  round  about  his  hair — 

Yet  lo,  he  standeth  scatheless.     I  am  come 

To  rede  thee  of  this  marvel  ;  for  both  here 

In  Asgard,  and  in  all  the  girdling  worlds 

Great  sorrow  were  it,  bale  for  evermore, 

If  ill  should  chance  to  Baldur."     "  Fear  it  not," 

Quoth  Frigga,  "all  for  love  and  gladsome  sport 

They  smite  him  as  thou  seest  :  fear  it  not ; 

I  tell  thee  nought  there  is  in  earth  or  heaven 

Can  work  him  hurt  ;  for  I  have  bound  them  all 

With  a  great  oath."   "  And  have  then  all  things  sworn  ?  " 

She  askt,  and  Frigga  answered,  "  Even  so, 

For  evil  dreams  had  come  to  him,  and  fear 


Of  some  strange  chance  ;  whereat  I  took  an  oath 

Of  all  that  is  in  earth,  and  sea,  and  sky, 

And  every  world  ; — of  water  and  of  fire, 

Of  stones,  and  ores  in  the  deep  hill-caves  hid, 

Of  tree,  and  beast,  and  bird,  and  creeping  thing, 

Yea  of  all  deaths — all  sickness,  poison-drink, 

Sword-edge  and  spear-point ;  and  they  sware  to  me 

To  harm  him  not.     One  living  thing  alone — 

Men  call  it  mistletoe — it  groweth  east 

Of  Valhall — I  past  by,  too  young  methought 

To  do  him  hurt ;  I  laid  thereon  no  ban." 

She  ceased ;  and  slowly  crawled  the  muttering  crone 

Forth  from  the  hall ;  she  reached  the  outmost  gate, 

And  lo  !  a  change  came  over  her  ;  at  once 

Snake-like,  she  rose  from  out  her  loathly  self 

And  cast  her  weazen  slough,  and  lifted  up 

Her  lean  face  to  the  sun  :— no  woman  now, 

In  fulness  of  his  wicked  might  he  stood 

Loki  the  evil  one,  falsehearted  Loki  ; 

And  lengthening  out  his  thin  lips  to  a  smile, 

Past  forth  from  Fensalir  toward  the  East. 

Fair-faced,  black-hearted,  forth  among  the  trees 

The  shadow  of  whose  tops  at  sunrise  falls 

On  Valhall  gate,  he  passed  ;  thence,  in  his  hand 

Swaying  the  fresh-pluckt  mistletoe,  he  came 

O'er  the  broad  meadow  where  in  stormy  sport 

Were  gathered  gleeful  all  the  mighty  Gods. 

Without  the  border  of  that  ring  there  stood 

One  with  broad  chest  and  stout  limbs  iron-thewed  ; 

But  dark  and  sorrowful  the  face  he  turned 

To  the  sweet  sunlight.     Gently  Loki  came 

Unto  his  side,  and  spake  him  underbreath, 

"Hodur  !  alone,  and  still  ?    Thy  shaft  belike, 

Flies  not  so  true  ;  or  is  it  that  thy  love 

Runs  shallower  than  theirs  ?  "     He  answered  sad  : 

"  I  see  not  him  they  shoot  at  ;  I  am  blind, 

Nor  wot  I  whence  to  take  a  shaft."     "  Take  this," 

The  false  one  cried — "  come,  let  me  lay  my  hand 

On  thine,  and  thou  shalt  bend  the  bow  ;  that  all 


May  see  thou  lovest  Baldur."     Hodur  bent 
The  bow,  for  Loki's  hand  was  laid  on  his  ; 
Hurtled  the  shaft, — and  Baldur  with  a  groan 
Upleaping  fell  heartstricken,  and  the  life 
Welled  red  from  his  fair  breast,  and  on  his  eyes 
The  dusk  of  death  came  down. 

Tearless  and  dumb 

The  /Esir  stood  ;  none  stirred  to  touch  the  dead, 
For  a  great  fear  had  fallen  on  them,  and  each 
Lookt  on  the  other  ;  till  when  one  essayed 
To  speak,  a  wild  and  mingled  wail  from  all, 
Of  anguish  and  of  wrath  together,  pealed 
To  the  clear  sky.     And  Odin  in  the  midst, 
Odin  the  Father  both  of  Gods  and  men 
Lookt  on  his  son,  and  lifted  up  his  voice 
And  wept  aloud.     Through  worlds  on  worlds  it  sped 
That  bitter  cry  ;  and  all  their  dwellers  heard, 
And  every  heart  beat  thick,  and  every  face 
Grew  pale,  and  all  men  shouted,  "  Woe  to  us, 
For  some  great  scathe  hath  chanced  !  "     But  evil  things 
Were  glad  ;  away  along  the  broad  sea  rolled 
The  noise  of  weeping,  and  with  stormy  joy 
Writhed  the  Great  Worldsnake  in  its  green  depths  coiled; 
The  fettered  wolf  leapt  up  ;  and  down  afar 
Wan  Hela  laught,  and  knew  a  nobler  guest 
Hied  him  to  wassail  in  her  dreary  hall. 

A  voice  of  wail  in  Asgard  !     And  it  came 

Into  the  ears  of  Frigga,  where  she  sat, 

And  woke  her,  as  the  stormburst  waketh  up 

A  sleeper  by  the  shore.     She  knew  the  time, 

The  evil  time,  was  come  ;  uprising  slow 

She  came  where  Odin  yet  and  all  the  Gods 

Were  gathered  weeping  round  about  the  dead. 

Tearful  she  stood,  and  spake,  "  Who  is  there  here 

Among  the  y£sir  that  would  win  himself 

Goodwill  and  love  from  Frigga  ?     Let  him  go 

Down  to  the  gates  of  Hel,  and  speak  for  us, 

And  bid  a  ransom,  that  we  may  have  back 

The  Bright  One  home  to  Asgard."    Then  stept  forth 


Hermodur,  Odin's  page,  the  fleet  of  foot, 

And  kneeling  took  her  errand  on  himself. 

So  led  they  thither  Sleipnir,  the  great  horse 

Whom  Odin  rideth— mortal  hoof  is  none 

May  tramp  like  that  gray  steed's — and  to  the  selle 

Clomb  brisk  Hermodur,  and  fared  down  the  dale 

Where  Hel's  road  lieth. 

Then  beside  the  shore 

Bare  they  the  dead,  to  where  his  long  black  ship 
Lay,  keel  in  sand.    And  sorrowful  there  came 
The  dwellers  in  all  worlds  :  came  Odin  first, 
With  his  twin  Ravens,  and  those  Maidens  stern— 
The  Choosers  of  the  Slain— whose  stormy  joy 
Is  from  the  stun  of  foughten  fields  to  fetch 
Brave  souls  to  Valhall  ;  Frigga  by  his  side 
Came,  and  the  Queen  of  Love,  whose  fire-eyed  cats 
Bare  her  fleet  car  ;  came  the  grim  War-god  Tyr, 
And  mighty  Freyr  in  his  boar-chariot ;  came 
Bragi  the  Wise,  and  holy  Forseti, 
Gerda,  and  Fulla  with  the  long  fair  locks, 
And  Niord,  the  stout  old  Sea-king  ;  and  the  bright 
Heimdall,  Heaven's  warder,  who  all  noise  of  life 
Hears,  and  his  keen  eyes  look  into  all  worlds. 
From  their  drear  kingdom  Giants  of  the  Rime 
And  dark  Hill-ogres  came  ;  came  sunny  Elves 
Of  light,  and  blear-eyed  Dwarves,  that  with  lean  limbs 
Crouch  night  and  day  among  red  heaps  of  ore 
In  the  deep  bosom  of  the  trackless  fells  ; 
And  doughty  Berserks,  biters  of  the  shield 
In  their  strong  madness,  when  the  fight  is  high. 
The  pile  was  builded  now  ;  and  with  the  rest 
Wan-faced  and  nigh  to  swooning,  Nanna  stood, 
Nanna,  dead  Baldur's  wife  ;  and  round  her  all 
Her  sisters  thronged  with  broken  words  of  cheer, 
And  eyes  of  pity.     Dumbly  she  the  while 
Beheld  until  they  bore  him  to  the  place 
Of  burning  ;  then  her  full  heart  burst,  and  with 
A  shriek  that  shivered  in  their  blood,  she  fell 
Dead  on  dead  Baldur. 


Side  by  side  they  laid 

Those  two  upon  the  wood,  and  Baldur's  horse 
With  all  his  gear  they  bound  unto  the  pile. 
Then  Thor  stood  up,  and  lifted  his  strong  hand, — 
And  that  Great  Hammer  with  its  lightning  stroke 
Crashed  on  the  wood. 

A  pillar  of  tall  smoke  ! 

And  redder  now — and  now  a  blaze,  whose  gleam 
Flashed  fitful  on  their  sleeping  foreheads  calm  ! 
Seaward  the  slow  tide  ebbing  drifted  now 
The  bark,  and  freshly  blew  the  sunset  breeze 
From  off  the  shore,  as  each  broad-bosomed  wave 
Lifted  the  black  hull  toward  the  harbour  mouth 
And  caught  the  flush  of  fire.     And  darkness  crept 
Over  the  great  deep  like  a  shroud,  till  all 
The  host  of  faces  on  the  peopled  shore 
Shone  in  the  firelight,  and  its  ruddier  glow 
Blurred  the  white  stars  from  out  the  glooming  heaven. 

And  bravely  sped  gray  Sleipnir  ;  for  he  leapt 

Over  the  gates  of  Hel,  and  in  her  hall 

Hermodur  stood,  and  all  unflinching  there 

Looked  on  her  deathly  face,  and  bade  her  ask 

A  ransom.     "  Do  the  ALsir  wail  their  dead  ?  " 

Quoth  Loki's  daughter  ; — "  Nay,  let  all  things  weep 

In  every  world,  and  I  will  send  him  back." 

"  Let  all  things  weep  for  Baldur  "  : — Odin  gave 

The  word,  and  all  around,  from  Idavoll 

To  the  drear  Icefells,  pealed  the  bitter  cry. 

"  Let  all  things  weep  for  Baldur  "  :— and  behold 

From  all  the  corners  of  the  peopled  earth 

Tears  and  great  wailing  like  a  cloud  uprose. 

Onward  from  land  to  land  the  Berserks  sped 

With  Odin's  bidding,  and  from  land  to  land 

The  noise  of  weeping  followed  after  them  ; 

But  lo  !  they  found  within  a  black  hill-cleft 

With  tearless  eyes,  unmerciful,  a  crone 

Wrinkled  and  cripple,  and  bowed  down  with  years. 


Fiercely  she  laughed  and  gave  them  back  the  word, 
"  Dry  are  the  tears  I  weep  for  Frigga's  son  ; 
Hel  hold  her  own  !  "    Ah,  well,  I  ween,  they  wist 
Falsehearted  Loki  so  had  answered  them  ! 
Slowly,  their  bootless  errand  sped,  they  came 
Back  once  again  to  Asgard  ;  wrathful  words 
And  stormy  cries  their  meed.     But  Frigga  shewed 
Her  wan  face  in  the  midst,  and  bidding  "  Peace," 
Slowly  with  calm  lips  spake  the  hidden  weird  • 

"  Weep  on,  for  we  have  lost  him  ;  nevermore 
The  sunshine  of  his  smile  shall  lighten  up 
Asgard  for  us.     But  unto  us,  not  him, 
The  hurt  is.     Not  for  ever  must  we  dwell 
In  this  our  kingdom,  but  the  Sons  of  Fire 
Must  q,uell  us,  and  the  Evil  Ones  be  strong, 
Till  we  and  they  have  fallen.     Then  once  again, 
Scathless  and  bright,  shall  Baldur  fare  from  Hel,   . 
And  here  for  ever  under  a  clear  sky 
Talk  of  old  tales,  and  all  these  baleful  times, 
As  of  a  troublous  dream  long  past  away." 

"  A  s  then  he  that  was  born  after  the  flesh  persecuted  him  that 
was  born  after  the  Spirit,  even  so  it  is  now" 




MR.  ELLERTON's  ministerial  life  began  in  the 
little  village  of  Easebourne,  now  a  suburb  of  Mid- 
hurst  in  Sussex,  best  known  from  the  stately  wreck 
of  Cowdray  House  which  stands  in  the  parish,  and 
from  the  oaks  of  immeasurable  age,  the  wonder  of 
visitors  from  all  parts  of  the  world,  which  still  sur- 
vive in  the  park.  In  this  quiet  and  beautiful  spot 
he  spent  three  happy  years  with  his  mother,  com- 
bining faithful  parochial  work  with  diligent  study. 
Here  he  surrounded  himself  with  his  favourite 
authors,  Plato,  Clough,  Kingsley,  and  above  all, 
Maurice.  Maurice's  influence  was,  as  we  have 
already  seen,  a  powerful  factor  in  the  education 
and  development  of  his  mind ;  and  if,  on  the  one 
hand,  it  convinced  him  of  the  unsatisfactory  char- 
acter of  the  "  Evangelical "  school,  on  the  other  it 
acted  as  a  caution  against  the  extremes  of  the 
opposite  party.  Perhaps  at  this  period,  and  in  the 
fervour  of  his  admiration  of  Maurice,  he  may  have 
felt  strong  inclination  towards  the  school  so  ably 
championed  by  Arnold,  Stanley,  Kingsley,  and 
Maurice ;  but  later  on,  as  we  have  seen,  he  was 


content  to  take  the  middle  current  of  Churchman- 
ship  of  which  Samuel  Wilberforce,  Richard  Chenevix 
Trench,  and  Edward  Meyrick  Goulburn  were 
among  the  great  leaders.  At  this  time,  too,  the 
condition  of  the  poor  and  the  education  of  the 
labouring  classes  greatly  occupied  his  thoughts, 
and  though  with  the  co-operation  of  his  mother 
he  started  a  night-school  at  Easebourne,  it  was  not 
until  he  became  a  vicar,  and  could  work  with  un- 
fettered hands,  that  he  was  able  to  put  his  long 
cherished  ideas  into  execution. 

On  Trinity  Sunday,  1851,  John  Ellerton  was 
ordained  priest  in  Chichester  Cathedral  by  Bishop 
Gilbert,  and  two  years  afterwards  was  promoted, 
upon  the  recommendation  of  his  bishop  and  Arch- 
deacon Julius  Hare,  to  the  senior  curacy  of  St. 
Nicholas,  then  the  parish  church  of  Brighton, 
receiving  at  the  same  time  the  appointment  of 
Evening  Lecturer  at  St.  Peter's,  now  the  parish 
church.  For  St.  Nicholas  he  always  retained  a 
strong  affection,  and  left  his  mark  upon  it,  for  it 
was  at  his  suggestion,  made  at  a  later  time,  that 
the  scheme  of  the  windows  all  round  the  church, 
with  their  couplets  from  Latin  hymns,  was  carried 
out.  For  the  children  of  this  parish  his  earliest 
hymns  were  composed  ;  while  so  lately  as  1882  he 
wrote  the  fine  hymn,  "  Praise  our  God  for  all  the 
wonders,"  for  the  Dedication  Festival  of  the  church. 
When  a  Mission  in  which  he  took  part  was  held 
in  Brighton  in  1890,  it  was  touching  to  see  how 
the  poor  old  people  flocked  to  see  and  hear  him 
once  more :  they  had  not  forgotten  him,  though 
it  must  have  been  nearly  thirty  years  since  he  had 



left  the  parish  ;  a  striking  proof  of  how  he  had 
won  their  hearts  when  ministering  among  them. 
His  vicar,  the  Rev.  H.  M.  Wagner,  was  a  notable 
man  in  his  way,  but  is  remembered  not  so  much 
for  his  unceasing  labours  for  the  good  of  the  vast 
population  of  Brighton,  as  for  his  unhappy  con- 
troversy with  Frederick  Robertson,  incumbent  of 
Trinity  Chapel.  As  was  natural,  and  in  accordance 
with  the  loyalty  of  his  nature,  the  young  curate  of 
St.  Nicholas  tried  to  regard  his  vicar's  conduct  in 
the  matter  in  as  favourable  a  light  as  possible,  and 
in  after  years  maintained  that  Mr.  Wagner's  line 
of  action  was  not  unkind,  but  misunderstood  by 
Robertson,  owing  to  the  over-excitement  of  his 

It  was  while  curate  of  Brighton  that  John  Eller- 
ton  began  to  try  his  wings  as  an  author.  His  first 
flights,  though  short,  were  successful.  In  conjunc- 
tion with  the  Rev.  George  Wagner,  nephew  of  the 
vicar,  and  incumbent  of  St.  Stephen's  Church,  he 
drew  up  a  little  manual  of  Prayers  for  School- 
masters and  Teachers.  Now  too  it  was  that  he 
made  his  first  essay  as  a  writer  of  hymns.  For 
the  Brighton  National  School  he  compiled  a  small 
hymnal  entitled,  Hymns  for  Schools  and  Bible 
Classes,  which,  besides  containing  four  translations 
by  Dr,  Hort,  introduced  four  original  compositions 
of  his  own.  These  were — 

1.  "Day  by  day  we  magnify  Thee."     1855.     A 
morning  hymn  for  school  children. 

2.  "The   hours   of    school    are   over."1       1858. 
Companion  to  the  foregoing  ;  for  evening. 

1  Children's  Hymn-book,  580,  "The  hours  of  day  are  over/' 


3.  "Now  returns  the  awful  morning."1    Re-written 
1858.     For  Good  Friday.     Founded  on  a  hymn  by 
Joseph  Anstice.    Largely  altered  for  Church  Hymns, 

4.  "  God  of  the  living,  in  Whose  eyes."     1859. 
Re-written  and  considerably  enlarged  and  improved 
in  Hymns  Original  and   Translated,  where   it   is 
dated  July  6,   1867.     This  is  one  of  the  hymns 
sung  at  his  funeral. 

Although  these  early  hymns  can  hardly  be  ex- 
pected to  attain  to  the  high  standard  of  those  of 
later  years,  they  are  not  deficient  in  those  charac- 
teristics which  distinguish  the  author's  noblest 
compositions.  They  are  not,  what  so  many  of  our 
mis-called  hymns  are,  merely  prayers  put  into 
metrical  form  ;  they  breathe  the  same  devout  spirit 
of  thanksgiving,  hope,  and  love,  are  conspicuous 
for  the  same  absence  of  self-consciousness  which 
we  observe  in  his  best ;  and  especially  is  it  to  be 
noted  that,  with  exception  of  the  one  for  Good 
Friday,  they  are  addressed  not  to  the  Second 
Person  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  but  to  the  First. 
Bishop  Christopher  Wordsworth's  canon  that  "  the 
songs  of  the  Church  ought  to  be  addressed  to  the 
Lord"  enforced,  strangely  enough,  by  a  text  which 
tells  strongly  against  his  own  dictum,  he  always 
dissented  from  emphatically — "  Whatsoever  ye  do, 
in  word  or  deed,  do  all  in  the  Name  of  the  Lord 
Jesus,  giving  thanks  to  GOD  AND  THE  FATHER  by 
Him." — Miscellanies,  ii.  236. 

Mr.  Ellerton  held  the  senior  curacy  of  Brighton, 
together   with    his    Evening    Lectureship   at    St. 
1  Church  Hymns,  120. 


Peter's,  till  1860,  when  he  was  presented  by  Lord 
Crewe  to  the  Vicarage  of  Crewe  Green,  Cheshire  ; 
and  on  May  iQth  in  the  same  year  he  was  married 
at  St.  Nicholas  to  Charlotte  Alicia,  daughter  of 
William  Hart,  Esq.,  of  Brighton.1 

About  a  mile  from  the  busy  station  of  Crewe, 
famous  for  its  extensive  iron  and  steel  works  in 
connection  with  the  London  and  North- Western 
Railway,  is  the  village  of  Crewe  Green.  Its  popu- 
lation of  between  four  and  five  hundred  consists 
partly  of  mechanics  employed  in  the  Company's 
works,  and  partly  of  farmers  and  labourers  working 
for  the  most  part  on  the  estate  of  Lord  Crewe, 
whose  fine  mansion,  Crewe  Hall,  stands  in  the  parish. 

In  1859  his  lordship  erected  on  the  Green  a 
church  and  school-house  for  the  benefit  of  his 
numerous  tenants  and  fellow  parishioners.  The 
church,  dedicated  to  St.  Michael  and  All  Angels, 
is  remarkable  in  its  way  as  being  one  of  the  very 
few  brick  churches,  if  not  the  only  one,  built  by 
Sir  Gilbert  Scott.  Externally  red  brick  is  used, 
and  internally  that  of  a  lightish  yellow;  and  the 
building,  which  is  adorned  with  a  small  spire,  con- 
sists of  nave,  chancel,  and  apse.  Over  against  the 
church,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Green,  stands 
the  parsonage,  at  that  time  a  low,  rambling  house 
of  whitewashed  brick,  since  replaced  by  a  structure 
more  in  accordance  with  modern  ideas. 

The  parish,  combining  many  attractions,  together 

with  difficulties  peculiar  to  itself,  difficulties  arising 

from   the   necessity  of  ministering   at   once  to  a 

population   of  rustics    and    intelligent   mechanics, 

1  She  died  March  18,  1896. 


offered  a  congenial  field  of  work  to  the  new  vicar, 
who,  on  accepting  the  charge,  had  also  been  ap- 
pointed domestic  chaplain  to  Lord  Crewe.  The 
charm  of  his  preaching  soon  began  to  attract,  and 
many,  including  University  men,  and  pupils  in  the 
Railway  works,  came  to  spend  their  Sundays  at 
Crewe  Green,  frequently  being  the  guests  for  the 
day  at  the  hospitable  vicarage. 

In  addition  to  the  usual  routine  of  Church  work, 
Mr.  Ellerton  threw  himself  with  all  his  accustomed 
earnestness  into  every  scheme  calculated  to  raise 
the  moral  and  social  tone  of  the  artisans  of  the 
Railway  works.  The  following  communication,  for 
which  I  am  indebted  to  W.  M.  Moorsom,  Esq.,  at 
that  time  one  of  the  chief  officials  in  the  Crewe 
works,  gives  some  idea  of  his  great  activity,  an 
activity  all  the  more  remarkable,  because  naturally 
his  was  rather  the  meditative,  poetic  temperament, 
than  that  of  the  energetic  man  of  business. 

Mr.  Moorsom  writes  as  follows — "  In  1864  Mr. 
Ellerton,  then  Vicar  of  Crewe  Green,  and  chaplain 
to  Lord  Crewe,  was  nominated  by  the  Directors 
of  the  London  and  North-Western  Railway  Com- 
pany for  election  upon  the  council  of  the  Company's 
Mechanics'  Institution  at  Crewe.  His  election 
followed,  and  within  a  short  time  he  became  ~ 
Chairman  of  the  Educational  Committee. 

"  During  his  connection  with  the  Institution, 
which  lasted  until  1872,  when  he  became  rector 
of  Hinstock,  the  Educational  Department  was 
entirely  re-organized  under  his  auspices,  the 
library  re-arranged,  and  a  new  catalogue  pre- 
pared. Into  this  work  he  threw  a  large  amount 


of  zeal  and  energy,  and  it  was  in  great  measure 
due  to  his  tact  and  power  of  winning  the  confi- 
dence of  those  with  whom  he  worked  that  during 
this  period  the  Institution  became,  with  one  excep- 
tion, the  largest  in  the  northern  counties,  and 
probably  the  most  successful,  educationally,  in 

"  But  his  labours  were  not  confined  to  adminis- 
tration. During  several  years  he  conducted  the 
class  in  English  History,  and  for  a  short  time  the 
Scripture  History  class  also,  with  a  widening  of 
the  interest  of  the  members  of  these  classes  which 
was  very  marked  and  most  encouraging  to  those 
(thirty  years  ago  a  mere  handful)  who  regarded 
the  ' education  of  our  masters'  as  a  requirement 
vital  to  the  nation. 

"  The  unwearied  patience  with  which  night  after 
night  he  would  trudge  into  dirty,  black,  smoky 
Crewe,  bringing  with  him  an  air  of  wide-reaching 
interests  and  warm  sympathy  for  the  toiling  masses, 
made  a  deep  impression ;  and  he  gradually  won 
his  way  into  the  hearts  of  large  numbers  of  the 
artisans,  to  whom  such  a  character  was  somewhat 
novel.  The  writer  has  frequently  heard  expressions 
of  wonder  from  onlookers,  themselves  artisans — 
'  What  it  could  be  that  led  Mr.  Ellerton  to  take  so 
much  trouble  to  teach  the  lads  from  whom  he  had- 
nothing  to  expect  in  return,  and  who  were  not 
worth  the  expenditure  of  time  so  valuable  in  other 
directions  as  his  was  known  to  be.'  Among  those 
mechanics  who  were  themselves  inspired  by  the 
same  zeal,  this  self-devotion  caused  him  to  be 
greatly  loved  and  honoured  with  a  love  and  honour 


which  deepened  and  extended  as  the  years  went 
on.  There  were  but  few  capable  of  appropriating 
the  ideas  he  set  before  them  on  history,  poetry,  or 
Scripture  exegesis,  but  all  could  see  that  he  was 
working  without  thought  of  reward,  and  many 
were  fascinated  by  the  beauty  of  such  an  example 
of  self-devotion. 

"During  these  years  numerous  were  the  dis- 
agreements which  arose  among  the  Council,  leading 
to  disputes,  to  compose  which  needed  a  weighty 
and  judicious  leader,  in  which  capacity  Mr.  Ellerton 
was  pre-eminent.  He  possessed  the  faculty  of 
never  perceiving  a  rudeness  directed  against  him- 
self; and  after  an  acrimonious  wrangle,  in  which 
nearly  every  one  present  had  been  either  insulted 
or  the  insulter,  or  both,  a  few  quiet  words  from 
him  would  calm  the  tempest,  and  lead  the  Council 
back  to  business." 

But  if  it  is  the  duty  of  the  parish  priest  to 
take  the  lead  in  all  matters  concerning  the  welfare 
spiritual,  intellectual,  and  temporal  of  his  flock,  it 
is  no  less  his  duty  to  "  banish  and  drive  away  all 
erroneous  and  strange  doctrines  contrary  to  God's 
word."  How  ably  Mr.  Ellerton  kept  this  portion 
of  his  ordination  vow,  and  defended  the  faith 
against  the  teaching  of  a  strange  preacher  who 
came  to  Crewe  to  exhort  his  hearers  to  free  them- 
selves from  "  the  bondage  of  creeds,"  the  following 
paper  will  show.  It  is  as  remarkable  for  the 
courtesy  with  which  he  treats  his  opponent  as  for 
the  firmness  and  dignity  with  which  he  holds  his 
own  position,  or  rather  that  of  the  Church  he 





"  I  HAVE  been  asked  by  a  friend  to  say  what  I 
think  about  an  address  recently  printed  by  the 

Rev.  Mr.  G ,  explanatory  of  his  own  religious 

position,  and  offering  its  advantages  to  others. 

Mr.  G does  not  profess  to  address  himself  to 

those  belonging  to  other  Churches  ;  and  therefore 
it  may  seem  unfair,  or  at  least  needless,  for  the 
minister  of  another  Church  to  notice  his  address. 
My  plea  for  doing  so  is  that  it  has  been  widely 
circulated  and  much  talked  about  in  this  neigh- 
bourhood, and  that  it  touches  upon  certain  im- 
portant questions  which  it  is  quite  possible  to 
discuss,  apart  from  those  which  definitely  denote 
his  religious  position.  I  have  neither  the  right  nor 
the  wish  to  criticize  his  specific  teaching.  I  trust 
that  he  may  be  privileged  to  open  to  the  love  of 
God  many  a  heart  now  closed  against  its  influences  ; 
and  to  witness  to  the  Divine  Fatherhood  in  the 
consciences  of  many  who  have  never  yet  realized 
that  first  and  deepest  of  all  truths.  With  regard 
to  other,  and,  as  I  hold,  co-ordinate  truths,  we 
must  be  content  to  part  company  until  the  time 
when  all  shall  be  made  clear. 

"  I  am  only  concerned  with  the  language  which 

Mr.  G holds  on  the  subject  of  Creeds.  '  We 

are  not  bound  together  by  a  Creed  ; '  '  Christianity 
does  not  depend  on  a  Creed  ; '  '  The  followers  of 


Jesus  are  not  to  be  known  by  their  belief  in  a 
Creed.'  Now  this  word  Creed  is  a  hard,  ugly- 
sounding  word,  and  carries  with  it  a  kind  of  savour 
of  *  damnatory  clauses '  and  trials  for  heresy.  It  is 
very  easy  by  thus  reiterating  it  to  make  it  appear 
important  and  terrible.  Yet  after  all  it  is  a  very 
simple  matter.  A  Creed  means  nothing  more  than 
a  form  of  words  in  which  people  express  their 

religious  belief.     It   is   odd  that  Mr.   G does 

not  see  that  he  himself  cannot  advance  one  step  in 
explaining  himself  to  the  world  without  a  Creed. 
In  his  very  first  sentence  he  says,  *  I  desire  for 
myself,  and  for  the  congregation  I  represent,  to 
place  before  you  a  statement  of  the  views  we  hold! 
Exactly  so  ;  this  statement  of  the  views  he  and 
his  congregation  hold  is  precisely  what  we  mean 
by  a  Creed.  We  could  not  have  desired  a  better 
definition  of  the  word.  In  my  congregation  the 
Apostles'  Creed  and  the  Nicene  Creed  are  'state- 
ments of  the  views  we  hold.'  But  Mr.  G goes 

on  to  give  us  his  Creed — '  We  are,  in  religious  be- 
lief, Unitarians.'  Observe,  he  does  not  say,  *  I  am,' 
but  '  We  are'  that  is,  himself  and  his  congregation. 
'  We  accept  Christ  as  our  Divine  Teacher,  the  sent 
of  God.'  These  are  the  two  articles  of  their  Creed. 

"  But  Mr.  G continues,  '  We  are  not  bound 

together  by  a  creed.'  Now  this  must  mean  one  of 
two  things;  either  that  the  pastor  is  not  bound  to 
keep  to  the  views  in  this  '  statement,'  or  that  the 
members  of  his  congregation  are  not  bound  to 
hold  them.  As  to  the  first,  it  seems  strange  to  put 
forth  a  statement  of  views  with  one  breath,  and 
with  the  next  to  say,  I  don't  pledge  myself  to 


these.  However,  as  a  believer  in  the  Catholic 
faith,  I  should  rejoice  to  think  Mr.  G—  -  did  not 
feel  himself  bound  by  this  statement.  Only  I 
cannot  be  blind  to  the  fact  that  the  Unitarian 
community  is  an  organized  body,  with  recognized 
leaders,  and  a  central  congress  or  conference  ;  and 
I  question  whether  our  friend  would  be  able  to 
retain  his  present  position  were  he  to  see  reason  to 
modify  the  views  he  here  states  to  us.  In  fact,  I 
doubt  whether  he  is  in  reality  less  bound  by  his 
creed  than  I  am  by  mine.  Were  he  to  cease  to  be 
an  Unitarian,  he  would  have  to  seek  some  other 
sphere  of  labour  ;  so  should  I,  were  I  to  cease  to 
be  '  Catholic,'  in  the  sense  in  which  the  Athanasian 
Creed  uses  the  word. 

"  But  what  Mr.  G—  -  doubtless  means  is,  that 
his  Creed  does  not  bind  his  congregation  ;  that  a 
man  may  attend  his  church  regularly  without  be- 
lieving as  he  does  ;  and  since  of  course  this  is  no 
more  than  any  one  of  us  may  say,  he  intends,  I 
suppose,  to  intimate  that  the  full  privileges  of 
Church  membership,  and  sacramental  communion, 
are  open  in  his  Church  to  all,  whatever  their  belief. 
Although,  if  this  be  the  case,  it  is  not  easy  to 
specify  what  that  body  is  of  which  Mr.  G—  -  says 
1  We  are  in  religious  belief  Unitarians  ; '  yet  the 

general  tenor  of   Mr.    G 's   address   makes    it 

clear  that  this  is  his  great  point  This  then  is  the 
real  question  between  us,  the  only  question  which 
has  induced  me  to  take  up  my  pen  :  is  it  unfair 
to  require  the  assent  of  a  religious  society  to  a 
Creed  ?  Are  Creeds  contrary  to  the  spirit  of  Christ's 
teaching  ?  Are  they  an  unreasonable  bondage,  a 


hindrance  to  free  thought  ?  I  say — speaking  for 
myself  and  for  my  own  Church — distinctly  No  to 
all  these  questions. 

"  i.  Creeds,  /.£.  public  confessions  of  belief,  or 
'  statements  of  views,'  are  not  in  themselves  an 
unreasonable  bondage,  or  a  hindrance  to  free 
thought.  Of  course  they  may  be  made  so.  Many 
religious  communities  are  over-burdened  with  tests 
of  membership.  Of  course,  too,  it  is  possible  to 
conceive  of  *  statements  of  views '  to  which  none 
but  a  few  fanatics  could  assent.  But  supposing 
the  views  to  be  not  unreasonable  in  themselves, 
and  supposing  them  to  be  entertained  by  the 
Church  or  community  at  its  first  constitution,  the 
custom  of  reciting  the  statement  of  them  in  public 
implies  no  unfairness  towards  new  members.  Each 
one  who  joins  the  Church  hears  his  neighbours  say, 
*  I  believe '  so  and  so.  If  he  feels  he  can  unite  in 
this,  surely  it  is  well  for  him  to  be  invited  to  say 
what  he  has  been  brought  to  believe.  But  if  he 
cannot,  what  then  ?  He  is  not  obliged  to  retire,  he 
is  not  constrained  to  remain.  He  may  listen  to 
the  public  ministry,  he  is  at  full  liberty  to  think 
and  say  what  he  pleases  about  it,  to  speak  his 
mind  freely,  so  long  as  he  does  not  interrupt  the 
common  worship.  Take  the  Church  of  England 
and  its  Creeds.  The  shortest  and  simplest  of  them 
is  put  in  the  form  of  questions  to  candidates  for 
baptism,  and  to  the  Church  members  who  bring 
their  infants  for  that  purpose.  But  as  baptism  can 
scarcely  have  any  meaning  at  all  for  persons  who 
do  not  believe  in  the  alleged  facts  contained  in  the 
Apostles'  Creed,  its  use  at  such  a  time  is  designed 


as  an  indication  that  baptism  is  sought  in  an  in- 
telligent and  reasonable  spirit.  Beyond  this  no 
further  test  is  imposed  upon  lay  members  of  the 
Church  of  England.  The  only  grounds  upon  which 
our  Prayer-book  allows  a  priest  to  refuse  the  other 
sacrament  to  members  of  the  Church  are  'open 
and  notorious  '  immorality,  and  open,  wilful  enmity 
towards  a  neighbour.  The  ministry  themselves,  it 
is  true,  are  bound  by  other  tests  of  belief ;  but  so 
are  the  ministers  of  every  community,  including,  I 

suspect,  Mr.  G 's  own.     And  as  to  freedom  of 

thought,  if  that  does  not  exist  in  the  Church  of 
England,  the  world  must  be  greatly  mistaken. 
Why,  it  is  the  constant  reproach  of  all  the 
bigots  around  us,  Romanist  and  Protestant  alike, 
that  we  are  so  provokingly  lax,  that  we  will 
persist  in  tolerating,  with  shameless  impartiality, 
Ritualist,  Rationalist,  Calvinist,  thinkers  who  in 
no  other  Church  on  earth  could  find  a  common 

"2.  Again,  a  Creed  is  not  contrary  to  the  spirit 
of  Christianity.  Mr.  G—  -  prints  in  capital  letters 
the  assertion  that  Christianity  does  not  depend 
on  a  Creed.  If  by  Christianity  he  means,  what  is 
usually  meant  by  the  term,  the  body  of  thoughts 
which  Christ  and  His  followers  introduced  among 
mankind,  all  I  can  reply  is  that  a  Creed  is  the 
expression — more  or  less  imperfect,  of  course — of 
that  body  of  thought.  The  Christianity  of  each 
man,  in  this  sense,  depends  upon  how  much  of  this 
thought  he  has  really  and  practically  taken  in,  and 
made  his  own.  The  Creed  he  adopts  is  simply  an 
idea  of  this — of  his  level  of  Christian  thought.  It 


is  surely  absurd  to  maintain  that  it  is  contrary  to 
Christianity  for  a  man  to  say  what  Christianity 
appears  to  him  to  be  ;  or  for  a  body  of  men  to 
agree,  so  to  say. 

"  But  if  Christianity  means  a  life  '  made  beautiful 
by  Christian  virtues,'  then  while  it  is  plain  that 
there  is  no  necessary  connection  between  the 
practice  of  virtue  and  the  expression  of  belief,  yet, 
on  the  other  hand,  there  is  no  opposition  between 
the  two.  The  Sermon  on  the  Mount  contains,  it 
is  true,  no  Creed  ;  but  does  it  imply  none  ?  And 
why  stop  at  the  beginning  of  Christ's  ministry  ? 
Did  He  not  compel  the  Apostles  to  confess  what 
they  thought  of  Him  ?  And  when  His  life  on 
earth  was  at  an  end,  and  those  events  which  are 
enumerated  in  what  is  called  the  Apostles'  Creed 
had  taken  place,  did  any  of  them  ever  preach  a 
sermon  without  making  a  statement  of  what  they 
believed  respecting  these  events  ? 

"  Most  cordially  do  I  join  Mr.  G in  proclaim- 
ing 'the  right  of  every  man  to  think  for  himself;' 
only  I  would  rather  call  it  the  duty.  God  forbid 
that  I  should  dictate  to  any  man  what  he  is  to  be- 
lieve, if  that  dictating  implies  that  he  is  to  believe  it 
because  I  tell  him  so.  The  first  Christian  teachers 
declared  that  by  manifestation  of  the  truth  they 
commended  themselves  to  every  man's  conscience. 
I  desire  no  more.  But  if  it  be  truth  indeed  that 
a  man  receives  in  his  conscience,  that  truth  will 
make  him  free.  To  acknowledge  it  may  be  a  bond 
of  unity,  it  can  never  be  a  bondage  to  him.  Even 

Mr.  G 's  two  articles  of  religion  separate  him 

from  some  of  his  fellowmen.  But  would  he  love 


his  neighbour  the  better  if  he  did  not  in  any  way 
define  his  belief?  I  think  not.  Even  to  say, 
'  God  is  your  Father,  Christ  is  sent  from  God/ 
is  better  than  to  say,  My  friends,  I  am  sure  of 
nothing ;  I  have  nothing  to  tell  you  from  God. 


It  is  not,  however,  with  John  Ellerton  as  a  parish 
priest  but  as  a  poet  that  we  have  mainly  to  do  in 
this  short  sketch  of  his  life.  It  was  at  Crewe  Green 
that  the  foundation  of  his  fame  as  a  writer  of  hymns 
was  laid  ;  not  that  he  had  not  exercised  his  wonder- 
ful poetical  talent  prior  to  his  removal  into  Cheshire, 
for,  as  we  have  seen,  he  had  already  published  a  few 
while  curate  of  Brighton.  The  first  in  order  of  time 
belonging  to  this  period  seems  to  be,  "  Sing  Alleluia 
forth  in  duteous  praise,"  1865,  or  "The  Endless 
Alleluia,"  first  published  in  the  Churchman's  Family 
Magazine  for  April  1865,  and  revised  for  the  Ap- 
pendix to  Hymns  A  ncient  and  Modern  in  1868.  The 
original  Latin  is  in  the  Mozarabic  Breviary,  and 
was  used  also  in  the  Church  of  England  before  the 
Norman  Conquest.  The  epithet  endless  is  thus 
explained  by  the  translator — "  Alleluia  was  discon- 
tinued from  Septuagesima  (or  from  Lent)  to  Easter, 
hence  the  contrast  here  between  the  interrupted 
Alleluias  of  earth  and  the  endless  (perenne= 
continuous)  Alleluia  of  heaven."  x  As  it  appeared 
in  the  Appendix,  the  first  verse  ran — 

"  Sing  Alleluia  forth  in  duteous  praise, 
O  citizens  of  heaven  ;  and  sweetly  raise 

An  endless  Alleluia," 

1  Notes  and  Illustrations  to  Church  Hymns ,  No.  497. 

This  was  altered  by  the  Appendix  Committee  to — 

"  Sing  Alleluia  forth  in  duteous  praise, 
Ye  citizens  of  heaven  ;  O  sweetly  raise 

An  endless  Alleluia.' 

In  his  letter  suggesting  the  alterations  Sir  Henry 
Baker  writes,  "  I  have  little  doubt  of  our  idea  of  the 
hymn  being  right.  It  ought  to  be  sung  just  before 
Lent  (Septuagesima),  as  the  Church  on  earth  leaves 
off  for  a  time  Alleluia.  Ye  citizens  of  heaven  (she 
exclaims),  sing  the  unceasing  Alleluia  ;  ye  who 
stand  near  the  Eternal  Light,  go  on  singing  still — 
henceforth — hinc — onwards  from  this  time,  though 
we  on  earth  cease  awhile  the  endless,  never-ceasing 
Alleluia.  The  'Holy  City'  below  will  take  up 
your  strain  again  (i.e.  at  Easter),  and  sing  the 
endless  Alleluia  again  with  you.  The  rest  of  the 
hymn  is  the  Church  delighting  (as  so  many  hymns 
at  that  season  do)  in  the  praise  of  and  thought  of 
the  Alleluia  which  never  ceases  above." 

"  Saviour,  again  to  Thy  dear  Name  we  raise." 
This, 'one  of  the  author's  sweetest  and  most  favourite 
hymns,  was  originally  written  in  1866  for  a  Festival 
of  Parochial  Choirs  at  Nantwich ;  he  revised  and 
abridged  it  for  the  Appendix  to  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern  in  1868.  Both  forms  are  given  in 
Hymns  Original  and  Translated.  By  its  condensa- 
tion into  four  verses  its  spirit  and  power  are  wonder- 
fully increased,  and  now  it  ranks  with  Bishop  Ken's 
"  Glory  to  Thee,  my  God,  this  night,"  Keble's  "  Sun 
of  my  soul,  Thou  Saviour  dear,"  and  Lyte's  "  Abide 
with  me ;  fast  falls  the  eventide,"  as  one  of  the 
great  evening  hymns  of  the  English  Church. 


Beautiful  as  is  Dr.  Dyke's  melody  "  Pax  Dei " 
in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  Mr.  Ellerton  once 
told  me  he  himself  preferred  the  less  known  tune  in 
A  flat  for  unison  singing,  with  its  varied  harmonies, 
by  Dr.  Edward  J.  Hopkins,  Organist  of  the  Temple 
Church.  The  last  verse  formed  the  third  hymn  at 
his  funeral. 

Three  very  beautiful  hymns  were  written  in 

1.  "Father,  in  Thy  glorious  dwelling,"   not  in- 
cluded, strange  to  say,  either  in  Church  Hymns  or 
Hymns  A  ncient  and  Modern. 

2.  "  This  is  the  day  of  light,"  which  first  appeared 
in  the  Selection  of  Hymns  Compiled  for  use  in  Chester 
Cathedral,  1868. 

3.  "  Our  day  of  praise   is  done,"  written  for  a 
Choral  Festival  at  Nantwich,  and  recast  in  1 869  for 
the  Supplemental  Hymn  and  Tune-Book,  by  the  Rev. 
R.  Brown-Borthwick.1 

It  was  a  saying  of  John  Wesley's,  that  the 
appearance  of  a  new  first-class  hymn  was  as  rare  as 
that  of  a  comet ;  but  now  the  production  one  after 
another  of  hymns  of  the  highest  excellence  began 
to  attract  the  attention  of  lovers  of  sacred  song  ;  the 
reproach  implied  in  Wesley's  words  was  taken 
away,  and  the  Vicar  of  Crewe  Green  was  soon 
recognized  as  standing  in  the  very  front  rank  of 
Church  poets,  not  only  as  an  original  writer  but  also 
as  a  translator.  In  1868  four  translations  were 
made — 

i.  "  On  this  the  day  when  days  began,"  from 
Primo  dierum  omnium,  one  of  the  eight  hymns 
1  Notes  and  Illustrations,  No.  42. 


which  the  Benedictine  editors  assign  to  St.  Gregory 
the  Great l  (540 — 604).  It  had  been  translated  by 
Dr.  Neale,  Sir  Henry  W.  Baker  (Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modeni],  J.  Keble,  and  several  others. 

2.  "  Jesu  most  pitiful."    Jesu  dulcissime  ;  a  very 
beautiful,   albeit   late    Latin   hymn,  probably   not 
earlier  than   1650.     This  translation    first  appears 
together  with  so  many  of  the  following  in  the  Rev. 
R.  Brown-Borthwick's  Sixteen  Hymns,  1870. 

3.  "  Welcome,    happy    morning  !    age    to    age 
shall    say."     1868.      Writing    to    his    friend,    the 
Rev.  Godfrey  Thring,  about  Salve  Festa  Dies,  the 
original  of  this  hymn,  Mr.  Ellerton  says,  "  I  am 
rather   proud   of  my   little   translation  of  it,  be- 
cause it  has  a  swing  about  it,  I  think,  and  goes  well 
to  Brown-Borthwick's  tune,2  not  so  stiffly  as  many 
translations  ;  and  yet  I  hope  it  is  fairly  accurate. 

"  There  is  an  Ascension-day  Salve  Festa,  as  also 
one  for  Corpus  Christi,  one  for  Pentecost,  and  one 
for  the  Dedication  of  a  Church ;  but  these  are  all 
imitations  of  the  original  hymn,  and  all  from  the 
York  Processional.  The  hymn  itself  is  an  extract 
from  the  seventh  poem  of  the  Third  Book  of 
Venantius  Fortunatus;  its  title  is  'De  Resurrectione 
Domini.  Ad  Felicem  Episcopum.'  It  contains  one 
hundred  and  twelve  lines  of  elegiac  verse.  Different 
centos  were  used  in  different  books,  i.  e.  some  verses 
were  in  the  York  book  which  were  not  in  the  Sarum, 
etc.  The  verses  I  have  translated  are  the  chief  part 
of  those  given  in  Daniel,  from  two  or  three  books 
put  together.  Fortunatus  was  born  about  530,  and 

1  Julian's  Dictionary  of  Hynmology. 

2  The  second  to  which  it  is  set  in  Church  Hymns* 



died  Bishop  of  Poictiers  about  609.  There  is  con- 
siderable interest  connected  with  this  hymn  from  its 
widespread  use.  It  was  early  translated  into 
German  by  an  English  monk  of  Sarum,1  and  was 
sung  by  Jerome  of  Prague  at  the  stake.  In 
Latimer's  sixth  Sermon  before  Edward  VI.  he 
says,  '  They  (the  Puritans)  must  sing  Salve  festa 
dies  about  the  Church,  that  no  man  was  the  better 
for  it,  but  to  shew  their  gay  coats  and  garments.' 
But  most  interesting  of  all  is  a  letter  from  Cranmer 
to  Henry  VIII.  from  Beakesbourne,  October  7, 
1544,  about  publishing  an  English  Processional, 
some  translated,  some  original,  by  Royal  authority. 
In  this  letter  he  speaks  of  Salve  festa  dies  as  one 
to  be  included,  and  says,  '  As  concerning  the  Salve 
festa  dies,  the  Latin  note,  as  I  think,  is  sober  and 
distinct  enough ;  wherefore  I  have  travailed  to 
make  the  verses  in  English,  and  have  put  the  Latin 
note  unto  the  same.  Nevertheless,  they  that  be 
cunning  in  singing  can  make  a  much  more  solemn 
note  thereto.  I  made  them  only  for  a  proof,  to  see 
how  English  would  do  in  song/  I  wish  we  had 
Cranmer's  version,  as  a  curiosity,  for  it  would 
probably  be  unsingable  ;  but  it  would  appear  from 
this  letter  that  this  was  the  first  Church  hymn  ever 
translated  from  Latin  directly  into  English. 
Coverdale  had  previously  translated  from  the 
German  several  of -Luther's  spiritual  songs,  some 
of  which  were  free  versions  of  Latin  hymns."  In  a 

1  Mr.  Mearns  tells  me  this  is  an  error.  The  monk  was  a 
Benedictine  called  Johannes  of  Salzburg.  His  translation 
was  made  in  1366  at  the  request  of  the  Archbishop  of 


postscript  he  xadds,  "  The  ' Latin  note '  to  which 
Cranmer  refers  has  been  reprinted  by  Neale  and 
Helm  ore  in  Accompanying  Harmonies  to  the 
Hymnal  Noted,  1852,  No.  79,  p.  249.  The  music 
is  from  the  Sarum  and  York  processionals." 

4.  "  Jesu,  Who  alone  defendest."    Jesu  Defensor 
omnium,   a    midnight    hymn    in     the    Mozarabic 

The  fine  Processional  for  the  Restoration  of  a 
Church — 

5.  "Lift  the  strain  of  high  thanksgiving,"   was 
written  in   1869  at  the  request  of  the  late  Canon 
Cooper  for  the  re-opening  of  St.  Helen's  Church, 
Tarporley,  Cheshire. 

It  seems  to  be  in  the  very  nature  of  the  poetic 
faculty,  whatever  particular  form  that  faculty  may 
assume,  to  have,  like  an  intermittent  spring,  its 
seasons  of  comparative  rest  varied  by  bursts  of 
irresistible  activity.  Such  must  have  been  the 
experience  of  Handel  when,  after  composing  the 
Messiah  in  three  weeks,  he  at  once  followed  it  up 
with  Samson,  and  if  we  knew  more  than  we  do 
of  Shakespeare,  no  doubt  we  should  find  that  he 
too  had  his  seasons  of  special  inspiration.  The 
years  1870  and  1871  were  a  period  of  marvellous 
poetic  activity  with  Mr.  Ellerton,  for  in  these  two 
years  he  produced  no  fewer  than  twenty-six  hymns 

1  The  Mozarabic  (or  Muzarabic)  is  the  old  national  Liturgy 
of  Spain,  and  though  now  almost  wholly  supplanted  by  the 
Roman,  which  was  forced  upon  the  Spanish  Church  in  the 
tenth  and  eleventh  centuries,  is  said  to  be  still  used  in  two  or 
three  Churches  in  Toledo,  and  one  in  Salamanca.  See 
Hammond's  Liturgies  Eastern  and  Western. 


and  translations,  all  good,  many  of  the  very  highest 
excellence.  In  1870  we  find  the  following  ten  to 
have  been  composed — 

1.  "  O   shining   city   of  our   God,"  founded   on 
i  John  iii.  2,  "  It  doth  not  yet  appear  what  we  shall 
be."     It  first  appears  in  Rev.  R.  Brown-Borthwick's 
Sixteen  Hymns,  and  was  the  fifth  of  the  six  hymns 
sung  at  the  author's  funeral. 

2.  The  above  hymn  was  written  January  2 1st; 
on  the  25th,  only  four  days  after,  and  published 
at  the  same   time,    it   was   followed   by  a   hymn 
of  the  tenderest  beauty  for  Burial  of  the  Dead, 
scarcely  if  at  all  inferior  to  "  Now  the  labourer's 
task  is  o'er," — 

"When  the  day  of  toil  is  done, 
When  the  race  of  life  is  run, 
Father,  grant  Thy  wearied  one 

Rest  for  evermore  !  " 

This  hymn  was  first  sung  at  the  funeral  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Stubbs,  chief  manager  of  the  Crewe  Rail- 
way Works,  September  25,  1870.  The  sermon 
which  the  Vicar  preached  on  the  Sunday  following 
the  funeral,  and  afterwards  published,  is  a  touching 
tribute  to  the  memory  of  a  good  and  faithful  servant. 
Among  many  memorable  words  which  it  contains 
the  following  may  well  be  repeated.  Alluding  to 
the  early  age  l  at  which  the  deceased  was  called 
away,  he  says — "  The  true  measure  of  the  length  of 
a  life  is  not  its  years  but  its  usefulness."  Again, 
with  reference  to  the  comparatively  obscure  sphere 
of  labour  to  which  many  are  called—"  We  honour 

1  Thirty-five  years. 


the  soldier  who  gives  his  life  upon  the  field,  in 
obedience  to  the  call  of  duty ;  or  the  sailor  who 
goes  down  in  his  sinking  ship  in  giving  or  in  carry- 
ing out  his  orders.  And  surely  it  is  just  as  heroic, 
just  as  honourable,  to  be  found  faithful  to  death  in 
any  other  service  to  which  a  man  has  been  called ; 
to  care  more  for  doing  our  daily  work  well,  than  for 
doing  it  easily  ;  to  treat  it  not  merely  as  a  means  of 
getting  bread,  but  as  a  task  which  it  is  a  duty  to 
God  to  do  thoroughly,  and  a  sin  against  God  to  do 

This  was  the  second  of  the  six  hymns  by  the 
poet  sung  at  his  funeral. 

3.  "  Come  forth,  O  Christian  brothers,"  composed 
for  a  Festival  of  Parochial  Choirs  at  Chester,  May 

4.  "God  the   Almighty,  in  wisdom    ordaining," 
written    for   a    country   congregation    during    the 
French  and    German   war,    1870,   in   imitation  of 
"  God    the    all-terrible  !     King    Who    ordainest," 
attributed     to    Henry    Fothergill   Chorley.     It   is 
dated  August  28,  1870. 

5.  "  O  Thou  in  Whom   Thy  saints  repose,"  for 
the  consecration  of  a  burial  ground.     Written  upon 
the  occasion  of  an  addition  to  the  parish  church- 
yard of  Tarporley,  Cheshire,  Nov.  19. 

6.  "  The  Lord  be  with  us  as  we  bend."   "  Written 
at  the  request  of  a  friend,  for  use  at  the  close  of 
service  on  Sunday  afternoons,  when  (as  in  summer) 
strictly  Evening  hymns  would  be  unsuitable." l 

7.  "  The    day   Thou    gavest,    Lord,   is    ended." 
Contributed  to  a  "Liturgy  for  Missionary  Meetings," 

1  Notes  and  Illustrations,  Hymn  52, 


revised  for  Church  Hymns,  the  first  line  borrowed 
from  an  anonymous  hymn  in  Church  Poetry  (1855). 

8.  "  Behold  us,  Lord,  a  little  space,"  for  a  mid-day 
service  in  a  city  church. 

9.  "  God,  Creator,  and  Preserver,"  for  times  of  scar- 
city and  bad  harvest;  written  for  The  Hymnary(tf<S}. 

10.  "  Sing,  ye  faithful,  sing  with  gladness."     The 
full  and  authorized  form  of  this  noble  hymn  on  the 
Incarnation    is    found    in    Hymns    Original   and 
Translated,  and  consists  of  eight  stanzas, "with  the 
refrain    "  Evermore   and   evermore."      In     Church 
Hymns  (499)  it  is  cut  down  to  five  stanzas  and  the 
refrain  omitted,  by  which  it  is  considerably  shorn  of 
its  beauty  and  spirit.     It  deserves  a  fine  tune  to 
itself.      It     is    partly    an    imitation    of  Da  puer 
plectrum  of  Prudentius 1  (b.  348). 

To  compose  these  ten  hymns,  and  at  the  same 
time  to  comply  with  the  incessant  demand  for 
sermons,  lectures,  and  addresses  of  all  sorts,  made 
by  so  busy  a  place  as  Crewe,  to  say  nothing  of  the 
time  spent  in  visiting  and  other  parochial  work, 
shows  a  wonderful  activity,  intellectual  and  bodily, 
on  the  part  of  the  Vicar.  He  had  no  curate  to 
take  some  of  the  duties  off  his  hands  and  leave  him 
time  for  quiet  study;  everything  had  to  be  done  by 
himself,  and  the  united  voice  of  the  parish,  expressed 
on  his  resignation  two  years  after,  pronounced  that 
it  was  done  well,  thoroughly,  and  faithfully. 

Still  more  prolific  was  the  following  year  (1871), 

1  Poeta  eximius — eruditissimus  et  sanctissimus  scriptor — 
nemo  divinius  de  rebus  Christianis  unquam  scripsit.  Such  is 
Earth's  praise  of  Prudentius,  quoted  by  Archbishop  Trench. 
—Sacred  Latin  Poetry,  p.  119. 


producing  twelve  original  hymns  and  four  trans- 
lations from  the  Latin,  not  of  course  all  of  equal 
excellence,  but  among  them  some  of  the  very  best. 
The  first  one,  bearing  date  January  14,  is — 

1.  "King    Messiah,  long    expected."    A   much- 
needed   hymn    for   the    Circumcision,  written    for 
Church  Hymns.     Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  has 
only  two,  and   The  Hymnary  only  one  for  this  fes- 
tival.    Bishop  Christopher  Wordsworth,  to  supply 
the  want,  wrote  "  Giver  of  law  is  God's  dear  Son," 
by  no  means  his  happiest  inspiration.  Among  these 
"  King  Messiah,  long  expected  "  shines  out  as  a  star 
of  the  first  magnitude. 

This  was  followed  February  1 3  by — 

2.  "  Another  day  begun,"  for  a  week-day  morning 

3.  "  We   sing    the    glorious   conquest,"    for   the 
Conversion  of  St.  Paul;  written  Feb.  28,  1871,  for 
Church  Hymns,  and  passed  into  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern. 

4.  "  Father  !  Name  of  love  and  fear."  A  Confirm- 
ation hymn,  dated  March  18. 

5.  "  O   Son  of  God,  our  Captain  of  salvation." 
St.  Barnabas.      Also  written    for   Church  Hymns, 
and  incorporated  into  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern. 
Dated  April  5,  1871. 

6.  "  O  Lord  of  life  and  death,  we  come."   A  hymn 
for  time  of  pestilence  ;  remarkable  for  its  common- 
sense  and  courage  in  attributing  pestilence  to  what 
is  frequently  its  true  source — bad  drainage — 

"  Forgive  the  foul  neglect  that  brought 

Thy  chastening  to  our  door  : 
The  homes  uncleansed?  etc.,  dated  October  20, 


7.  "  Thou  in  Whose  Name  the  two  or  three."    For 

8.  "King  of  Saints,  to  Whom  the  number."  A  fine 
hymn    for    St.    Bartholomew,  in    the    tetrameter 
trochaic    metre   of  fifteen   syllables    broken    into 
two    parts,    a    break    which    Bishop    Christopher 
Wordsworth  calls  "  a  serious  evil  to  Hymnology," 
though  why  we  cannot  see.     The  very  probable 
conjecture  that  this  saint  is  to  be  identified  with 
the  Nathaniel  of  the  fourth  Gospel 1  is  neatly  ex- 
pressed in  the  third  verse — 

"  Was  it  he,  beneath  the  fig-tree 

Seen  of  Thee,  and  guileless  found  ; 
He  who  saw  the  Good  he  long'd  for 

Rise  from  Nazareth's  barren  ground  ; 
He  who  met  his  risen  Master 

On  the  shore  of  Galilee  ; 
He  to  whom  the  word  was  spoken, 

'  Greater  things  thou  yet  shalt  see '  ?  " 

"  None  can  tell  us." 

This  favourite  hymn,  written  for  Church  Hymns, 
is  also  to  be  found  in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern 


9.  "  Mary  at  the  Master's  feet."   For  Catechizing  ; 
written  for  Church  Hymns. 

We  now  come  to  the  loveliest  and  most  loved  of 
all  Mr.  Ellerton's  hymns — 

10.  "  Now  the  labourer's  task  is  o'er."      It  has 
been   sung,  and  will  continue  to  be  sung,  at  the 
grave-side   of   princes,   divines,   statesmen,   poets, 
artists,   authors,  as  well  as  of  many  a   Christian 

1  St.  John  i.  45  ;  xxi.  2. 


labourer  in  humble  life.  No  hymnal  is  now  deemed 
complete  without  it. 

Like  the  Te  Deum,  Bishop  Ken's  Evening 
Hymn,  and  many  another  composition  of  highest 
excellence,  this  hymn  contains  evidences  of  pre- 
existing material.  This  the  author  himself  points 
out  in  his  Notes  and  Illustrations  to  Church  Hymns. 
"  *f  he  whole  hymn,"  he  says,  "  especially  the  third, 
fifth,  and  sixth  verses,  owes  many  thoughts  and 
some  expressions  to  a  beautiful  poem  of  the  Rev. 
Gerard  Moultrie's,  beginning  'Brother,  now  thy 
toils  are  o'er/  "  which  will  be  found  in  the  People's 
Hymnal,  380. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  popularity  of 
the  hymn  has  been  largely  increased  by  the  lovely 
and  sympathetic  melody  "  Requiescat,"  by  Dr. 
Dykes,  in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  to  which 
it  is  now  exclusively  and  inseparably  united. 

ii.  "In  the  Name  which  earth  and  heaven." 
Processional  for  the  foundation  of  a  Church.  The 
author  observes,  "  A  cento  from  this  and  '  Lift 
the  strain  of  high  thanksgiving,'  was  compiled  and 
sung  for  the  first  time  at  the  re-opening  of  the 
nave  of  Chester  Cathedral,  January  25,  1872." 

12.       "  Praise  to  our  God,  whose  bounteous  hand 
Prepared  of  old  our  glorious  land." 

A  hymn  of  national  thanksgiving,  first  printed  in 
Rev.  R.  Brown- Borthwick's  Select  Hymns. 

The  four  translations  made  this  year  (1871)  are — 
i.  "Oh    come,  all    ye   faithful,  joyful   and   tri- 
umphant."  Translated  from  a  cento  of  four  stanzas 
from  the  favourite  Adeste  fideles,  laeti  triurnphantes. 


The  original  poem,  the  full  text  of  which  is 
given  in  Julian's  Dictionary  of  Hymnology,  contains 
eight  stanzas,  but  the  shortened  form  is  the  English 
use.  The  author  of  the  article  on  this  hymn  in 
Julian's  Dictionary  mentions  no  fewer  than  thirty- 
eight  renderings — a  striking  proof  of  its  popularity 
as  a  Christmas  hymn.  One  aim  of  Mr.  Ellerton's 
translation  appears  to  be  to  give  as  far  as  possible 
a  syllable  to  each  note  of  the  traditional  melody, 
and  its  chief  peculiarity  is  his  version  of  the  first 
line  of  the  fourth  stanza — "  Thou,  Who  didst  deign 
to  be  born  for  us  this  morning,"  instead  of  "  Yea, 
Lord,  we  greet  Thee,  born  this  happy  morning,"  1 
as  it  stands  in  Canon  Oakeley's  arrangement 
(Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern). 

With  regard  to  the  authorship  and  date  of  this 
hymn  all  is  uncertainty.  Mr.  Ellerton's  note  is — 
"  Doubtless  not  older  than  the  fifteenth  century, 
and  not  originally  written  for  liturgical  use  ; " 
while  the  writer  in  Julian's  Dictionary  says,  "  Pro- 
bably it  is  a  hymn  of  the  seventeenth  or  eighteenth 
century,  and  of  French  or  German  authorship." 
If,  however,  the  late  Vincent  Novello  erred  not  in 
attributing  the  traditional  melody  to  John  Reading, 
organist  of  Winchester  Cathedral,  1675 — i68i,2  the 
hymn  may  not  be  later  than  the  seventeenth  century. 
But  whensoever  or  by  whomsoever  composed  the 
hymn  has  taken  an  assured  place  as  emphatically 
the  Christmas  Hymn  of  the  Western  Church. 

2.  "Giver  of  the  perfect  gift,"  Summi  largitor 
praemii,  an  anonymous  Lenten  hymn  of  the  ninth 

1  In  The  Hymnary  this  last  line  reads — "  Born  of  Virgin 
Mother."  2  Julian's  Dictionary,  p.  20, 


or  tenth  (?)  century.  The  Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern  rendering,  by  J.  W.  Hewett,  "O  Thou 
Who  dost  to  man  accord,"  is  perhaps  better 

3.  "  We  sing  of  Christ's  eternal  gifts/'  Aeterna 
Christi  munerci)  Apostolorum  gloriam^  an  adaptation 
for  apostles  as  distinct  from  martyrs,  of  the  cele- 
brated Ambrosian  hymn,  Aeterna  Christi  munera, 
Et  martyrum   victorias.     Whether  this   hymn  be 
St.  Ambrose's,  to  whom  the  Benedictine  editors 
ascribe  it,  or  not,  it  is  certainly  not  later  than  the 
fifth  century.1     The  rendering  in  Church  Hymns 
is    partly   that    of    Dr.    Neale,2    and    partly    Mr. 
Ellerton's.       The    Hymns    Ancient    and   Modern 
translation  is  by  Dr.  Neale. 

4.  "  To  the  Name  that  speaks  salvation."    Trans- 
lated   from    Gloriosi    Salvatoris^   an    anonymous 
Latin   hymn   of  German   origin,  possibly  of   the 
fifteenth  century.     There  are  several  translations ; 
that  in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  is  an  altered 
version  of  Dr.  Neale's ;  Mr.  Ellerton's  is  adopted 
in  Church  Hymns. 

The  amazing  fertility  of  Mr.  Ellerton's  poetic 
genius  during  these  two  years  has  seldom  if  ever 
been  surpassed  by  any  sacred  writer.  Of  all 
species  of  composition  the  hymn  is  one  which 
cannot  be  hurried,  cannot  be  produced  to  order 
like  a  catalogue  or  a  sermon ;  it  is  the  sudden  and 
often  unpremeditated  inspiration  which  sweeps 

1  Trench,  Sacred  Latin  Poetry,  p.  210.     St.  Ambrose  was 
Bishop  of  Milan,  374—397. 

2  Not  of  J.  D.  Chambers,  as  stated  by  Mr.  Ellerton  in  his 
Notes  and  Illustrations. — Julian's  Dictionary  of  Hymnology. 


down  upon  the  singer,  it  may  be  at  some  unexpected 
moment,  never  more  accurately  expressed  than  by 
the  Psalmist — 

"  My  heart  was  hot  within  me  ; 
And  while  I  was  thus  musing  a  fire  kindled  : 
And  at  the  last  I  spake  with  my  tongue." l 

1  Ps.  xxxix.  4. 




ON  the  main  road  between  the  two  Shropshire 
towns  of  Market  Drayton  and  Newport,  the  latter 
on  the  borders  of  Staffordshire,  lies  the  village  of 
Hinstock.  It  nestles  among  the  low  smooth  hills 
of  the  new  red  sandstone,  a  fact  at  once  betrayed 
by  the  little  church  as  it  raises  its  square  tower 
among  the  surrounding  trees.  The  building  itself, 
which  stands  hard  by  the  rectory,  on  a  little  raised 
mound  entirely  surrounded  by  the  road,  possesses 
no  architectural  pretensions.1  Like  many  churches 
in  Shropshire,  it  is  dedicated  to  St.  Oswald,  "  that 
most  Christian  King  of  the  Northumbrians,"  as 
Bede  calls  him,  who  was  slain  by  Penda,  king  of 
the  Mercians,  in  the  battle  of  Maserfeld,2  on  August 
5,  642.  The  church  has  to  some  extent  been 
beautified  by  a  later  rector,  but  in  1 872  it  was  a 
very  plain  modern  structure  with  absolutely  no 
chancel.  The  rectory  was  a  modern  red-brick 

1  It  was  always  a  matter  of  regret  with  Mr.  Ellerton  that 
none  of  his  churches,  until  he  came  to  White   Roding,  had 
any  architectural  interest. 

2  Considered  by  some  to  be  the  former  name  of  Oswestry, 
before  it  was  re-named  after  Oswald. 



house,  with  a  lawn  extending  to  the  churchyard, 
a  grand  old  yew-tree  standing  in  the  boundary  line, 
as  if  to  guard  against  any  encroachment  of  the  one 
upon  the  other. 

A  parish  so  utterly  secluded  and  cut  off  from 
the  ordinary  channels  of  intercourse  with  the  great 
centres  of  life  and  intellectual  activity  might  afford 
a  fitting  sphere  of  work  for  a  clergyman  who  would 
find  congenial  occupation  and  relaxation  in  rural 
intercourses  and  pursuits  ;  but  for  a  man  who  had 
achieved  renown  as  a  sacred  poet,  for  a  preacher 
and  scholar  of  no  ordinary  calibre,  for  one  who 
loved  and  adorned  the  society  of  thinkers  and 
workers — to  put  such  a  man,  in  the  very  prime  of 
life  and  power,  into  a  parish  like  this  was  to  consign 
him  to  a  living  grave. 

Yet  notwithstanding  the  many  drawbacks  and 
disadvantages  arising  from  the  difficulty  of  access 
to  public  libraries,  it  was  here  that  the  greater  part 
of  his  Magnum  opus,  the  Notes  and  Illustrations 
to  Church  Hymns,  published  in  the  folio  edition 
of  that  work,  was  written.  It  was  here  too  that  he 
composed  the  article  "  Hymns  "  in  the  Dictionary 
of  Christian  Antiquities,  a  piece  of  writing  which, 
as  he  told  me,  cost  him  many  a  journey  to  Cam- 
bridge. In  fact,  his  work  at  Hinstock  was  not  so 
much- the  composition  of  hymns  as  assisting  in  the 
compilation  of  hymnals,  and  the  improving  of 
congregational  singing. 

The  first  of  these  was,  however,  by  no  means 
dropped.  Between  the  years  1872  and  1876  several 
original  hymns  and  one  translation  appeared — 

i.  "  Thou  Who  once  for  us  uplifted."     Written 


for  Canon  Cooper,  then  rector  of  Tarporley,  a 
small  town  between  Crewe  and  Chester,  as  a 
dedication  hymn  for  the  Chapel  of  Ease  of  St. 
John  and  the  Holy  Cross,  Cote  Brook,  a  hamlet 
in  the  parish.  It  was  sung  at  the  laying  of  the 
corner-stone,  September  13,  1873. 

The  hymn  as  it  now  appears  in  Hymns  Original 
and  Translated,  p.  43,  differs  somewhat  from  its 
early  form.  The  second  verse,  beginning  "  In  Thy 
Name,  O  Lord,  we  lay  it,"  does  not  appear,  and 
the  third,  which  owed  its  special  significance  to  the 
occasion,  is  omitted — 

"  By  Thy  Cross,  that  day  of  sorrow, 
Stood  Thy  loved  Apostle  John, 
Till  he  heard  the  Cry  that  witnessed 

All  Thy  mighty  labours  done  ; 
Till  he  saw  the  cruel  spear-point 
Pierce  the  Breast  he  leaned  upon." 

This  is  the  only  hymn  bearing  the  date  of  1873. 

2.  "  Thou  Who  sentest  Thine  Apostles."     1874. 

3.  "Throned  upon  the  awful  Tree."   1875.     The 
grandest  of  his  original  compositions. 

4.  "  Once   more   Thy   Cross   before   our   view." 
1875.     For  the  evening  of  Good  Friday. 

5.  "  O   Father,  all  creating."     January  29,  1876. 
A  wedding  hymn,  written    at    the  request  of  the 
Duke   of    Westminster,    for   the   marriage   of  his 
daughter,  the  Lady  Elizabeth  Harriet  Grosvenor,  to 
the  Marquis  of  Ormonde,  Feb.  2,  1876. 

6.  "  Speak  Thou  to  me,  0  Lord."    Entitled  "  The 
Voice  of  God."     1876. 

Two  years  after  his  coming  to  Hinstock,  Mr. 
Ellerton  accepted,  at  the  request  of  Bishop  Selwyn, 


the  post  of  Diocesan  Inspector  for  Salop-in-Lich- 
field.  The  duties  of  such  an  appointment  were  in 
every  way  congenial  to  his  love  for  children.  It 
was  for  them  that  at  Brighton  his  earliest  hymns 
were  composed,  and  his  first  book  was  published. 

It  was  about  this  time  too  that,  in  conjunction 
with  his  friend  Canon  Walsham  How,  Mr.  Ellerton 
compiled  Children's  Hymns  and  School  Prayers^ 
the  forerunner  of  the  more  important  Children  s 
Hymn-Book.  This  very  useful  little  work  consists 
of  School  Prayers,  Occasional  Prayers,  and  a  form 
for  Children's  Service,  the  last  being  drawn  up 
by  Canon  How.  The  hymns  (including  four 
appropriate  Litanies)  are  one  hundred  and  fifty- 
three  in  number,  of  which  eight  are  by  Mr.  Ellerton. 
Seven  had  appeared  before,  but  one  was  now  pub- 
lished for  the  first  time,  namely,  the  very  spirited 
and  melodious — 

"  Again  the  morn  of  gladness, 
The  morn  of  light,  is  here." 

With  the  beautiful  refrain — 

"  Glory  be  to  Jesus, 

Let  all  His  children  say  ; 
He  rose  again,  He  rose  again 
On  this  glad  day  ! " 

though  it  deserves  a  tune  to  itself  instead  of  bor- 
rowing Wir  Pflilgen  from  "  We  plough  the  fields  and 
scatter,"  to  which  it  is  set  in  the  Children  s  Hymn- 
Book?  It  was  written  in  1 874,  at  the  request  of  his 

1  Published  by  S.  P.  C.  K. 

2  A  hymn  and  the  tune  composed  for  it,  provided  that 
each  be  worthy  of  the  other,  so  unite  them  that  to  separate 
them  and  make  the  tune  do  double  duty  is  a  species  of  di- 


friend,  the  Rev.  D.  Trinder,  Vicar  of  Teddington, 
as  a  processional  for  Sunday  School  children  on 
their  way  to  church. 

The  translation  referred  to  is  "  All  my  heart  to 
Thee  I  give  "(June  3,  1874),  from  the  anonymous 
Latin  hymn  Cor  meum  Tibi  dedo.  This,  however,  is 
for  private  and  devotional  use  rather  than  for  public 
worship,  a  distinction  which  Mr.  Ellerton  was  al- 
ways careful  to  observe.1  It  has  been  set  to  music 
as  a  sacred  song  by  Dr.  John  Naylor,  organist  of 
York  Minster. 

Happily  Mr.  Ellerton's  residence  at  Hinstock 
did  not  last  long,  only  five  years,  for  in  1876,  owing, 
I  understand,  to  the  thoughtful  kindness  of  his 
friend  Canon  (afterwards  Bishop)  Lightfoot,  he  was 
presented  by  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's 
to  the  suburban  rectory  of  Barnes,  Surrey. 

vorce  which  we  instinctively  resent.  We  feel  that  the  sub- 
stituted hymn  is  clad  in  a  garment  not  made  for  it,  which 
fits  it  badly,  and  which  can  only  be  worn  gracefully  by  its 
rightful  owner. 

1  It  is  interesting,  however,  to  observe  how  some  hymns, 
written  solely  for  personal  and  devotional  use,  have  found 
their  way  into  public  worship,  e.g.  "  Abide  with  me  ;  fast  falls 
the  eventide."  "  This  hymn,  written  by  Mr.  Lyte  in  his  last 
illness,  was  not  intended  for  use  by  a  congregation,  or  as  an 
Evening  Hymn.  The  references  throughout  are  to  the  close, 
not  of  the  day,  but  of  life."  (MS.  note  by  J.  E.) 




Church  Hymns— Children's  Hymn-Book—Church  of  England 
Hymn-Book — London  Mission  Hymn-Book 

THE  parish  of  Barnes,  large,  populous,  and  im- 
portant, offered  a  noble  field  for  ministerial  work, 
and  into  this  the  new  rector  threw  himself  with 
unreserved  devotion,  giving  all  his  powers  of  mind 
and  body  to  the  welfare  of  those  whom  he  had 
been  called  to  serve.  A  very  different  congregation 
now  listened  to  him  from  what  he  had  been 
accustomed  to  address  in  Cheshire,  a  congregation 
which  had  been  taught  to  look  for  teaching  of  the 
highest  order  from  a  pulpit  long  occupied  by  the 
eloquent  Henry  Melvill,  and  after  him  by  the 
scholarly  Medd.  As  these  pages  are  designed  to 
be  but  a  sketch  of  Mr.  Ellerton's  life,  and  by  no 
means  a  full  biography,  I  say  but  little  of  his 
ministerial  work  at  Barnes,  where  I  had  the  privi- 
lege of  being  associated  with  him  as  his  curate, 
and  dwell  rather  upon  the  literary  side  of  his  in- 
dustry. Suffice  it  to  say,  that  every  detail  of 
parochial  work  was  thoroughly  mastered.  In  one 
part  of  the  parish  a  room  was  opened  for  special 


services  for  the  poor ;  in  another  an  iron  church, 
since  replaced  by  a  permanent  and  handsome 
structure,  was  erected.  Whether  it  was  the  choir, 
the  schools,  district  visitors,  or  confirmation  classes, 
upon  each  in  its  turn  he  concentrated  his  whole 
mind,  spending  and  being  spent  in  his  Master's 
service,  until  his  strength  broke  down  under  the 
burden,  and  he  was  compelled  to  resign  it  to  an- 
other. Perhaps  it  was  only  the  few  who  could 
appreciate  his  rare  gifts  of  oratory,  his  elegant 
scholarship  ;  but  all  loved  him,  all,  that  is,  whose 
hearts  were  capable  of  responding  to  the  reality  of 
his  sympathy,  and  the  warmth  of  his  loving  heart. 
One  l  who  knew  him  well  wrote,  on  the  occasion  of 
his  death — "  that  he  was  a  man  of  deep  learning 
and  of  varied  and  extended  reading,  no  educated 
listener  could  fail  to  discover,  although  his  sermons 
were  remarkably  free  from  parade  of  erudition  or 
excess  of  ornament.  But  it  was  not  his  mastery  of 
English,  his  many-sided  culture,  and  his  transparent 
sincerity  that  gave  to  his  sermons  the  attractive- 
ness to  which  we  refer.  It  was  rather  that  rare  and 
indefinable  sometJiing  which  radiates  from  poetic 
natures,  and  makes  other  hearts  burn  within  them." 
One  of  the  results  of.  Mr.  Ellerton's  coming  to 
the  neighbourhood  of  London,  was  a  more  intimate 
and  personal  share  in  the  affairs  of  the  Society  for 
Promoting  Christian  Knowledge,  for  which  he  had 
already  done  such  good  work.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Tract  Committee  from  1878  until  the  time 
of  his  death.  One  of  his  colleagues,  the  present 
Archdeacon  of  Middlesex,  writes,  "  On  the  Tract 
1  Professor  Henry  Attwell,  K.O.C. 


Committee  he  was  our  authority  in  matters  of 
poetry  and  music;  and  was  looked  up  to  by  all 
as  a  sound  theologian."  His  great  work  for  the 
Committee  was  his  editing  the  Manual  of  Parochial 
Work,  and  subsequently  revising  it  for  the  second 
edition.  "  A  great  deal  of  the  Manual  (as  you  are 
well  aware)  is  from  his  pen.  All  who  had  the 
pleasure  of  working  with  him  remember  with 
affection  his  gentle  and  quiet  manner,  and  the 
touches  of  humour  which  he  not  unfrequently 
threw  into  his  observations."1 

In  connection  with  this  Society  Mr.  Ellerton 
also  wrote  a  series  of  Tracts  ;  two  for  Ash- 
Wednesday,  one  for  Lent,  Good  Friday,  Easter, 
Ascension  Day,  and  Whit  Sunday. 

In  addition  to  the  vast  amount  of  hymnological 
work  accomplished  at  Barnes  in  connection  with 
Church  Hymns  with  Notes  and  Illustrations,  the 
Children's  Hymn-Book,  and  the  London  Mission 
Hymn-Book,  Mr.  Ellerton  composed  the  following 
hymns : — 

1.  "Thy  Voice   it   is   that   calls  us,  bounteous 
Lord."      August    21,    1877.      Written    for    Early 
Communion  at  a  meeting  of  Clergy;  the  idea  taken 
from  St.  John   xxi.    12,  "Jesus  saith   unto  them, 
Come  and  break  your  fast." 2 

2.  "This  day  the   Lord's  disciples  met."      For 
Whit-Sunday,  written  for  the  Children's  Hymn- Book. 

3.  "  In  the  Name  which  holy  angels."    September 
1878.     A  hymn  which  he  very  kindly  wrote  at  my 

1  Letter  to  the  Author. 

2  R.V.  giving  the  true  translation  of  dptoT//<T<m,  which  the 
A.V.  "  come  and  dine  "  obscures. 


request  for  the  opening  of  the  temporary  iron 
church  of  St.  Michael  and  All  Angels,  in  the  district 
of  Westfields,  Barnes. 

4.  "Oh  how  fair  that  morning  broke."     March 
13, 1880.    Septuagesima  ;  written  for  the  Children's 

5.  "  Before  the  day  draws  near  its  ending."   April 
22,  1880.     After  service,  Sundays  or  Festivals. 

6.  «  O  Thou  Whose  bounty  fills  the  earth."    For 
a    Children's    Flower    Service.      As    it    is    dated 
Chelsea,  June  6,    1880,  it  was  no  doubt  written 
at  Chelsea  Rectory  when  on  a  visit  to  his  friend, 
the  Rev.  Gerald  Blunt,  the  author  of  the  favourite 
Flower  Service  hymn,  "  Here,  Lord,  we  offer  Thee 
all  that  is   fairest,"  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern, 
598.     These  hymns  of  the  two  old  friends  stand 
together  in  the  Children's  Hymn-Book.    . 

7.  "Hail  to  the  Lord  Who  comes."     October 
6,  1880.     Presentation  of  Christ  in  the  Temple; 
written  for  the  Rev.  Godfrey  Thring. 

8.  ""Praise  our  God,  Whose  open  Hand."  Written 
for  a  bad  harvest,  and  printed  in  the  Guardian, 
August  1 88 1. 

The  Rev.  F.  G.  Ellerton  writes  to  me, "  Numerous 
letters  and  telegrams  at  once  showered  on  my 
father  asking  permission  to  use  it,  or  announcing 
the  fact  of  having  done  so,  requesting  copies,  or 
bidding  him  order  some  for  them,  etc.,  etc.  I 
have  no  less  than  twenty-seven  of  them." 

9.  "  Break  Thou  to  us,  O  Lord, 

The  Bread  of  Life  to-day  ; 
And  through  Thy  written  Word 
Thy  very  self  display."     1 88 1 , 


10.  "O  Thou  Who  givest  food  to  all."     August 
30,     1882.      Harvest    Thanksgiving.      Stated    in 
Hymns    Original  and    Translated  to   have   been 
written  for  the  Church  of  England   Temperance 
Society,  but  it  is  not  in  their  hymn-book  ;   per- 
haps the  boldness  which  did  not  fear  to  assert  that 
both  Corn  and    Wine  are   God's  "high  gifts,"  in 
accordance  with  the  whole  teaching  and  tenor  of 
Holy  Scripture,  condemned  it  in  the  eyes  of  the 

11.  "  Thou  Who  wearied  by  the  well."  September 
23,  1882.     For  the  opening  of  a  Workman's  Coffee 

12.  "  Within  Thy  Temple,  Lord,  of  old."  Written 
for  the  Fiftieth  Anniversary  of  the  Dedication  of 
Christ  Church,  Coventry.     This  Jubilee  was  held 
in  August  1882. 

13.  "Praise    our    God    for    all    the   wonders." 
December    1882.      Composed   for  the  Dedication 
Festival  of  St.  Nicholas  Church,  Brighton.     A  fine 
historical  Processional  similar  in  conception  to  the 
St.  Martin's  hymn.1 

Among  the  minor  hymnological  works,  but 
nevertheless  a  very  important  one,  which  Mr. 
Ellerton  completed  at  Barnes  must  be  included 
the  London  Mission  Hymn-Book.  In  1884  the 
General  London  Mission  was  held,  and  it  was 
thought  desirable  to  prepare  a  hymn-book  for  it. 
Mr.  Ellerton,  being  selected  as  one  of  the  editors, 
consulted  with  other  hymnologists  of  eminence, 
especially  Canon  Walsham  How,  and  Bishop 
E.  H.  Bickersteth  ;  but  the  weight  of  the  burden 

1  p.  MS- 


was  mainly  borne  by  himself.  The  book  was 
published  by  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian 
Knowledge  in  July,  and  contained,  inclusive  of  the 
Appendix,  21 1  hymns,  to  which  were  added  the 
Venite,  Te  Deum  laudamus,  Magnificat,  Nunc 
dimittis,  and  Psalms  li.  and  cxxx.  It  was  for 
this  book  that  Mr.  Ellerton  wrote  his  spirited 
Processional — "  Onward,  brothers,  onward  !  march 
with  one  accord," 


SINCE  it  was  at  Barnes  that  Church  Hymns  with 
Notes  and  Illustrations,  and  the  Children's  Hymn- 
Book,  two  out  of  the  three1  of  Mr.  Ellerton's 
most  important  hymnological  labours,  were  com- 
pleted and  published,  this  seems  the  most  fitting 
place  to  introduce  some  account  of  these  works. 

Even  before  leaving  Crewe  Green  the  foundations 
of  his  fame  as  a  sacred  poet  were  laid,  but  by  the 
time  he  was  promoted  to  Barnes  his  influence  had 
impressed  itself  indelibly  on  the  hymnody  of  the 
Church.  His  hymns  were  now  known  far  and  wide, 
their  catholicity  and  comprehensiveness  gaining  for 
many  of  them  acceptance  in  other  Christian  con- 
gregations both  at  home  and  abroad. 

When  or  under  what  circumstances  he  first 
began  to  make  hymns  his  special  study  it  is  im- 
possible to  say.  In  1879  he  speaks  of  his  "more 
than  twenty  years  devotion  to  hymnology,"  and  it 
was  in  1859,  when  curate  of  the  parish  church  of 
Brighton,  that  he  compiled  Hymns  for  Schools  and 
Bible  Classes.  In  1863  we  find  Dr.  Kennedy, 

1  The  third,  the  complete  edition  of  Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern,  was  published  in  1889,  when  Mr.  Ellerton  was 
Rector  of  White  Roding. 



Head-master  of  Shrewsbury  School,  then  prepar- 
ing his  Hymnologia  Christiana,  appealing  to  him 
as  an  authority  on  the  subject.  With  him  the  first 
object  in  life  was  ever  to  make  full  proof  of  his 
ministry ;  to  feed  the  flock  of  God  over  which  he 
had  been  appointed  ;  to  preach  the  Word  ;  to  be 
instant  in  season,  out  of  season  ;  to  reprove,  rebuke, 
exhort  with  all  long-suffering  and  -doctrine.  He 
was  priest  first,  and  only  after  that  a  poet.  His 
first  thought  and  aim  was  absolute  self-dedication 
to  his  Master's  service,  and  next  to  devote  what 
spare  time  he  found  to  hymnology,  to  promote 
God's  honour  by  perfecting,  so  far  as  in  him  lay, 
the  service  of  song  in  the  house  of  the  Lord. 

To  estimate  at  its  true  value  the  part  which  Mr. 
Ellerton  took  in  that  great  awakening  of  Church 
music  which  accompanied  the  revival  of  Church- 
manship,  begun  by  the  Wesleys,  carried  on  by  the 
leaders  of  the  old  Evangelical  School,  and  strength- 
ened by  the  Oxford  movement,  we  must  compare 
what  it  was  some  forty  or  thirty  years  ago  with 
what  it  is  at  the  present  day.  With  regard  to 
hymn-books,  their  number  was  well  nigh  countless. 
They  had  sprung  up  like  mushrooms  in  an  autumn 
meadow.  Between  1820  and  1850  Dr.  Julian 
enumerates  at  least  seventy-eight  as  having  ap- 
peared, differing  vastly  in  their  degrees  of  merit. 
In  fact,  as  to  the  clergy  in  this  matter  every  man 
did  that  which  was  right  in  his  own  eyes.  Many 
who  could  afford  it  compiled  collections  for  their 
own  congregations,  so  that  it  was  difficult  to  find 
two  churches  in  a  town  using  the  same  book.  The 
singing  too  was  equally  deplorable.  The  hymns, 


given  out  by  the  clerk,  were  generally  restricted  to 
four  verses,  and  it  was  considered  the  correct  thing 
for  the  organist  to  play  an  interlude  between  each 
verse.  Such  Churches  as  did  not  adopt  or  compile 
a  book  of  hymns  for  their  own  use  commonly  used 
Tate  and  Brady's  metrical  version,  or  rather  per- 
version, of  the  Psalms.1 

Among  the  many  attempts  to  put  forth  a  book 
which  should  more  or  less  tend  to  put  a  stop  to 
the  general  confusion,  the  S.  P.  C.  K.  published  a 
small  collection  in  1852.  Three  years  afterwards 
(1855)  it  was  issued  in  an  enlarged  form  as  Psalms 
and  Hymns,  to  which,  in  1863,  an  Appendix  was 
added.  But  a  new  star  had  already  risen,  not  par- 
ticularly brilliant  at  its  first  appearance,  still  bright 
enough  to  attract  the  gaze  of  many,  and  draw  forth 
the  question — Is  this  the  long-expected  Hymnal  for 
which  we  have  been  waiting,  and  which  is  destined 
to  become  the  accepted  hymn-book  of  the  Anglican 
Church  ?  This  was  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern, 
published  in  1861,  followed  by  an  Appendix  in  1868. 

It  would  seem  that  Mr.  Ellerton  was  by  no 
means  satisfied  with  either  of  these  collections,  for 
in  1869  he  had  thoughts  of  issuing,  in  conjunction 
with  a  few  friends,  a  Hymnal  independent  of 
both,  and  a  prospectus  was  drawn  up  and  sent  to 
London  friends.  But  the  energy  displayed  by  the 
S.  P.  C.  K.  led  him  to  reconsider  his  project.  That 
Society,  perceiving  there  was  room  for  improve- 
ment in  their  Hymnal  of  1863,  proposed  to  add  a 

1  As  St.  Jerome  calls  the  numerous  and  unauthorized  Latin 
translations  01  the  New  Testament  in  his  day  not  versiones 
but  eversiones. 


comprehensive  Appendix,  but  the  proposal  eventu- 
ally resulted  in  the  compilation  of  a  new  book 
under  the  title  of  Church  Hymns.  In  reference  to 
the  proposed  Appendix,  Mr.  Berdmore  Compton, 
then  on  the  Tract  Committee,  and  editor  of  the 
Appendix  of  1  863,  wrote  as  follows  to  Mr.  Ellerton  :  — 
"  The  Tract  Committee  have  now  completed  their 
selection  from  those  hymns  which  I  have  brought 
before  them.  They  decided  not  to  revise  the  exist- 
ing book  for  the  present,  but  to  add  a  Supplement 
containing  indeed  a  few  restorations  of  hymns, 
which  I  thought  absolutely  necessary,  they  having 
been  miserably  curtailed  in  the  present  work.  But 
the  Supplement  will  mainly  consist  of  new  hymns, 
and  will  be  large,  probably  about  220  in  number." 
He  then  asks  permission  to  include  "  Sing  Alleluia 
forth  in  duteous  praise,"  and  "  Saviour,  again  to 
Thy  dear  Name  we  raise,"  and  for  help  with  regard 
to  discovering  the  authorship  of  other  hymns. 

In  consequence  of  this  move  on  the  part  of  the 
Society,  Mr.  Ellerton  abandoned  his  design  of  a 
separate  work,  and  wrote  to  Mr.  Berdmore  Compton 
the  following  letter,  valuable  as  setting  forth  the 
principles  upon  which,  in  the  writer's  opinion,  a 
Hymnal  should  be  compiled,  principles  which  he 
himself  applied  to  the  various  hymnals  for  which 
his  advice  or  co-operation  was  sought  :  — 

"  Creiue  Green  Parsonage,  Crewe, 

"DEAR    SIR, 

"  If  I  can  be  of  any  use  to  you  in  your 
task  of  improving  the  present  S.  P.  C.  K.  Hymnal,  I 


shall  have  much  pleasure  in  assisting  so  good  a 

"The  system  upon  which  you  propose  to  act 
appears  to  me  to  be  a  very  sound  one  ;  my  only 
fear  is  lest  alterations,  which  ought  to  be  extensive 
ones  in  order  to  make  the  book  as  good  as  it  is 
possible  to  make  it,  may  be  productive  of  serious 
inconvenience  to  the  congregations  which  already 
use  the  Hymnal.  I  am  strongly  of  opinion  that, 
notwithstanding  this,  the  effort  you  propose  to 
make  ought  to  be  made ;  but  still  I  fear  that  this 
objection  may  weigh  very  strongly  with  some 
members  of  the  Tract  Committee,  and  may  hinder 
the  free  development  of  your  plan. 

"The  existing  Hymnal  has  the  advantage  of 
representing  more  than  one  school  of  English 
devotional  theology,  and  the  hymns  which  it  con- 
tains are  (in  the  later  edition)  presented  in  a  less 
corrupt  text  than  usual.  It  contains  of  course 
also  many  hymns  of  sterling  worth  and  beauty ; 
still  a  very  careful  examination  of  it  last  winter  led 
me  to  the  conclusion  that  it  has  some  great  defects. 

"  i.  The  area  from  which  its  sources  are  drawn 
is,  I  think,  far  too  narrow.  In  its  first  form  there 
were,  I  believe,  no  ancient  hymns  except  the  Veni 
Creator;  now  there  are  a  certain  number  of  Gallican 
ones,  but  very  few  representing  the  richest  period 
of  Latin  hymnody,  and  no  Greek  ones  at  all.  I 
feel  sure  that  an  examination  of  the  best  mediaeval 
hymns  will  convince  you  that  there  is  no  real  reason 
for  their  exclusion,  any  more  than  for  that  of  the 
contemporary  collects  which  fill  so  large  a  space  in 
our  Prayer-book.  That  which  is  unsuitable  for 


the  use  of  a  Reformed  Church  ought  of  course, 
however  fine  the  hymn,  to  be  most  rigidly  excluded. 
I  would  not  wish  to  see  Vexilla  Regis  or  Pange 
lingua  admitted  ;  x  but  there  are  many  of  our  older 
hymns  full  of  true  congregational  spirit,  of  sim- 
plicity, devotion,  and  depth,  which  would  adorn 
any  collection,  and  ought  not  to  be  left  as  the 
heritage  of  one  particular  school  in  the  Church. 
This  can,  I  think,  be  easily  shown  by  a  reference 
to  such  a  book  as  Daniel's  Thesaurus  Hymnologicus, 
which  I  mention  chiefly  because  Dr.  Daniel  is  a 
most  sincere  Protestant.  It  would  be  worth  the 
while  of  the  Tract  Committee  to  consider  whether 
they  might  not  secure  good  translations  of  some  of 
these,  and  purchase  the  copyright  of  existing 
translations  of  others. 

"This  leads  me  to  refer  to  another  case,  the 
absence  of  many  popular  hymns  by  living  authors. 
Surely  these  would  not  refuse  permission  to  the 
Society  to  print  hymns  of  theirs,  but  I  should  most 
respectfully  suggest  to  the  Committee  whether  it 
would  not  be  worth  while,  even  as  a  money  specu- 

1  This  seems  rather  hard  upon  two  of  the  very  finest  hymns 
of  the  Latin  Church.  Only  certain  parts  are  unsuitable  for 
Anglican  use.  Vexilla  Regis  is  represented  in  Church 
Hymns  by  Bishop  Walsham  How's  "  free  imitation,"  "  The 
Royal  Banner  is  unfurled,"  and  in  Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern  by  Dr.  Neale's  "  The  Royal  Banners  forward  go." 
Pange  lingua  is  also  admitted  into  the  former  book  as 
"Sing, my, tongue, the  Saviour's  glory,"  by  Rev.  F.  Pott,  and 
into  the  latter  as  "Sing,  my  tongue,  the  glorious  battle,"  by 
Dr.  Neale,  the  eighth  verse  of  which  might  well  have  been 
omitted,  savouring  as  it  does  too  strongly  of  mediaeval 
sentimentalism. — H.  H. 


Jation,  to  lay  out  a  certain  sum  in  the  purchase  of 
the  copyright  of  others. 

"  Again,  the  great  position  of  the  S.  P.  C.  K.  gives 
it  a  matchless  opportunity  for  investigating  and 
using  foreign  hymnody.  Germany  is  of  course  a 
very  wide  field,  and  the  value  for  congregational 
use  of  German  hymns  is  just  now  rather  over-rated 
than  under-rated,  but  still  many,  little  known,  might 
I  think  be  found  of  service  to  us  among  especially 
the  older  German  books.  And  the  hymns  of  Den- 
mark1 and  the  Chants  Chretiens  of  Protestant 
France  are  almost  or  quite  unknown  to  us  here. 
Could  not  the  Committee  further  communicate 
with  the  American  Committee  of  Convention,  who 
are  at  this  moment  engaged  in  preparing  a  new 
Hymnal  for  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in 
the  United  States  ?  I  believe  much  matter  worth 
examining  might  be  obtained  from  that  quarter. 

"  2.  The  character  of  too  many  of  the  hymns  in 
the  Society's  present  book  is  certainly  a  rather 
dull  and  colourless  mediocrity.  And  as  I  am 
writing  to  you  freely  and  confidentially,  I  hope  you 
will  forgive  my  making  one  remark.  Of  course  I 
feel  that  the  position  of  the  S.  P.  C.  K.  in  relation 
to  existing  divisions  within  the  Church  is  a  very 
difficult  one>  and  requires  the  utmost  wisdom  and 
firmness  in  those  who  conduct  it.  But  for  a  Society 
which  seeks  to  be  a  Church  and  not  a  sectarian 
Society,  there  is  always  the  danger  of  ignoring 

1  "  Through  the  night  of  doubt  and  sorrow."  Mr,  Ellerton 
revised  the  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould's  translation  of  this  favourite 
hymn  from  the  Danish,  and  it  was  first  sung  in  Crewe  Green 
Church.— H.  H. 


truths  out  of  the  very  fear  of  overstating  them. 
It  is  easy  to  try  to  steer  a  safe  course  by  omitting 
what  will  offend  one  or  other  school  in  the  Church, 
but  often  the  result  is  to  leave  a  mere  dull  residuum 
of  that  which  is  certainly  common  to  both,  but 
which  satisfies  the  faith  of  neither.  Surely  if  each 
side  (within  due  limits)  were  represented'^,  a  Hymnal, 
as  it  is  in  our  Prayer-book,  the  object  of  wide  and 
common  use  would  be  attained  in  a  nobler  and 
more  effectual  way,  e.g.  in  the  section  on  Holy 
Communion  I  would  retain  the  old  evangelical 
hymns  of  Watts  and  Doddridge  which  are  justly 
dear  to  thousands ;  I  would  insert  such  hymns  as 
"Thee  we  adore,  O  blessed  Saviour,  Thee,"  and 
one  or  two  more  which  give  that  side  of  the 
doctrine  which  the  Catechism  and  Communion 
Service  express  ;  and  I  would  exclude  such  hymns 
as  119  and  122,  which  really  satisfy  neither  school, 
and  are  simply  vague.  Forgive  me  if  I  have 
gone  beyond  the  range  to  which  I  ought  to  have 
restricted  myself. 

"3.  The  number  of  hymns  which  ought  to  be 
excluded  because  too  private  for  public  worship  is 
much  less,  I  think,  in  the  S.  P.  C.  K.  collection  than 
in  many  others.  The  rule  I  would  suggest  is  this  : 
where  a  hymn  expresses  faith  or  feeling  such  as  is, 
or  ought  to  be,  common  to  the  whole  or  the  greater 
part  of  the  congregation,  the  mere  occurrence  of 
the  singular  number  is  no  reason  for  excluding  it. 
No  one  would  banish  '  Rock  of  Ages/  or  '  Sun  of  my 
Soul';  on  the  other  hand,  such  a  hymn  as  Cowper's 
'  Oh  for  a  closer  walk  with  God  '  belongs  to  a  par- 
ticular state  of  mind,  and  ought  not  to  be  put  into 


the  lips  of  a  whole  congregation.  It  is  therefore 
out  of  place  in  a  Hymnal  for  congregational  use. 

"  4.  Another  point  of  some  importance  seems  to 
me  to  be  the  preponderance,  at  least,  of  hymns  which 
are  acts  of  worship — direct  utterances  of  praise  to 
God.  I  would  not  exclude  all  others;  but  there  are 
in  most  Hymnals  far  too  many  sets  of  verses  which 
are  nothing  more  than  religious  meditations  or 
paraphrases  of  texts,  etc.  In  the  Middle  Ages  this 
sort  of  verse  was  only  allowed  at  one  particular 
part  of  the  service,  viz.  at  the  Prose  or  Sequence 
before  the  Gospel.  Now  if,  without  attempting  to 
fix  an  arbitrary  rule  of  this  kind,  the  hymns  under 
each  head  could  be  so  grouped  as  to  put  first  those 
of  direct  worship,  and  next  such  of  a  freer  type  as 
might  be  admitted  (and  that  sparingly)  into  a  gen- 
eral collection,  I  think  the  effect  would  be  to  guide 
the  clergy  better  in  selecting  hymns,  and  to  improve 
thereby  the  devotional  character  of  our  singing. 

"  I  will  close  this  long  letter  with  a  few  sugges- 
tions as  they  occur  to  me  : — 

"a.  Metrical  Psalms  are  now  so  generally  acknow- 
ledged to  be  a  mistake,  and  the  chanting  Psalms  so 
common,  that  I  should  like  to  abolish  the  title 
Psalms  and  Hymns,  and  to  throw  the  selection 
from  the  Psalter  into  the  general  body  of  Hymns, 
which  contains  already  a  large  number  of  para- 
phrases of  Psalms,  as  indeed  every  good  English 
hymnal  must  necessarily  do.  But  probably  this  is 
scarcely  practicable.1 

1  It  is  interesting  thus  to  see  a  new  thought  feeling  its 
way  towards  the  light.  What  J.  E.  deemed  scarcely  practic- 
able not  thirty  years  ago  is  now  generally  adopted. — H.  H. 


"  /3.  The  section  of  c  General  Hymns '  ought  to 
be  much  enlarged.  It  should  also  be  furnished  with 
a  very  copious  and  complete  Index  of  Subjects.  I 
should  like  to  see  that  on  '  Holy  Communion  ' 
enlarged  also,  something  on  the  plan  of  Mr.  Jellicoe's 
Songs  of  the  Church  (you  will  not  understand  me  as 
recommending  the  hymns  he  has  selected)  by  a 
selection  of  Eucharistic  hymns  varying  according 
to  the  seasons  and  greater  Festivals. 

"Something  of  this  too  would  be  good  for 
morning  and  evening  hymns ;  and  we  want  a  few 
for  noon  and  afternoon  to  meet  the  increased 
division  and  multiplication  of  services. 

"y.  May  I  say  something  about  your  Tune-Book  ? 
This  of  course  would  have  to  be  revised  simultane- 
ously with  the  Hymnal.  I  have  never  yet  met  with 
a  congregation  that  uses  it  freely,  and  with  pleasure. 
It  is  grievously  dull,  the  tunes  often  sadly  unfitted 
to  the  hymns  (e.g.  how  can  97  and  268  go  to  the 
same  tune  ?  and  that  a  Sunday  School  song, 
originally  written,  as  the  composer's  son  himself 
told  me,  for  '  Twinkle,  twinkle,  little  star ' !),  and  the 
whole  book  quite  unworthy  of  the  hymnal.  I 
think  a  little  effort  might  give  the  Society  a  Tune- 
Book  of  a  far  higher  character.  But  again  I  fear  I 
am  travelling  out  of  my  province. 

"  I  will  only  add  one  suggestion.  Many  clergy- 
men (and  laymen)  would  like  to  see  an  annotated 
edition  of  the  Hymnal,  with  something  of  the 
history  of  the  hymns  and  the  names  of  the  authors. 
I  think  this  would  sell  well.  Will  you  suggest  it  ? 
"  Believe  me,  dear  sir,  yours  faithfully, 



Apparently,  however,  plans  widened  as  the  work 
went  on,  and  eventually  Mr.  Ellerton,  Canon 
(now  Bishop)  Walsham  How,  and  Mr.  Berdmore 
Compton  became  the  editors  of  a  new  work  which 
was  published  in  1871,  under  the  title  of  Church 
Hymns.  The  musical  editorship  was  first  under- 
taken by  Mr.  (now  Sir  Arthur)  Sullivan,  and 
afterwards  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Elliott,  then  organist 
to  Rev.  R.  Brown-Borthwick,  Vicar  of  All  Saints, 

The  labour,  however,  great  as  it  was,  in  sifting 
and  examining  the  existing  stores  of  hymnody  for 
this  book,  was  accompanied  by  the  far  more  ardu- 
ous task  of  carrying  out  the  scheme  suggested  in 
the  foregoing  letter,  and  preparing  an  Introduction 
which  should  contain  an  account  of  every  hymn  in 
the  collection,  its  authorship  and  history,  a  work 
which  Mr.  Ellerton  tells  us  in  his  Preface,  "  occupied 
pleasantly  such  leisure  time  as  could  be  given  to  it 
during  nine  years  of  a  busy  life." 

At  all  to  realize  the  enormous  labour  which  the 
work  must  have  entailed,  let  the  reader  take  the 
notes  on  one  or  two  of  the  hymns,  and  he  will  at 
once  see  the  wide  acquaintance  with  the  subject 
and  the  patient  research  among  the  stores,  in  many 
languages,  of  ancient  and  modern  Hymnology,  and 
the  labour  of  verifying  of  authorities  which  it 
reveals.  Take  as  a  specimen  the  very  first — Bishop 
Ken's  morning  hymn,  "  Awake,  my  soul,  and  with 
the  sun."  First  comes  a  sketch  of  the  career  of  the 
saintly  Bishop,  his  birth,  fellowship,  consecration, 
deprivation,  death,  with  places  and  dates.  Then  the 
first  appearance  of  the  hymn,  its  textual  variations, 


and  its  claim  to  originality  discussed.  Or  take  one 
of  the  Latin  hymns,  Pange  lingua  gloriosi  proe- 
lium  certaminis,  for  instance.  Here  we  have  first 
the  translation  by  the  Rev.  Francis  Pott,  and 
subsequent  variations  ;  then  as  it  appears  in  the 
Roman  Missal ;  next,  its  authorship  and  the  correc- 
tion of  Bingham's  error  in  ascribing  it  to  Claudi- 
anus  Mamertus ;  and  lastly,  a  very  interesting  sketch 
of  the  life  of  its  true  author,  Venantius  Fortunatus. 

Think  of  labour  such  as  this  spread  over  nearly 
six  hundred  hymns,  the  later  portion  of  it- written 
amid  the  falling  shadows  of  advancing  life,  at  a 
time  when  the  over-work  of  a  large  suburban 
parish  was  pressing  heavily  upon  him  and  under- 
mining his  health,  at  a  time  too  of  acute  domestic 
bereavement,  and  we  shall  gain  some  idea  of  what 
it  must  have  cost  him  to  produce  this  standard 
work  of  hymnological  research  which,  as  Notes 
and  Illustrations  to  the  Hymns?-  forms  the  intro- 
ductory portion  of  the  magnificent  folio  edition  of 
Church  Hymns  issued  in  1881. 

For  this  Hymnal  eleven  original  hymns  were 
composed,  and  nine  translations. 

1.  "Another  day  begun."     Feb.  13,  1871. 

2.  "  Behold  us,  Lord,  a  little  space."    p.  54. 

3.  "  In  the  Name  which  earth  and  heaven."  p.  57. 

4.  "  King  Messiah,  long  expected."   p.  55. 

5.  "King  of  Saints,  to  Whom  the  number."    p.  56. 

6.  "  Mary  at  the  Master's  feet."    p.  56. 

7.  "  Now  returns  the  awful  morning."    For  Good 

1  It  was  afterwards  proposed  to  publish  these  Notes  in  a 
small  volume  separate  from  the  Hymnal,  which  would  largely 
have  increased  its  usefulness. 


Friday.  Stated  in  Notes  and  Illustrations  to  have 
been  re-written  in  1858  for  a  class  of  school-children 
from  a  hymn  by  Joseph  Anstice,1  and  largely 
altered  for  Church  Hymns.  Verses  3  and  4,  repre- 
senting respectively  Professor  Anstice's  third  and 
second  verses,  are  all  that  is  left  of  the  original,  and 
these  are  much  varied,  so  the  hymn  may  be  placed 
among  Mr.  Ellerton's  original  compositions. 

8.  "O  Lord  of  life  and  death,  we  come."     p.  55. 

9.  "  O  Son  of  God,  our  Captain  of  salvation." 

P.  55- 

10.  "  Thou  in  Whose  Name  the  two  or  three." 
p.  56. 

11.  "We  sing  the  glorious  conquest."     p.  55. 


12.  "Bride  of  Christ,  whose  glorious  warfare." 
Sponsa  Christi  quae  per  orbem.  Considered  by  Mr. 
Mearns  "  one  of  the  finest  of  the  more  recent  French 
Sequences."2  The  author  is  Jean  Baptiste  de 
Contes,  who  became  Dean  of  Paris  in  1647. 

This  fine  All  Saints'  Day  hymn  appears  in  a 
shorter  form  in  Church  Hymns.  It  was  re-cast  in 
1887  with  considerable  variations  and  improve- 
ments for  the  complete  edition  of  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern,  1889,  where  the  original  title  "  Bride 
of  Christ,"  etc.,  is  restored. 

1-  He  became  Professor  of  Classical  Literature  at  King's 
College,  London,  at  the  age  of  22,  and  died  at  Torquay  in 
1836,  aged  28.  (Julian,  Dictionary  of  Hymnology^) 

2  Dictionary  of  Hymnology,  p.  1081.    See  p.  134. 


1 3.  "  From  east  to  west,  from  shore  to  shore." 
A  solis  ortus  cardine.     By  Coelius    Sedulius  (cir. 
450),  a  poet  of  whom  next  to  nothing  is  known, 
save  what  can  be  gathered  from  two  letters.      This 
translation    is  made   from   a   fragment   of  a  long 
alphabetical  poem,  another  cento  from  which  be- 
gins "How  vain  the  cruel  Herod's  fear"  (Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern,  75). 

14.  "  Giver  of  the  perfect  gift."      Summi  largitor 
praemii.   Attributed,  but  without  sufficient  evidence, 
to  St.  Gregory  the  Great. 

*5«  "Joy'  because  the  circling  year."  Beata 
nobis  gaudia.  Ascribed,  but  like  the  last  upon  in- 
sufficient evidence,  to  St.  Hilary  of  Poitiers.  In 
the  Mozarabic  Breviary  it  is  a  Whit-Sunday  hymn. 
Dr.  Hort  was  associated  with  Mr.  Ellerton  in  this 
translation.  1870. 

1 6.  "  Morn  of  morns,  the  best  and  first."      Die 
dierum  omnium.    Based  partly  on  the  translation 
by  the  Rev.  Isaac  Williams.     The  original  Latin 
is  by  Charles  Coffin,  Rector  of  the  University  of 
Paris  (1718).     Most  of  his  hymns  appeared  in  the 
Paris  Breviary  of  1736;  this  one  is  for  Lauds  on 
Sundays  from  Candlemas  to  Septuagesima  (Julian, 
and  Notes  and  Ilhistrations}. 

17.  "  O  Strength  and  Stay,  upholding  all  crea- 
tion."    Rerum  Deus  tenax  vigor.     The  original  has 
been  attributed  to  St.  Ambrose,  but  it  is  not  one  of 
the  twelve  accounted  his  by  the  Benedictine  editors. 
Among  the  translators  of  this  hymn  are  found  the 
names  of  many  of  our  greatest  hymnologists,  but 
this  version  soars  high  above  them  all,  the  second 
stanza  being  inexpressibly  lovely— 


"  Grant  to  life's  day  a  calm  unclouded  ending, 

An  eve  untouch'd  by  shadows  of  decay, 
The  brightness  of  a  holy  death-bed  blending 
With  dawning  glories  of  the  eternal  day." 

The  third  verse  is  original.  This  was  the  closing 
hymn  sung  at  Mr.  Ellerton's  funeral.  1870. 

18.  "Oh  come,  all  ye  faithful."     1871.     Adeste 
fideles,  laeti  triumphantes ;   the    famous  Christmas 

hymn  of  the  Western  Church,  p.  57.  Like  Vent 
Creator  Spiritus  and  many  another  great  hymn, 
the  authorship  is  lost. 

There  is  little  to  choose  between  this  version  and 
what  might  almost  be  called  the  authorized  one  by 
Canon  Oakley  in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern. 
The  metre  is  more  regular,  and  consequently  there 
are  fewer  slurs  in  the  singing. 

19.  "On  this  the  day  when  days  began."     1868. 
Primo   dierum    omnium.      For  early  morning,   on 
Sunday,     p.  48. 

20.  "To  the  Name  that  speaks  salvation."    1871. 
"The   Name   of  Jesus"    (Aug.    17).     This    Com- 
memoration was  removed  at  the  Reformation  from 
the  Second  Sunday  after  the  Epiphany  to  Aug.  7.1 
p.  59. 

In  addition  to  these  twenty  hymns  and  trans- 
lations written  for  this  Hymnal,  it  contains  six 
previously  composed,  but  published  now  for  the 
first  time  in  a  collection,  and  thirteen  previously 
published — thirty-nine  in  all,  no  small  contribution 
from  one  individual  pen. 

1  Blunt's  Annotated  Prayer-book. 


IN  1877  an  intimation  reached  Mr.  Ellerton, 
through  a  friend,  that  Mrs.  Carey  Brock,  to  whom 
the  acting  editorship  of  the  new  Children  s  Hymn- 
Book  had  been  entrusted,  was  anxious  to  consult 
him  with  regard  to  its  compilation.  He  immedi- 
ately wrote  to  that  lady,  not  only  placing  at  her 
service  any  of  his  own  hymns,  but  also  offering 
any  help  he  could  give  in  the  preparation  of  this 
important  work. 

This  branch  of  hymnody  was  by  no  means  new 
to  him.  Even  when  curate  of  Brighton  he  had 
compiled  his  Hymns  for  Schools  and  Bible  Classes, 
and  while  at  Hinstock  had  joined  Canon  Walsham 
How  in  editing  for  the  Society  for  Promoting 
Christian  Knowledge  their  Children's  Hymns,  con- 
tributing to  it  seven  hymns  of  his  own. 

It  need  hardly  be  said  that  this  offer  of  assist- 
ance was  as  gratefully  accepted  as  it  was  generously 
made.  He  had  offered  to  take  the  subordinate 
part  of  examining  such  hymns  as  might  be  sub- 
mitted to  him  and  offering  suggestions,  but  the 
proprietors  knew  his  value  too  well  not  to  covet 
for  the  book  his  co-operation,  as  one  of  the  revisers 
in  conjunction  with  Bishops  Walsham  How  and 


Oxenden.  In  reply  to  this  request  he  writes — 
"  When  you  did  me  the  favour  to  write  to  me  about 
your  very  important  and  interesting  work,  and  I 
expressed  my  willingness  to  help,  I  did  not  think 
of  your  naming  me  as  one  of  the  publicly  avowed 
revisers,  and  I  should  perhaps  have  shrunk  both 
from  the  honour  and  the  responsibility  of  the  task. 
All  I  thought  was,  that  as  I  happen  to  have  a 
pretty  large  collection  of  children's  hymns,  and 
some  little  experience,  I  might  have  been  able  to 
add  to  your  materials,  and  to  suggest  gaps  for 
filling  up.  However,  I  will  not  draw  back  now,  as 
you  are  pleased  to  wish  me  to  occupy  so  difficult 
a  post." 

One  of  the  first  things  to  decide  in  the  compila- 
tion of  the  work  was  what  age  of  childhood  was  to 
be  provided  for  by  it,  and  on  this  point  Mr.  Eller- 
ton's  opinion  was  quite  clear.  "  I  am  quite  of  your 
mind,"  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Carey  Brock,  "  that  we  do 
not  want  it  to  be  a  book  of  baby  hymns,  still  less 
of  hymns  written  down  for  'infant  minds'  by 
people  who  are  well-meaning,  but  do  not  under- 
stand children.  By  all  means  have  a  large  infusion 
of  strong  and  vigorous  hymns  such  as  are  generally 
used  in  church  ;  so  long  as  the  sentiments  they  con- 
vey are  such  as  children  can  be  expected  to  appreciate. 
If  you  do  not  make  that  limitation  what  is  the 
raison  d'etre  of  a  children's  book  as  distinguished 
on  the  one  hand  from  an  infant  book,  and  on  the 
other  from  an  adult  book?  "  In  another  letter  he 
says — "  I  think  that  you  will  be  obliged  to  fix  a 
limit,  say,  the  usual  age  for  Confirmation,  and 
determine  not  to  have  a  hymn  that  is  above  the 


comprehension  or  beyond  the  spiritual  experience 
(which  \sfar  more  important)  of  the  average  Con- 
firmation candidate.  I  know,  of  course,  that  many 
young  people,  especially  well-educated  girls,  enjoy 
at  thirteen  or  fourteen  such  hymns  as  'Lead, 
kindly  Light,'  or  '  Abide  with  me,'  or  '  Lord  of 
our  life,  and  God  of  our  salvation,'  but  the  question 
is  rather,  Are  these  hymns  good  to  be  put  before 
the  average  child,  even  at  fourteen  ?  Well-educated 
(I  mean  spiritually  well-educated)  girls  can  get  the 
books  in  which  these  hymns  are  to  be  found.  But 
to  me  it  is  simple  misery  to  hear  a  noisy  Sunday 
School  singing  '  Abide  with  me ' — I  don't  mean 
a  class  of  upper  girls ;  I  know  there  are  many 
exceptions.  So  there  are  with  adults.  I  knew  a 
costermonger's  wife  who  was  sustained  through  a 
terrible  operation  by  repeating  to  herself  over  and 
over  again  Novalis' x  wondrous  hymn,  *  What  had 
I  been  if  Thou  wert  not ; '  but  it  does  not  follow 
that  I  should  put  the  hymn  in  a  book  for  the 

As  the  report  of  the  forthcoming  book  spread 
many  persons  volunteered  their  effusions,  which 
Mr.  Ellerton  characterized  as  "  some  of  them  valu- 
able in  themselves,  but  unreal  for  children  ;  others, 
and  these  the  worst,  written  for  children  by  people 
who  desire  that  children  should  undergo  certain 
religious  experiences,  easily  simulated,  but  most 
perilous  to  the  simplicity  and  honesty  of  their 
relations  with  God."  "  I  think,"  he  writes,  "  many 

1  This  was  the  nom  de  plume  of  G.  F.  Philipp  von  Harden- 
berg,  d.  1801.  The  translation  is  by  Miss  Winkworth 
(James  Mearns,  Diet,  of  Hymnology\ 


a  hymn  not  meant  for  children  would  not  be  at  all 
out  of  place  in  your  book.  The  only  difficulty 
about  these  is  that  you  must  suppose  children  will 
use  the  hymn-book  ordinarily  and  in  the  church 
they  attend,  and  so  become  familiar  with  many 
hymns  they  will  love  all  their  lives ;  and  you  want 
the  space  for  hymns  which  deal  especially  with  the 
thoughts  and  ways  of  young  people,  and  give  them 
the  spiritual  help  to  realize  and  to  love  Divine 
things,  which  at  their  time  of  life,  and  with  the 
temptations  of  opening  life,  they  really  need." 

At  last,  in  1881,  after  years  of  thought  and 
labour  and  prayer,  the  book  was  published.  The 
Preface,  written  by  Mr.  Ellerton  himself,  embodies 
many  expressions  we  have  already  met  with  in  his 
letters.  In  it  he  writes  as  follows  : — "  The  object 
of  this  collection  is  to  provide  a  hymnal  for  the 
young,  in  which,  whilst  a  high  standard  of  excel- 
lence and  a  healthy  religious  tone  are  preserved, 
every  hymn  shall  be,  as  regards  the  sentiments 
conveyed  and  the  expressions  used,  within  their 
possible  experience,  and,  as  far  as  may  be,  within 
their  comprehension.  In  adhering  to  this  rule,  the 
compilers  have  necessarily  been  obliged  to  exclude 
from  their  pages  many  hymns  which,  however 
valuable  and  beautiful  in  themselves,  it  would  be 
impossible  for  children  to  use  without  a  simulation 
of  religious  experience  dangerous  to  the  simplicity 
and  truthfulness  of  their  relations  with  God.  At 
the  same  time,  they  have  not  forgotten  the  necessity 
of  making  children  familiar -in  childhood  with  such 
hymns  as  they  can  love  and  value  all  their  lives." 

Such   labour,    such   learning,  such    research,   so 


much  prayerful  thought  bestowed  by  Mr.  Ellerton 
and  his  fellow  revisers  upon  The  Children's  Hymn- 
Book  have  been  abundantly  rewarded.  The  work 
was  immediately  recognized  as  supplying  a  want 
long  felt  in  the  Church.  The  latest  and  highest 
authority  on  the  subject,  Julian's  Dictionary  of 
Hymnology,  says  it  "has  at  once  taken  the  leading 
place  among  Church  books,  and  contains  not  only 
the  best  hymns  hitherto  published,  but  new  hymns, 
some  of  which  are  of  equal  value." 


IN  addition  to  the  laborious  and  difficult  task  of 
acting  as  reviser,  we  might  almost  say  editor,  of  the 
foregoing  important  hymnals,  Church  Hymns,  and 
the  Children's  Hymn-Book,  Mr.  Ellerton's  opinion 
and  advice  were  much  sought  by  the  compilers 
of  other  books.  At  this  time  the  Rev.  Prebendary 
Godfrey  Thring  was  preparing  for  publication  his 
Church  of  England  Hymn-Book,  and  many  were 
the  letters  which  passed  between  the  two  poets 
with  regard  to  it.  It  is  true  that  Mr.  Ellerton  had 
no  hand  in  the  construction  of  the  work,  for,  as 
Mr.  Thring  tells  me,  the  whole  book  was  entirely 
thought  out  and  finished  before  he  saw  it,  he  seeing 
only  the  proof  copy  just  before  it  was  published, 
and  too  late  to  make  any  alteration  in  it.  As 
specimens  of  the  correspondence  between  the  two 
friends,  the  two  subjoined  letters  are  interesting, 
the  one  showing  the  high  value  which  Mr.  Thring 
placed  upon  his  friend's  criticisms,  the  other  con- 
taining the  writer's  estimate  of  some  well-known 
hymns,  and  of  one  of  his  own. 


"  Hornblotton  Rectory, 
"  Castle  Gary,  Somerset. 
"  Oct.  17,  1879- 


"  Oh  dear  !  I  am  inclined  to  say.  I  wish  I 
could  have  shown  you  the  proof-sheets  before  the 
work  had  gone  so  far,  for  some  of  your  remarks 
are  very  valuable,  and  you  cannot  think  how  I 
appreciate  your  kindness  in  taking  all  the  trouble 
you  have  done,  and  even  now  I  shall  be  able  to  do 
something  towards  repairing  some  of  the  omissions. 
But  unfortunately  Skeffington  sent  out  his  circular 
stating  '  This  day,'  etc.,  so  that,  as  he  says,  he  is 
receiving  daily  orders  for  specimen  copies  and 
cannot  supply  them,  and  is  urging  me  on  to  publish 
at  once,  and  this  is  impossible,  for  even  now,  with 
all  the  revisions  that  it  has  been  through,  there  are 
heaps  of  blunders,  and  in  my  state  of  health  I  am 
overburdened.  This  morning  I  have  difficulty  in 
gathering  my  thoughts.  The  book,  however,  is 
gone  so  far  that  I  cannot  put  in  or  omit  hymns 
now  without  incurring  too  great  an  expense,  unless 
I  can  manage  to  get  them  into  the  same  space.  I 
will  go  through  some  of  your  chief  criticisms  as 
well  as  I  can. 

"  First — morning  hymns.  I  see  I  have  marked 
some  of  the  hymns  you  mention,  and  am  very  sorry 
that  I  did  not  put  in  6  (Wesley's),  '  Forth  in  Thy 
Name.'  I  hardly  know  how  I  came  to  omit  this  ; 
only  for  the  last  three  or  four  years  I  have  had  to 
move  about  in  search  of  health,  and  at  one  time  I 
found  that  I  had  mislaid  or  lost  several  selected 
hymns,  and  I  always  feared  lest  I  might  have  lost 


some  of  importance,  and  I  rather  think  this  must 
have  been  one  of  them.  The  other  two  (3  and  5) 
I  might  have  had,  but  I  have  a  large  selection,  and 
I  do  not  think  have  lost  much  here.  815,  Kennedy's 
Hymnologia,  I  have  referred  to,  and  find  that  I  have 
cut  out  some  hymn,  and  with  it  all  but  the  first  verse 
of  the  above;  but  that  I  do  not  think  much  of,  if  the 
rest  of  the  hymn  is  not  of  a  higher  standard. 

"  24.  It  is  too  late  now  to  revert  to  (  Towards 
the  eve.'  You  are  right,  though,  the  other  reads 
better.  I  fear  I  did  not  compare  this  with  Chandler  ; 
I  could  only  get  a  copy  lent  me  for  a  time. 

"  26.  You  are  quite  right  about  '  wishing '  being 
the  consequence,  not  the  cause.  Perhaps  you  are 
rather  hard  in  some  of  your  other  remarks  on  the 
poetic  mind  !  Still  I  had  perhaps  better  have 
omitted  the  hymn  altogether  ;  but  again,  too  late. 

"42.  I  cannot  recollect  having  shortened  this 
hymn.  I  fancy  you  must  have  sent  me  this  in 
MS.,  otherwise  I  do  not  know  how  I  got  it  ;  but 
how  came  it  to  be  altered  in  Church  Hymns  ?  I 
hope  I  have  the  proper  text,  for  it  is  better  than 
that  in  Church  Hymns.  I  have  made  a  note  of 
your  alterations  ;  it  is  a  beautiful  hymn,  one  of  if 
not  your  best. 

"  '  Alleluia  !  fairest  morning,'  C/i.  Hymns  38.  A 
good  hymn,  but  I  fear  it  is  too  late,  and  I  have, 
I  think,  a  very  good  and  sufficient  selection  for 
Sundays.  I  should,  however,  have  inserted  it  had 
I  known  it  sooner.  You  do  not  state  who  it  is  by.1 

1  It  is  a  translation  from  Hymns  from  the  Land  of  Luther. 
The  original  is  by  Jonathan  Krause  (Diet,  of  Hymnology, 
P-  633). 


It  is  not,  however,  of  sufficient  consequence  to  pay 
a  large  sum  to  admit  it  now. 

"  85.  '  Gird  thee  at  the  martyr's  shrine.'  You 
are  rather  hard  upon  this.  I  don't  think  that  we 
need  be  quite  as  realistic  as  your  sarcastic  remarks 
would  imply. 

"$8.  Litanies  are  difficult  matters.  I  thought 
myself  fortunate  in  getting  one  on  each  of  the 
most  desirable  subjects  that  were  not  rubbish.  If 
people  require  more  there  are  plenty  of  penny 
books,  such  as  Pollock's  (his  is  the  best),  and  none 
others  that  I  have  seen  come  up  to  the  literary 
standard  which  I  fixed  in  my  own  mind  .  .  .  -1 
Only  those  who,  like  myself,  have  tried,  can  have 
any  idea  of  the  labour  of  such  an  undertaking.  I 
hope  you  will  appreciate  the  Indexes,  for  those  are 
a  work  of  themselves. 

"  Ever  very  truly  yours, 


"  The  Rectory,  Barnes, 
"Feb.  10,  1881. 


"  My  conduct  to  you  has  been  perfectly 
disgraceful,  and  no  apology  can  cover  it.  But  I 
have  been  very  busy  with  my  two  bantlings,  Church 
Hymns  and  the  Children  s  Hymn-Book,  which  are 
both  just  ripe  for  publication,  and  will  be  out,  I 
suspect,  simultaneously. 

"Well,   now  to  your  letters.      You  were  quite 
right  to  abuse  my  Purification   Hymn  ;  I  know  it 
is  very  bad.    Don't  be  angry  with  me  for  not  doing 
1  Part  of  this  letter  is  lost. 


an  Easter  Eucharistic  Hymn  ;  I  always  use  (and 
rejoice  in)  '  At  the  Lamb's  high  feast  we  sing ; '  but 
even  without  that  I  could  not  add  a  mediocre  one 
to  the  stock  of  really  fine  Easter  hymns  we  possess. 
Don't  you  like  the  rough  force  too  of  Luther's 
'  Christ  Jesus  lay  in  Death's  strong  bands '  ?  I  do 
think  that  is  so  full  of  Easter  life  and  joy  and 
strength ! 

"  I  don't  know  anything  about  F.  S.  Pierpont * 
(so  spelt,  I  think)  except  as  a  contributor  to  Orby 
Shipley's  Lyra  Eucharistica,  and  a  layman.  If 
you  have  Lyra  Eucharistica,  and  intend  to  use  *  For 
the  beauty  of  the  earth/  look  at  it  as  it  is  there. 
The  text  in  Church  Hymns  is  very  corrupt.  But 
I  added  nothing  ;  Compton,  I  think,  sent  us  the 
hymn.  Unluckily  I  have  not  got  the  enlarged 
edition  of  Lyra  Eucharistica^  and  it  is  not  in  the 

"  I  don't  think  C.  Wesley's  hymn  you  enclose  is 
one  of  the  very  best,  it  seems  to  me  rather  heavy, 
and  lacking  in  vitality — an  unusual  fault  with  his 
earlier  hymns.  But  very  likely  I  may  be  prejudiced 
by  my  liking  for  some  of  his  other  Eucharistic 

"  The  doxology  to  '  Angels  from  the  realms  of 
glory'  we  took  from  Chope's  Book  of  Carols ;  I 
thought  it  was  a  good  finish  to  the  hymn. 

"  I  like  rather  the '  Alleluia  dulce  carmen  '  coming 
before  Septuagesima.  For  though,  of  course,  the 
change  does  not  really  come  till  Lent,  there  always 
has  been  a  subordinate  change  at  Septuagesima. 

1  F.  S.  Pierpoint,  author  of  the  favourite  hymn,  "  For  the 
beauty  of  the  earth,"  Children's  Hymn-Book,  256. 


The  Christmas  cycle  of  festivals  comes  to  an  end 
with  Purification,  and  of  Sundays  with  the  last 
after  Epiphany.  Then  the  days  are  reckoned 
backwards  from  Easter.  Septuagesima  is  a  new 
start,  and  in  places  where  they  change  altar-cloths 
I  suppose  the  Lenten  colours  always  begin  at 
Septuagesima ;  and  it  seems  to  me  the  hymns 
ought  to  be  arranged  on  a  similar  cycle.  Historic- 
ally, too,  the  hymn  is  a  memorial  of  the  fact  that 
'  Alleluia '  was  discontinued  when  Septuagesima 
began  ;  the  substitute  being  '  Praise  ye,'  etc.  A 
curious  thing,  by  the  way,  that  the  Hebrew  words 
should  have  to  our  fathers  a  festal  ring  about  them 
which  the  vernacular  translation  did  not  have.  But 
I  suppose  it  was  the  association  with  the  triumphal 
songs  of  Revelation. 

"  I  am  so  very  sorry  to  hear  of  your  watery 
calamities.  We  have  been  comparatively  unscathed, 
not  quite,  but  nearly  so.  Kind  remembrances 
to  all. 

"  Ever  yours  sincerely, 


The  CJiurch  of  England  Hymn-Book,  adapted  to 
tJie  Daily  Services  of  the  Church  throughout  the 
Year,  was  published  in  1882.  Dr.  Julian  speaks 
of  it  in  terms  of  the  highest  commendation,  higher 
indeed  than  of  any  of  its  competitors ;  and  had  not 
Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  been  before  it  in  the 
field,  and  already  taken  deep  root,  it  is  more  than 
possible  that  Mr.  Thring's  book  would  have  become 
the  leading  Hymnal  in  the  Church  of  England. 

It  has  been  seen,  then,  that  between  1876  and 



1884,  that  is,  the  eight  years  of  his  residence  at 
Barnes,  Mr.  Ellerton  completed  Church  Hymns, 
with  its  Notes  and  Illustrations ;  the  Children  s 
Hymn-Book ;  to  say  nothing  of  the  assistance  he 
rendered  to  other  hymnals,  especially  the  Hymnal 
Companion  and  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern.  When 
it  is  remembered  that  all  this,  and  much  more,  was 
done,  not  in  the  quiet  leisure  of  some  cathedral 
close,  or  even  of  a  country  living,  but  amid  the 
incessant  calls  and  interruptions  of  a  populous 
suburban  parish,  where  the  writer  of  these  lines 
was  his  only  curate,  entailing  long  night  vigils,  for 
the  day  gave  him  but  scant  time  for  literary  work, 
it  is  no  marvel  that  at  last  he  broke  down  under 
the  burden.  A  severe  attack  of  pleurisy  in  the 
cold  spring  of  1884  completely  prostrated  him,  and 
for  a  time  the  issue  was  very  doubtful.  By  God's 
mercy,  however,  he  rose  from  his  bed  of  danger, 
but  he  knew  that  he  could  no  longer  work  as  he 
had  worked.  He  resigned  the  Rectory  of  Barnes, 
and  leaving  England  in  the  autumn,  sought  rest 
and  health  first  at  Veytaux,  near  Chillon,  over- 
looking the  lake  of  Geneva,  finally  accepting  the 
winter  chaplaincy  of  Pegli. 


1884,  1885 

Veytaux — Pegli — An  Italian  Poor-House 

IN  the  autumn  of  1884  Mr.  Ellerton  left  England 
to  seek  rest  and  recreation  in  Switzerland.  His 
first  stay  was  at  Veytaux  at  the  extreme  eastern 
end  of  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  near  Montreux,  to  the 
winter  chaplaincy  of  which  he  had  been  appointed 
by  the  S.  P.  G.  There,  amid  lovely  scenery,  and 
health-restoring  breezes  from  mountain  and  lake, 
he  soon  recovered  much  of  his  former  strength  and 
cheerfulness.  With  the  burden  of  Barnes  off  his 
shoulders,  and  feeling  that  his  many  years  of  un- 
remitting labours  in  hymnology  were  bearing  good 
fruit  in  Church  Hymns  and  the  Children's  Hymn- 
Book,  both  of  which  had  been  successfully  launched, 
he  felt  that  he  had  earned  his  holiday,  and  was 
determined  to  enjoy  it  thoroughly. 

His  first  impressions  of  Veytaux  may  be  gathered 
from  the  following  extract  from  a  letter  to  one  of 
his  sons  at  home : — "  As  for  the  walks,  they  are 
endless,  and  ever  fresh  in  deliciousness.  Each  day 
reveals  some  new  vision  of  mountain  glory,  and  the 


very  road  into  Montreux  is  never  twice  alike.  More- 
over, there  are  charming  groups  of  picturesque 
chalets,  fountains,  wood,  and  rock  at  every  turn  ;  but 
to  say  that  is  only  to  say  that  this  is  Switzerland. 
There  is,  too,  a  novelty  about  all  manners  and 
customs  that  is  always  amusing.  The  people  are 
neither  bureau-ridden  nor  priest-ridden,  nor  drilled 
into  obedience  ;  there  is  a  curious  *  Fais-ce-que-voul- 
dras '  way  of  doing  among  them,  and  yet  a  great  deal 
of  accuracy  and  regularity  in  all  business  matters, 
which  I  suppose  finds  its  parallel  in  America,  but 
which  is  new  to  me  :  e.g.  Chillon  is  the  *  Wands- 
worth  Gaol '  of  the  canton  ;  but  being  also  a '  Tower 
of  London/  and  a  great  show  place,  people  walk  in 
and  out  from  morning  till  night,  and  especially  on 
Sundays,  when  all  nationalities  lounge  into  the 
prison  chapel  when  service  is  going  on.  One  of 
the  'prisoners  of  Chillon/  probably  a  Swiss  Mr. 
Sykes,  objected  to  attending  church  in  consequence 
of  not  liking  his  'uniform'  to  be  noticed  by 
strangers  ;  whereupon  the  Governor  considerately 
lent  him  a  Sunday  suit !  " 

The  following  charming  letter  will  also  be  read 
with  interest ;  it  is  Veytaux  seen  through  a  poet's 
eyes  : — 

"  Veytaux,  Oct.  28,  1884. 

"  MY  DEAR  

".  .  .  .  As  to  the  place  itself,  it  is  inde- 
scribable. How  can  I  give  you  an  impression  of 
these  hills  of  the  Chablais,  St.  Francis  de  Sales'  old 
diocese — the  '  Alps  of  Savoy '  as  they  have  been 
called,  which  confront  me  every  time  I  lift  my 
eyes  from  the  paper ;  and  which,  whether  glowing 


in  the  morning  sun, or  veiled  and  wreathed  with  folds 
of  soft  white  cloud,  or  gleaming  in  the  moonlight,  or 
dark  and  stern  with  their  tempest-scarred  precipices 
and  streaks  and  sheets  of  snow,  are  ever  changing, 
ever  beautiful,  ever  fresh  to  us  ?  How  can  I  tell  you 
of  the  view  up  the  lake,  with  colours  indescribable — 
the  grey  old  castle  rising  sheer  out  of  the  bluest  of 
water,  with  little  white  waves  washing  its  walls — 
the  wooded  hills,  in  such  hues  of  scarlet,  purple, 
crimson,  and  gold  as  no  paint-brush  could  draw — 
the  stern  pine-clad  ridge  behind — the  Rhone 
valley  opening  up  at  the  head  of  the  lake,  with  the 
central  distance  filled  with  the  most  beautiful  of  all 
the  mountains,  the  seven-topped  '  mystery,'  wonder- 
ful *  Dent  du  Midi  '  ?  How  can  I  draw  to  you  the 
strange  contrast  as  we  turn  to  the  right,  and  look 
westward  down  the  lake,  of  vineyard  and  white 
villas,  and  spires,  and  chalets  hanging  on  the  green 
hill-side,  sunny  smiling  land  edging  the  great  lake 
far  into  the  dim  distance,  where  we  just  catch  the 
long  grey  ridge  of  the  Jura — the  barrier  that  parts 
us  from  the  north,  and  home,  and  all  familiar 
things  ?  Or  how  can  I  tell  you  of  the  hundreds  of 
bits  of  beauty  which  every  walk  opens  out,  quaint 
villages  with  their  chalets  hanging  one  above 
another,  women  nursing  their  babies  in  the  carved 
wooden  balconies,  or  carrying  them  strapped  to  a 
pillow  in  the  glory  of  their  Sunday  best — the  road- 
side fountains  with  their  tiny  troughs  of  ever- 
running  and  deliciously  clear  water,  with  two  or 
three  old  cronies  gossiping  and  washing  their  linen 
around  them  ;  the  old  church  on  a  magnificent 
rock,  which  goes  sheer  down  from  the  churchyard 


wall ;  its  churchyard  planted  beautifully,  and  with 
seats  commanding — oh  !  such  a  view  ;  the  roses  and 
fuchsias  and  scarlet  salvias  still  in  full  bloom,  in  the 
many  gardens  which  hang  on  the  hill-side.  No,  it 
is  only  heaping  words  together  that  mean  nothing. 
I  don't  think  I  can  make  any  one  fancy  it. 

"  I  send  you  the  French  hymn l  which  I  have 
copied  out  from  the  hymn-book  used  in  the 
Swiss  National  Church  of  this  canton.  It  is  by 
Vinet,  the  greatest  man  by  far  of  modern  French 
and  Swiss  Protestantism,  whose  words,  you  may 
remember,  are  the  striking  motto  of  Maurice's 
Theological  Essays.  It  was  a  great  comfort  to 
me  when  I  found  it  on  my  arrival  here,  very 
depressed  and  weary,  hardly  able  to  find  comfort 
even  from  Nature,  in  the  glory  which  she  wears 

here.     K has  heard  from  C ,  who  seems  to 

be  full  of  the  influence  of  that  wonderful  Rome. 
Shall  I  ever  see  it  ?  I  don't  know.  Even  St.  Paul 
wanted  to  '  see  Rome.'  " 

From  Veytaux  he  was  summoned,  evidently 
much  against  his  will,  to  take  the  winter  chaplaincy 
at  Pegli,  near  Genoa.  The  following  characteristic 
letter  to  his  friend,  Professor  Henry  Attwell  of 
Barnes,  shows  that  although  he  would  rather  have 
stayed  at  Veytaux,  he  was  quite  disposed  to  make 
the  best  of  and  enjoy  to  the  utmost  his  new 
surroundings.  To  be  on  Italian  ground  was  a  new 
experience  to  him,  and  with  his  mind  so  full  as  it 
was  of  power  to  appreciate  everything  that  was 

1  Beginning,  "  Pourquoi  reprendre,  O  Pere  tendre, 
Les  biens  dont  Tu  nvas  couronne  ?  " 


beautiful  in  nature  and  art,  and  every  historical 
association,  it  is  no  wonder  that  when  once  settled, 
he  enjoyed  the  change  thoroughly. 

"  Casa  Puppo,  Pegli,  Gcnova,  Italia, 

"/an.  21,  1885. 


"  The  snowstorm  which  has  blocked 
Mont  Cenis  has  not  only  kept  our  children  from 
joining  us,  but  has  kept  us  for  some  days  separate 
from  all  English  letters  and  papers.  Last  night, 
however,  a  telegram  reached  us  from  Veytaux,  and 
I  hope  that  this  letter  will  make  its  way  to  you  in 
a  day  or  two  without  unusual  delay.  Let  it  bring 
you  not  only  all  good  wishes  for  1885,  but  most 
cordial  thanks  to  you  for  your  most  welcome  New 
Year's  letter,  and  for  the  valued  MS.  from  Max 
Miiller,  which  has  caused  you  so  much  kind  trouble  ; 
and  of  which  more  anon. 

"You  will  be  glad  to  hear  that  we  are  safely 
lodged  on  a  '  piano  '  in  a  respectable  Italian  house, 
not  exactly  in  sight  of  the  Mediterranean,  at  least 
not  on  its  shore,  but  in  full  southern  sunshine,  and 
with  many  elements  of  interest  and  enjoyment. 
We  have  pretty  views  both  of  the  sea  and  the 
Apennines  from  the  Piano  above.  The  S.  P.  G. 
Secretary  summoned  me  hither  in  rather  a  head- 
long way  from  Veytaux,  and  at  first  there  was 
everything  to  make  the  contrast  emphatically 
disagreeable.  We  came  from  those  ever-delightful 
mountains  to  the  suburbs  of  a  busy  Italian  city,1 
from  chalets  picturesque  in  spite  of  themselves, 
1  i.  c.  Genoa. 


where  every  shed  and  every  fountain  was  a  picture, 
to  rows  of  hideously-painted  and  colour-washed 
tall  houses  ;  from  a  very  happy  and  congenial 
group  of  English  exiles,  whom  Christmas  had 
drawn  together  into  a  very  pleasant  intimacy,  to  a 
huge  barrack  of  a  German  hotel,  built  for  some 
hundred  and  twenty,  and  holding  only  the  odd 
twenty,  among  whom  we  were  literally  the  only 
English— I  had  almost  said  the  only  English- 
speaking  people,  but  for  some  pleasant  Dutch  folk 
who  took  to  us  rather  than  the  Germans,  and  talked 
English  to  us  ;  from  a  large  congregation  in  church 
and  cheerful  services  to  a  little  empty  church 
of  our  own.  But  all  that  is  over ;  and  the 
gloomy  weather,  which  made  us  feel  as  if  the 
Sea  of  all  history  met  us  with  a  scowl,  has  given 
place  to  .sunshine,  which,  despite  the  '  tramontana,' 
makes  us  feel  that  we  are  south  of  the  Alps.  And 
as  all  our  strange  surroundings  become  by  degrees 
familiar,  we  feel  that  it  is  quite  possible  we  may 
grow  so  to  like  them  as  to  be  quite  sorry  when  we 
have  to  leave.  Genoa  itself  is  irresistible  in  its 
attractions  ;  the  talk  about  its  dazzling  beauty  may 
be  rather  *  tall,'  and  its  palazzi  may  represent  a 
good  deal  of  tasteless  luxury ;  but  still  there  they 
are,  these  streets  of  marble  buildings,  all  teeming 
to  this  hour  with  busy  life  ;  for  the  great  names 
of  past  Genoese  history  are  still  to-day  the  names 
of  men  who  build  factories,  launch  ships,  speculate 
on  companies,  and  amass  wealth  to  an  extent 
which  rivals  what  one  hears  of  American  million- 
aires. And  really  if  Jay  Gould  lived  in  a  house  built 
for  his  family  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  days,  hung  with 


portraits  by  Van  Dyck  of  seventeenth  century 
Goulds,  one  might — inconsistently  perhaps,  but  ex- 
cusably— think  his  money-making  a  little  more  re- 
spectable. But  anyhow  Italy — at  least  this  Northern 
Italy — is  all  alive.  People  who  have  known  it  for 
thirty  years  say  the  change  is  simply  marvellous. 
The  beggary,  the  rags,  the  bare  feet,  the  lazy 
lounging,  the  filth  of  which  one  has  heard — I  rub 
my  eyes  and  ask  where  they  are  ?  On  an  average 
one  meets  two  beggars  a  day ;  everybody  has 
good  boots  and  stockings ;  there  are  handsome 
State  schools  close  to  this,  filled  with  children — 
schools  where  at  stated  hours  the  clergy  are  allowed 
to  teach.  Our  lodgings  are  delightfully  clean — 
1  heating '  quite  superfluous  !  the  cookery  better 
than  at  Veytaux,  and  I  don't  think  that  six  francs 
per  head  a  day,  which  includes  two  bottles  of 
excellent  wine,  is  extortionate.  Of  course  there 
are  drawbacks  ;  the  villas  of  the  rich,  and  the  big 
barracks  of  houses  in  which  the  working  people 
live  are  more  hideous  than  can  be  conceived  ;  the 
universal  practice  of  hanging  out  of  window  all  day 
every  shred  of  clothing  not  on  the  person  is  whole- 
some, but  not  even  picturesque  ;  and  of  course  one's 
nose  is  occasionally  as  much  annoyed  as  one's 
eyes.  And  Pegli  is  not  exactly  a  Paradise,  though 
my  church  is  overshadowed  by  a  palm  instead  of  a 
yew-tree,  and  oranges  hang  from  the  trees  in  every 
cottage  garden  in  golden  glory.  I  hope  we  shall  be 
very  happy  when  we  are  all  together  again, till  we  are 
released  from  duty  here,  and  perhaps  enabled  to  take 
one  peep  at  Florence  before  coming  north  again. 
"  I  was  saddened  and  shocked  at  the  instant  of 


leaving  Veytaux  by  the  news  of  Bishop  Jackson's 
sudden  death,  for  all  my  personal  recollections  of 
him  are  most  happy.  Inconspicuous  as  a  public 
man,  he  yet  won  the  deep  respect  of  men  like 
Tait  and  Lightfoot,  indeed  something  like  enthu- 
siastic affection  from  the  latter,  and  in  his  home 
circle,  and  among  his  neighbours,  he  always 
seemed  a  most  perfect  Christian  gentleman.  I 
wish  the  Premier  well  over  his  hard  task  of  selecting 
his  successor ;  perhaps  by  this  time  it  is  all  over. 

"  I  have  very  much  enjoyed  the  extracts  from 
Max  Miiller  which  you  have  been  good  enough  to 
copy  for  me.  The  tribute  to  Stanley  is  touching 
and  interesting,  and  I  am  sure  describes  what  he 
was  from  Max  Muller's  point  of  view.  The  earlier 
letter  is  also  most  interesting.  All  such  papers 
help  one  to  understand  and  to  love  many  who  are 
far  off  from  us  now  in  thought,  but  who  will  doubt- 
less one  day  come  from  East  and  West  and  sit 
down  at  the  Eternal  Feast  of  the  Kingdom  of 
God,  while  some  of  us  children  of  the  Kingdom 
find  ourselves  in  darkness  after  all.  If  I  fail  to  see 
that  Max  Miiller  realizes  the  absolute  uniqueness 
of  our  Lord,  a  uniqueness  which  I  think  myself 
nothing  but  the  Catholic  hypothesis  accounts  for, 
yet  I  feel  he  has  grasped  some  of  the  leading 
ideas  of  Christ's  teaching  as  to  the  Father  and 
Himself,  with  a  force  all  the  more  striking  because 
he  approaches  the  question  from  his  own  special 
point  of  view,  that  of  the  historian  of  religious 
ideas.  And  he  is  right  about  the  perpetual  danger 
of  orthodox  people  lapsing  into  Tritheism,  as  well 
as  about  the  unreality  and  baseness  of  much 


orthodox  devotional  language  addressed  to  Christ, 
language  which  paves  the  way  for  parallel  addresses 
to  Mary,  such  as  In  te  salus  nostra  est,  which  is 
under  a  crowned  Madonna  not  many  yards  from 
this  house.  This  comes  of  forgetting  the  teaching 
of  Christ's  own  prayer. 

"  With  love  to  Mrs.  Attwell  and  all  your  circle, 
'<  Believe  me  ever,  my  dear  Professor, 
"  Affectionately  yours, 


"  Scraps  from  London  papers  always  most 
welcome — above  all  in  this  land." 

The  following  beautiful  poem — not  a  hymn  in 
the  strict  sense  of  the  word — included  in  his  Hymns 
Original  and  Translated,  is  inserted  here  as  show- 
ing how  his  heart  overflowed  with  love  and  gratitude 
to  his  Heavenly  Master  for  the  rest  and  peace  he 
was  enjoying. 


Here  in  this  peaceful  time  and  place  of  rest, 

I  lift  my  thoughts,  dear  Master,  unto  Thee ; 

Seeking  in  calm  repose  upon  Thy  breast 

Some  gracious  pledge  that  Thou  art  come  with  me. 

Thou  too  hast  known  the  thronging  of  the  crowd, 
The  '  many  coming '  as  the  hours  went  by, 
The  weary  head  in  deep  exhaustion  bowed, 
The  broken  sleep,  the  sudden  midnight  cry. 

All  these  were  Thine,  O  Bearer  of  our  woes  ; 
No  rest  for  Thee  our  suffering  manhood  gave  ; 
Through  Thy  three  years  no  leisure  for  repose, 
Till  that  last  Sabbath  in  Thy  garden-grave  ! 


Yet  Thy  compassion  knows  my  feebler  frame, 
Mine  is  the  rest  my  Master  would  not  take  ; 
And  if  my  work  indeed  be  in  Thy  Name, 
These  quiet  hours  are  hallowed  for  Thy  sake. 

Thou  art  with  me  ;  as  when  Thy  Twelve  returned 
And  poured  their  tale  of  labours  at  Thy  Feet, 
Thy  pitying  Eye  their  weariness  discerned. 
Thy  Love  provided  them  some  still  retreat. 

With  Thee  they  climbed  the  gorge  whence  Jordan  falls, 
Saw  Hermon's  snowpeaks  glow  with  dawn's  red  fire, 
And  watched,  beneath  the  heathen's  broken  walls, 
The  blue  sea  whitening  on  the  shores  of  Tyre. 

Thou  lovedst  Thy  fair  land  ;  the  solitudes 
Of  her  grey  hills,  fit  home  for  musings  high  ; 
Spring  with  her  glowing  flowers  and  nestling  broods, 
The  moonlit  garden  and  the  sunset  sky. 

Nor  these  alone  ;  for  Thou  didst  condescend 
The  joys  of  human  fellowship  to  share, 
The  simple  welcome  of  some  village  friend, 
Mary's  deep  gladness,  Martha's  loving  care. 

In  toil,  in  leisure,  I  may  learn  of  Thee  ; 
Keep  Thee  beside  me  in  my  mountain  walk, 
Set  to  Thy  Name  the  music  of  the  sea, 
And  open  all  my  heart  in  voiceless  talk. 

So  when  Thy  call  shall  bid  me  to  return 
With  strength  renewed,  to  labour  in  my  place, 
My  lips  shall  overflow,  my  heart  shall  burn 
With  new  revealings  of  Thy  boundless  grace. 

Pegli,  Feb.  1885. 

While  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Genoa  Mr. 
Ellerton  often  paid  visits  to  that  city.  He  knew 
that  in  the  Poor-house  there  was  to  be  seen  Michael 
Angelo's  incomparable  Pietd,  and  thus  he  describes 



"  High  on  the  hillside  above  the  city  of  Genoa, 

surrounded  by  broad  roads  and    wealthy  private 

houses,  stands  a  stately  building,  which  might  be  a 

Royal  Palace.     Its  stairs,  its  pavements,  its  long 

pillared  corridors,  are  of  white  marble ;  from  the 

broad  terrace  in  front  you  look   down   upon   the 

great  harbour  crowded  with  vessels  of  all  countries, 

upon    the   lighthouses,   the    churches,    and    busy 

streets  of  the  famous  '  City  of  Palaces/  and  then 

the  encircling  arms  of  blue  mountains  clasping  the 

bluer  sea.     Over  the  door  is  a  shield  with  that  cross 

of  St.  George  which  it  is  said  England  borrowed 

from    Genoa   in   the  old  crusading   days.      On   a 

marble   tablet   a   long   Latin   inscription  tells,  in 

rather  pompous  language,  what  levelling  of  rock  and 

filling  up  of  valley  and  diverting  the  channel  of  the 

mountain  stream  were  undergone  at  the  expense  of 

the    citizens    before  this   splendid   building   could 

be  raised,  and  of  the  vast  sums  it  cost  to  make  it 

what  we  see  it.     Inside,  the  halls  and  passages  and 

landings  are  filled  with  statues  and  busts  of  the 

greatest  and  wealthiest  of  Genoese  merchant  princes 

and  prelates.     Yet  no  king  or  duke  or  noble  ever 

inhabited  it.     These  men  are  commemorated  here 

because  they  were  benefactors  to  the  poor.     This 

marble   palace  is  the  proud  city's  home  for   her 

paupers.    In  England  we  should  call  it  a  workhouse; 

in  Italy  they  call  it  by  a  kindlier  name,  the  '  Alb  ergo 

del  Poveri,'  that  is,  the  Hostelry  or  Inn  of  the  Poor. 


"  I  enter  with  the  friend  who  has  undertaken  to 
show  me  over  the  building  ;  he  tells  me  the  strange 
story  of  its  erection. 

"  Some  two  hundred  years  ago  there  was  a  great 
famine  in  the  city  of  Genoa.  Multitudes  died,  and 
whole  families  begged  their  bread  starving  in  the 
streets.  The  compassion  of  the  city  was  aroused  ; 
it  was  determined  to  provide  a  home  for  the  poor, 
where  for  ever  after  they  should  be  lodged,  fed,  and 
clothed.  Large  sums  were  contributed,  and  the 
site  was  cleared  after  the  fashion  described  in  the 
inscription.  When  all  was  ready  to  begin  the 
building,  another  grievous  calamity  befell  Genoa — 
a  terrible  pestilence.  People  died  faster  than  ground 
could  be  provided  to  bury  them.  There  was  no 
available  space  outside  the  walls  but  this  which 
was  already  set  apart  for  the  Home  of  the  Poor. 
This  ground  then  became  the  last  resting-place  of 
the  plague-stricken.  Nine  thousand  corpses  were 
buried  upon  the  hill-side.  Years  passed  on,  and 
at  last  it  was  thought  safe  to  resume  the  work  ;  and 
over  the  resting-place  of  the  dead  arose,  after  long 
delay,  the  marble  Palace  of  the  Poor. 

"  It  is  a  great  square  with  a  cross  intersecting  it. 
One  side  is  set  apart  for  men,  and  the  other  for 
women.  It  is  planned  for  1800  inmates,  and  about 
1 200  are  now  inhabiting  it.  They  are  admitted  upon 
the  recommendation  of  some  respectable  person, — 
about  this  no  difficulty  is  made  ;  and  once  admitted, 
they  are  provided  for  till  death,  from  the  funds  of 
the  Institution.  There  is  little  comfort,  according 
to  our  English  notions  ;  and  in  winter  the  cold  is 
intense,  for  Genoa  is  scourged  by  bitter  north  winds 


from  the  mountains,  and  no  provision  is  made  for 
warming  the  vast  passages  and  stairs.  In  summer 
it  must  be  pleasant  enough  ;  and  the  old  men  and 
women  sun  themselves,  as  Italians  love  to  do,  in 
the  many  balconies  on  which  their  windows  open, 
and  look  out  upon  the  gardens,  and  the  city,  and 
the  mountains,  and  the  sea. 

"  In  the  centre  of  the  whole  building  is  the  chapel. 
Thither  my  friend  led  me,  saying,  '  There  is  one 
thing  only  which  you  must  look  at  here  ;  keep  your 
mind  undistracted  for  that.'  So  we  stopped  before 
an  altar,  behind  which,  let  into  the  wall,  is  a  circle 
of  marble  about  two  feet  across.  Before  this  we 
stood  long,  hushed  and  awe-struck.  Two  heads 
only,  that  of  the  dead  Saviour  and  the  mourning 
Mother  bending  over  Him,  as  she  supports  Him  on 
her  arm.  Her  face  is  very  quiet,  there  is  no 
theatrical  display  of  grief;  she  is  not  meant  to 
attract  you  by  her  beauty,  though  a  beauty  beyond 
description  seems  to  pass  from  the  face  to  your 
heart  as  you  look.  The  Christ  lies  dead  ;  the  damp 
of  death  seems  almost  to  stand  upon  His  brow,  but 
all  pain  and  agony  are  passed  out  of  it.  It  seems 
as  if  the  mother's  face  had  grown  calm  by  long 
gazing  into  His.  The  sword  has  pierced  her  soul, 
but  already  the  wound  has  begun  to  heal.  It  is 
not  yet  Hope,  but  it  is  perfect  Peace  even  in  the 
deepest  depth  of  her  darkness.  The  accompanying 
illustration,  from  a  photograph  taken  from  the 
original,  may  help  to  illustrate  my  description — it 
can  do  no  more. 

"  The  history  of  this  piece  of  sculpture  is  unknown, 
except  that  it  belonged  to  a  great  Cardinal  long 


ago,  and  that  at  his  death  his  family  gave  it  to  the 
Home  of  the  Poor.  It  is  often  said  to  be  by  the 
great  Michael  Angelo,  but  no  one  really  knows. 
The  Italians  have  had  a  careful  copy  made  of  it,  and 
placed  in  the  new  Museum  of  Michael  Angelo's 
works  at  Florence.  In  England  I  am  afraid  the 
original  would  have  been  sold  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Hospital  Funds,  and  the  copy  left  in  the  chapel. 
But  it  is  not  so  here.  And  surely  of  all  the  gifts 
that  in  her  proud  and  ostentatious  munificence  this 
city  of  palaces  has  lavished  upon  her  poor,  one  of 
the  kindest  and  tenderest  was  this,  the  setting  up 
where  these  old  men  and  women  creep  in  daily  to 
pray  to  God,  this  precious  memorial  of  the  sorrow 
which  none  other  sorrow  was  like,  which  has  purified, 
hallowed,  and  transformed  all  other,  to  turn  it  at 
last  into  joy."  l 

In  April  Mr.  Ellerton  and  his  family  left  Pegli, 
but  before  turning  homeward  he  seized  the  oppor- 
tunity of  visiting  Florence.  The  impressions  which 
that  city — itself  a  poem — made  upon  his  poetic 
mind  are  best  gathered  from  his  own  words  in  the 
following  letter : — 


"  Florence,  April  22,  1885. 


*     Yes,   it   is   nice   to    think 

that  you  and  I  clasp  hands  in  Italy,  and  hear  the 

same  soft  language,  and  see  the  same  dark  faces, 

full  of  pathos  or  mischief,  or  anything  but  stolid 

1  Dawn  of  Day >  Oct.  1885. 


content  or  dull  weariness  ;  and  see  great  buildings 
and  famous  pictures,  and  are  living  through  the 
Past  of  great  historic  cities,  under  this  cloudless 
sky  and  this  bright  moonlight.  And  as  I  saw 
sunset  on  Fiesole  and  on  Giotto's  Tower,  and  the 
lovely  Campanile,  where  the  old  'Vacca'  of  the 
Palazzo  Vecchio  still  hangs,  so  you  saw  it  perhaps 
on  St.  George  of  the  Seaweed,  or  on  the  doves  of 
St.  Mark,  and  the  long  fretwork  of  the  Ducal 
Palace.  How  shall  we  match  the  two  Queens 
against  one  another — Arno  against  Adria !  But  I 
won't  give  up  my  Lady  of  the  Flowers  even  for 
your  Queen  of  the  Sea !  Never  was  so  fair  a  gem 
in  so  beautiful  a  setting.  You  will  be  able  to  tell 
how  impossible  it  is  to  describe,  when  one  is  simply 
overwhelmed  with  all  one  sees.  To  sit  in  the  awful 
Baptistery  where  Dante  was  baptized,  and  look  up 
at  the  great  mosaics  of  Christ  enthroned,  and  the 
dead  rising  to  judgment,  as  his  baby  eyes  saw 
them  ;  to  see  sunrise  and  sunset  and  moonlight  on 
Giotto's  Tower — such  a  wonder  of  colour  as  nothing 
can  paint ;  to  go  from  church  to  church  covered 
with  those  great  mosaics  which  take  hours  to 
appreciate — one  had  rather  say  days ;  to  see  with 
one's  own  eyes  the  places  sacred  to  such  immortal 
memories  ;  to  stand  in  the  Loggia  dei  Lanzi  and 
think  of  that  awful  Palm  Sunday,  and  that  still 
more  awful  June  day  in  the  great  square  below  ; 
to  people  with  one  multitude  the  vast  area  of  the 
empty  Duomo  where  the  Prophet l  so  often  spoke  ; 
to  stand  by  the  graves  of  Pico  and  Galileo,  and 
Antonino,  and  Michael  Angelo — no !  there  can  be 

1  Savonarola. 



no  place  like  Florence.  And  then  there  are  the 
Galleries,  of  which  we  have  as  yet  seen  only  three 
or  four  rooms  of  one,  and  that  contains  more 
precious  things  than  I  ever  saw  before.  I  really 
don't  know  where  to  begin.  I  think,  however, 
some  distinct  impressions  are  coming  upon  me. 

"  First,  of  the  wonderful  greatness  of  Giotto.  He 
is  as  saintly  as  Fra  Angelico,  and  far  more  human. 
Oh  that  you  could  see  his  fresco  in  Santa  Croce  of  the 
spirit  of  St.  John  rising  up  to  join  the  Blessed  One 
so  many  years  parted  from  him.  The  friends  and 
disciples  are  looking  into  the  open  grave,  in  quiet, 
peaceful  sorrow,  knowing  all  is  well,  but  feeling 
that  the  last  of  the  Apostles  is  gone,  and  the  first 
age  of  the  Church  is  over.  But  one  looks  up  in 
faith,  and  this  is  what  he  sees :  the  old  man's  form 
is  being  drawn  upward,  with  such  a  look  of  peace 
and  joy  and  love  upon  his  face,  which  says,  'At 
last  I  am  to  be  with  Him  and  see  Him  again.' 
And  from  heaven  He  stretches  down  in  very 
human  love,  holding  out  both  hands  to  welcome 
John,  as  one  would  welcome  a  dear  friend  or  brother 
coming  home  from  abroad.  And  behind  Him  are 
the  other  ten — James's  young  face  looking  over 
His  shoulder  —  Peter  almost  inclined  to  press 
forward  even  before  his  Master,  but  keeping  back, 
only  thrusting  his  arms  out  saying,  '  Dear  John,  I 
must  have  the  next  embrace '  ;  it  brings  happy 
tears  to  one's  eyes.  Scarcely  less  lovely  are  the 
two  I  have  just  seen  at  S.  M.  Novella,  the  Joachim 
and  Anna,  and  the  Birth  of  Mary — the  sweet, 
placid  baby  face,  and  the  nurse  and  servants 
wondering  at  the  little  thing ;  and  the  old  Mother 


lying  pale  and  with  half-shut  eyes,  but  so  happy 
and  thankful,  with  her  cheek  on  her  hand.  Cimabue's 
Madonna  is  very  hard  to  see,  but  it  is  indeed 
worthy  to  make  the  street  where  it  was  painted  the 
Borgo  Allegro. 

"  We  are  working  very  slowly,  but  as  thoroughly 
as  we  can  ;  resting  for  two  or  three  hours  at  mid- 
day, and  only  walking  or  strolling  in  the  evening, 
for  the  mornings  are  tiring.  We  are  putting  off 
San  Marco  till  Sunday,  finding  each  of  the  greater 
churches  more  than  enough  for  a  day,  and  there  is 
so  much  !  S.  M.  Novella  alone  would  fill  volumes  of 
lovely  photographs,  were  it  possible  to  photograph 
all,  and  Santa  Croce  another.  Except  the  great 
statues  and  a  few  Titians,  we  have  as  yet  seen  no 
art  that  is  not  Florentine.  What  a  place  ! 

"Well,  I  must  stop  now,  for  we  must  go  for  our 
drive.  Tell  me  all  about  Carpaccio's  Sta.  Ursula, 
the  Paradise,  and  the  Scuola  di  San  Rocco 

In  May  1885  the  party  returned  to  England,  and 
shortly  after  his  arrival  Mr.  Ellerton,  vastly  reno- 
vated in  mind  and  body  by  his  delightful  visit 
to  the  continent,  was  presented  by  Sir  Spencer 
Maryon  Wilson,  Bart,  to  the  Rectory  of  White 
Roding,  Essex. 



Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern — The  Last  Hymns — The  Close 

SHORTLY  after  his  return  from  the  continent  Mr. 
Ellerton  was  presented  to  the  Rectory  of  White 
Roding,  one  of  the  nine  villages  to  which  the 
Roding  gives  its  name  1  as  it  winds  between  the 
hills  and  flats  of  Essex  to  join  the  Thames  near 
Barking.  This  piece  of  preferment  he  owed  to  the 
kind  mediation  of  his  old  friend  and  fellow-worker, 
Bishop  Walsham  How,  who  represented  to  Sir 
Spencer  Maryon  Wilson,  the  patron,  that  "the  best 
living  hymn-writer,"  as  he  himself  calls  him,  was  at 
that  time  without  a  benefice. 

White  Roding  is  a  scattered  parish  lying  on  a 
bleak  Essex  hill,  amid  scenery  totally  devoid  of 
any  special  interest,  and  being  five  miles  from 
Sawbridgeworth,  on  the  Great  Eastern  Railway, 
the  nearest  station,  was  inconveniently  situated  for 
a  literary  man.  The  rectory  is  a  substantial  old 

1  Roding-Abbess,  Roding  Aythorpe,  Roding-Beauchamp, 
Roding-Berners,  High  Roding,  Leaden   Roding,  Margaret 
Roding,  and  White  Roding,  with  its  hamlet  Morrell  Roding. 


house,  with  a  large  garden  surrounded  on  three 
sides  by  a  moat,  and  the  church  stands  close  by,  its 
little  spire  forming  a  landmark  for  many  a  desolate 
mile.  But  the  new  rector  rejoiced  in  the  place  as 
affording  a  welcome  retreat  after  the  toil  and  turmoil 
of  populous  Barnes.  The  demands  of  the  parish 
on  his  time  were  not  excessive,  leaving  him  leisure 
to  devote  his  pen  more  freely  than  before  to  the 
service  of  the  Church. 

In  a  very  charming  and  characteristic  letter  to 
his  friend,  Professor  Attwell  of  Barnes,  he  thus 
describes  his  new  home  : — 

"  The  Rectory,  White  Roothing,  Dunmoiu, 
"July  15,  1885. 


"  I  have  deprived  myself  of  a  pleasure 
in  neglecting  so  long  to  write  to  you,  for  your  last 
letter  was  provocative  of  a  reply,  and  I  hope  this 
will  bring  me  before  long  another  in  return. 

"  I  am  rapidly  discovering  the  pleasure  of  return- 
ing to  my  old  vocation  of  a  country  parson  ;  and 
certainly  this  delightful  summer  weather  presents 
the  life  to  us  all  on  its  brightest  side.  It  is  very 
pleasant  to  have  what  I  have  always  longed  to 
have — an  old  church  with  some  historical  interest 
about  it,  and  thoroughly  English  looking  ;  and  I 
never  see  its  shingled  spire  peeping  through  the 
elms  and  limes,  or  its  grey  tower  with  a  foreground 
of  corn-fields  and  a  background  of  dark  trees,  with- 
out a  fresh  pleasure  in  thinking  of  it  as  something 
full  of  true  English  beauty  and  charm,  of  which 
one  can  never  tire.  We  delight  also  in  our  green 


and  very  unconventional  garden,  just  one  of  those 
which  arose  before  people  knew  how  to  separate 
use  from  beauty,  or  to  fancy  they  could  be  separated; 
so  that  you  scarcely  know  where  your  roses  end  and 
your  cabbages  begin.  The  greater  part  of  the 
house  is  I  should  think  seventeenth  century,  one  or 
two  rooms  perhaps  older,  with  a  very  ugly  but  com- 
fortable addition  made  some  thirty-five  years  ago 
by  an  old  rector — a  great  Evangelical  and  Calvin  ist 
light  in  his  day,  the  Rev.  Henry  Budd,  of  whose 
(successive)  wives,  nightcap,  sermons,  tithe-taking, 
and  perambulations  of  the  parish  there  are  many 
stories.  Evidently  a  very  worthy,  pious,  simple- 
minded  old  man,  with  a  propensity  for  writing 
somewhat  Johnsonian  epitaphs  upon  his  wives, 
curates,  and  parishioners.  In  1877  my  excellent 
predecessor,  Jacob  North,  a  scholarly,  liberal-minded, 
genial  man,  and  a  very  admirable  clergyman,  came 
with  his  wife  and  family.  He  soon  lost  his  sight ; 
but  his  mind  directed  everything,  and  his  children 
were  the  saving  of  the  parish.  Their  personal 
influence  upon  old  and  young,  and  their  indefatig- 
able energy  in  both  work  and  play,  were  the 
greatest  blessing  to  the  place. 

"  We  like  our  neighbours  very  much I 

need  scarcely  say  they  are  all  very  shy  of  my 
alleged  politics,  but  I  think  I  am  beginning  to 
reassure  them.  Our  Conservative  candidate  is  a 
more  than  respectable  member  of  the  party,  Sir 
H.  Selwin  Ibbetson,  a  very  typical  good  squire, 
church  restorer,  master  of  hounds,  and  a  most 
kindly  and  considerate  landlord  to  his  poorest 
cottagers — just  the  man  one  would  look  to  see 


among  these  quiet  old-world  villages  and  comfort- 
able farm-houses.  It  requires  an  effort  to  call  to 
mind  that  the  men  who  seek  to  represent  us  in 
Essex  are  not  typical  embodiments  of  the  principles 
at  stake.  In  fact,  I  never  felt  more  independent  of 
party  sympathies,  I  think,  than  now. 

"  I  have  been  rather  too  busy  with  housing  books 
to  have  time  to  read  them  of  late.     My  old  friend 
Dr.  Hort  came  here  for  two  nights  at  the  close  of 
term,  and  brought  with  him  Harnack's  pamphlet 
about  the  now  famous  Faioum  fragment,  the  fac- 
simile of  which  he  showed  me,  as  well   as  some 
interesting  photographs  of  the  '  Didache.'      He  is 
strongly  of   opinion  that    Bickell's  fragment,  if  it 
is   indeed   third   century,    is    a    fragment    not   of 
a  'Gospel'    properly    so-called,   but    either   of    a 
collection  of  Logia,  or  sayings  of  our  Lord,  or  else 
a  treatise  in  which  the  writer   certainly  cites  the 
narrative,  from  memory,  in  a   purposely  abridged 
form.      He  relies  a  good  deal  on  the  substitution 
of  the  ordinary  words  for  '  cock '  and  '  crow '  for  the 
less  usual — indeed  almost  unique — ones  employed 
by  the  Synoptists  ; — just  what  a  man  would  do 
who  was  writing  from  memory,  and  had  to  mention 
the  conversation.     He  was   very  much  edified  by 
the  Times  describing  Harnack  as  a  '  fervid  Roman 
Catholic.'     Bickell  is,  I  believe,  a  convert  to  Rome, 
but  Harnack,  though  I  believe  rather  '  fervid '  as 
a  critic,  is  a  very  decided  Protestant  indeed. 

"  I  have  just  read  rapidly  about  half  the  first  vol. 
of  Croker's  Correspondence — a  case  in  which  the 
typical  Georgian  office-jobber  does,  I  fear,  show 
through  all  the  whitewash  still.  But  it  raises  one's 


impression  of  Croker's  shrewdness  and  ability.  I 
hope  you  will  get  the  book,  if  only  for  a  deliciously 
witty  letter  from  Peel  about  Babbage's  calculating 
machine.  Pattison  and  Mozley  I  have  not  yet 
seen,  being  not  yet  en  rapport  with  Mudie  again, 
but  only  with  an  old-fashioned  so-called  '  Clerical ' 
Book  Club,  which  gives  one  but  barren  fare." 

Again,  in  a  letter  to  the  writer  of  these  lines, 
he  says,  "  I  have  said  nothing  of  the  house,  which 
is  an  odd,  rambling  old  place,  with,  however,  an 
excellent  drawing-room  and  dining-room,  and  a 
quaint  little  den  for  myself  where  I  am  writing,  of 
course  with  a  cat  on  the  chair  beside  me,  and  with 
the  door  open  on  a  sunny  lawn.  The  garden  is 
most  delightful,  and  quite  took  me  by  surprise. 
It  is  very  rough  and  old-fashioned,  but  I  hope  we 
shall  make  a  Trapadao-os l  of  it  by  a  fair  amount  of 
Adam  and  Eve's  work.  As  my  predecessor — good 
and  holy  man  as  he  was — lost  his  sight,  and  his 
wife  and  daughters  were  absorbed  in  curate's  work, 
the  house  and  garden  have  suffered  a  good  deal  of 
late,  but  I  hope  we  shall  be  able  to  get  them  in 
a  tidy  state  without  neglecting  the  parish." 

To  his  great  delight  he  found  the  church  pro- 
vided with  a  very  good  organ.  The  choir  was 
mixed,  and  it  was  a  pretty  sight  to  see  the  village 
maidens  in  their  white  choir  dresses  in  the  front 
row,  with  the  boys  and  men  in  surplices  behind. 

By  this  time — 1885 — his  hymn-work  was  practi- 
cally done.     CJiurcJi  Hymns  had  been  completed 
in   1 88 1,  and  the  Children's  Hymn-Book  the  same 
year.     All  the  hymns  on  which  his  fame  mainly 
1  Paradise. 


rests  had  now  been  written,  and  henceforward  his 
work  was  chiefly  correspondence  with  other  editors, 
and  the  occasional  writing  of  a  hymn.  The  com- 
pilers of  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  had  frequently 
consulted  him,  but  it  was  not  until  the  preparation 
of  the  "Complete  Edition"  was  in  hand  that  he 
became  one  of  the  Committee.  His  leisure  was 
now  devoted  mainly  to  prose,  and  it  was  at  White 
Roding  that  he  wrote  The  Great  Indwelling,  or 
Thoughts  on  tJie  Relation  of  Holy  Communion  to 
the  Spiritual  Life,  a  work  small  in  volume  but 
full  of  deepest  insight  into  the  mystery  on  which 
it  meditates.  It  contains  too  the  graceful  little 
poems  on  '  The  old  in  their  relation  to  the  young,' 
' Down  the  lane  at  evening  time',  and  a  sonnet  on 
'  The  evening  service  of  Man,'  beginning — 

"  I  would  not  linger  idly  by  the  strand 
Of  that  dim  water  which  I  soon  shall  pass." 

It  was  here  too  that  he  composed  The  Twilight 
of  Life,  his  De  Senectute,  as  he  playfully  called 
it,  "  full  of  helpful  and  cheering  thoughts  on  the 
special  conditions,  trials,  encouragements,  and 
blessings  of  advancing  life,  and  rich  in  bright  and 
beautiful  teaching  founded  on  Holy  Scripture  and 
reason  on  the  hope  of  reunion  with  our  beloved 
ones  in  the  world  above."  x  The  book,  published 
by  Cassells,  is  considerately  printed  in  large 
type.  He  also  about  this  time  made  his  translation 
of  Thomas  a  Kempis's  Imitation  of  Christ.  But 
the  largest  and  most  important  work  at  White 
Roding  was  his  editing  the  Manual  of  Parochial 

1  Obituary  notice  in  The  Christian  Age,  June  28,  1893. 


Work,  a  series  of  articles  "by  writers  who  have 
special  knowledge  or  experience  in  the  subjects  of 
which  they  treat."  1  Of  the  twenty-nine  chapters 
or  sections  which  the  book  contains,  six,  and  part 
of  a  seventh,  are  from  his  own  pen.  It  was  pub- 
lished in  1888,  and  has  had,  we  believe,  a  large  sale. 
Occasionally  Canon  Ellerton  would  allow  his 
muse  to  lead  him  into  other  fields  than  those 
devoted  to  hymns.  He  could  when  he  chose  write 
very  elegant  sonnets,  two  of  which  are  given  here. 
The  earliest  is  written  in  a  volume  of  Keble's  ser- 
mons given  to  his  wife ;  the  other  is  a  New  Year's 
greeting  to  his  friends  from  White  Roding. 

C.  A.   E.     FEB.  18,  1875. 
TAKE,  dearest,  this,  thy  Lenten  thoughts  to  guide, 

The  precious  words  of  Hursley's  well-loved  saint  : — 

Not  here  the  Poet,  weaving  garlands  quaint 
Of  verse  devout,  for  every  holy  tide  ; 
Not  here  the  Champion,  on  his  Master's  side, 

Skilful  to  ply  his  Logic's  keen-edged  sword, 

Stern  to  avenge  the  honour  of  his  Lord  ; 
Not  here  the  Scholar,  gathering  far  and  wide 

The  classic  lore  which  once  he  held  so  dear  : 
This  is  the  Pastor,  yearning  o'er  his  flock, 
To  call  them  to  the  shadow  of  the  Rock . 

Still  from  his  rest  those  accents  calm  and  clear 
Tell  of  the  Narrow  Way  which  led  him  there, 
The  Cross  borne  for  us,  and  the  Cross  we  bear. 

"We  wish  you  Good  Luck  in  the  Name  of  the  Lord."  Psalm  cxxix.  3. 

O  FRIENDS,  from  under  skies  of  ashen  grey 
What  tokens  can  we  send  you  o'er  the  snow, 
While  not  a  flower  as  yet  has  leave  to  blow, 

And  early  we  shut  out  the  short  dark  day  ? 

1  Preface. 


Yet  thoughts  are  free  through  curtained  panes  to  go 
And  find  you  out  and  bring  you  unawares 
Memories  of  brighter  days,  and  silent  prayers, 
With  power,  methinks,  to  set  your  heart  aglow. 
Fain  would  we  send  you,  ere  the  year  expire, 
Some  word  that  tells  you  of  our  hearts'  desire. 
Hark  !  from  their  tower  the  midnight  bells  proclaim 
In  changing  tones  the  One  Unchanging  Name: 
Then  in  that  Name,  O  friends,  both  far  and  near, 
Good  luck  we  wish  you  in  the  new-born  year. 

So  far  back  as  1870,  while  Mr.  Ellerton  was  at 
Crewe  Green,  he  had  been  applied  to  by  the  Rev. 
E.  H.  Bickersteth,  now  Bishop  of  Exeter,  for  per- 
mission to  insert  his  hymn,  "Saviour,  again,"  in 
the  first  edition  of  the  Hymnal  Companion.  His 
letter  in  reply  is  well  worth  preserving,  as  it 
shows  his  opinion  on  the  frequently  discussed 
question  respecting  the  guarding  of  hymns  by 

"  Crewe  Green,  Crewe, 

"Jan.  31,  1870. 
"  MY  DEAR  SIR, 

"  You  are  most  welcome  to  use  the  hymn 
you  mention.  The  new  S.  P.  C.  K.  Appendix  has 
the  longer  form  of  it,  but  I  shortened  and  revised 
it  for  Sir  Henry  Baker,  and  I  think  the  shorter 
form  is  the  better,  but  you  can  choose  either. 

"  Thank  you  much  for  your  own  hymns.  Some 
of  them  I  know  well,  others  are  new  to  me. 

"  I  entirely  sympathize  in  your  feeling  about 
hymns  as  a  gift  to  the  Church  of  Christ.  If  one 
is  counted  worthy  to  contribute  to  His  praise  in 
the  congregation,  one  ought  to  feel  very  thankful, 
and  very  humble.  So  any  of  my  hymns  which  are 


in  my  own  power  I  always  give  freely,  but  a  few 
have  been  written  for  friends  and  at  their  request, 
and  these  I  cannot  dispose  of.  I  am  also  busy 
with  two  friends  in  compiling  a  book,  and  of  course 
those  of  my  writing  or  translating  which  are  done 
for  that  book  are  joint  property.  However,  I  am 
glad  to  say  that  the  hymn  you  approve  of  is  free 
to  any  who  ask  for  it. 

"  I  am,  my  dear  sir, 

"  Yours  very  faithfully, 

The  success  which  attended  the  first  and  second 
editions  of  the  Hymnal  Companion  led  in  1889  to 
the  preparation  of  a  third,  and  again  we  find  the 
right  reverend  compiler  applying  to  Mr.  Ellerton 
for  permission  to  make  a  still  larger  use  of  his 
hymns  than  before.  The  following  is  the  answer 
which  the  Bishop  received  :  — 

"  TJie  Rectory,  White  Roding, 

"  April  24,  1889. 


"  I  thank  you  very  much  for  the  kind  way 
in  which  you  have  put  your  request  for  more  of 
my  hymns.  Your  judgment  respecting  them  is  a 
great  solace  to  me,  for  I  know  that  your  Lordship 
can  enter  into  the  feelings  with  which  some  of 
them  were  written  ;  and  that  you  know  how  often 
one's  own  hymns  rise  up  in  condemnation  of  one's 
coldness  and  faithlessness.  So  that  there  are  times 
when  it  does  really  cheer  one  for  a  Father  in  God 
to  say,  '  I  think  God  helped  you  to  write  that,  and 


I  think  He  has  made  it  a  blessing  to  one  and 

"  I  need  hardly  say  how  gladly  I  would  place  at 
your  Lordship's  disposal  any  of  my  hymns  which 
you  think  useful.  I  never  have  made  any  of  them 
copyright,  so  that  the  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern 
compilers  will  have  no  reason  to  complain  of  your 
selecting  from  the  Appendix  the  two  you  mention 
in  addition  to  the  others.  The  text  in  the  supple- 
ment to  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  contains  a  few 
variations  which  I  shall  be  glad  if  your  Lordship 
will  look  upon  as  my  latest  revision  of  them.  That 
for  teachers  originally  began, 

*  Break  Thou  to  us,  O  Lord, 
The  Bread  of  Life  to-day,' 

but  I  think  that  is  an  inappropriate  use  of  our 
Lord's  metaphor,  which  is  never  applied  to  teaching, 
so  that  I  have  altered  it.1 

"  I  am  writing  to  Skeffington  to  ask  him  to  send 
your  Lordship  my  little  volume  of  collected  hymns, 
which  I  hope  you  will  do  me  the  kindness  to 
accept,  in  return  for  much  enjoyment  of  yours.  I 
am  most  grateful  for  those  you  have  been  so  good 
as  to  send  me.  I  read  with  delight  in  the  Church 
Missionary  Intelligencer  your  translation  of  Xavier's 

1  The  revised  version  runs — 

"  Shine  Thou  upon  us,  Lord, 
True  Light  of  men  to-day." 

Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  580. 

The  original,  however,  is  preserved  in  the  Collected  Hymns, 
p.  64. 


hymn,1  but  the  hymn  for  Holy  Communion,  and 
that  for  the  House  of  Mercy,  are  both  of  them  quite 
new  to  me,  and  you  will  paTdon  my  saying  how 
very  beautiful  I  feel  them  to  be. 

"  I  am  so  glad  that  *  Peace,  perfect  peace '  and 
its  tune  are  in  the  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern 
supplement.  Beyond  all  your  hymns  I  think  it 
has  brought  blessing  to  many,  and  I  know  how  it 
has  helped  the  faith  of  some  of  God's  sorely-tried 
children.  Our  Essex  poor  folk  love  it  dearly." 

"  The  Rectory,  White  Roding,  Dunmoiv, 
"Nov.  14,  1889. 


"  I  can  only  to-day  just  acknowledge  the 
receipt  of  your  Lordship's  very  kind  letter.  If  I 
can  be  of  any  service  in  looking  over  the  proofs 
you  send  me,  it  will  be  a  great  pleasure  to  do  so. 
I  feel  thankful  for  the  opportunity  of  being  still 
of  some  little  use  now  that  God  has  given  me  in 
my  declining  years  a  quiet  sphere  of  work  that 
leaves  me  some  leisure. 

"I  am  so  glad  to  see  your  translation  of  O 
quanta  qualia.  I  had  two  days  ago  a  MS.  trans- 
lation sent  me  by  Mr.  Pott ;  but  I  like  Neale's 
metre  t  and  the  lovely  French  tune ;  and  I  shall 
like  to  examine  your  version  in  detail. 

"  As  to  your  Lordship's  other  request,  I  scarcely 
know  what  to  say.  If  the  power  seems  given  to 

1  "  O  Deus  ego  amo  Te, 

Nee  amo  Te  ut  salves  me." 

The  Bishop's  version  begins,  "  O  God,  I  love  Thee  ;  not 
that  my  poor  love,"  and  is  included  in  the  last  edition  of  the 
Hymnal  Companion. 


me  to  make  anything  of  so  great  a  subject  which 
can  be  at  all  useful,  I  shall  be  very  thankful ;  but 
I  do  not  know  whether  I  shall  be  able.  I  will  keep 
it  standing  in  mind  during  the  next  week  or  two. 

"Do  you  know  Vinet's  marvellous  hymn  Sotts 
ton  voile  d'ignominie  ?  It  is  in  the  S.P.C.K.  Channel 
Island  book  of  French  hymns,  as  well  as  in  the 
Chants  Chretiens,  and  in  the  book  used  generally 
in  the  Canton  de  Vaud.  I  want  to  try  my  hand 
at  it  for  a  hymn  for  Good  Friday.1  May  I  send 
it  you  to  criticize  if  I  seem  to  succeed  ?  It  is, 
I  think,  a  very  great  hymn  in  its  own  way,  as  a 
meditation  on  the  Love  of  the  Atonement. 
"  Believe  me,  my  dear  Lord, 

"  Very  sincerely  yours, 


How  highly  the  Bishop  valued  the  assistance  of 
Canon  Ellerton,  the  late  Sir  Henry  W.  Baker,  and 
of  Dr.  Walsham  How,  Bishop  of  Wakefield,  may 
be  gathered  from  his  graceful  acknowledgment  of 
their  services  in  his  Introduction  to  the  Hymnal 
Companion,  where  he  says — 

"  Nothing  could  exceed  the  true  brotherly  kind- 
ness, for  I  can  express  it  by  no  other  word,  with 
which  they  have  met  my  requests  and  helped  my 

Feeling  that  his  work  as  a  hymn-writer  was 
now  practically  done,  he  collected  all  that  he  had 
composed  and  translated  into  a  volume  entitled 
Hymns  Original  and  Translated,  a  copy  of  which, 
as  we  have  seen  in  his  letter  of  April  24,  he  pre- 
1  The  translation  is  given  p.  1 50. 


sented  to  his  fellow  labourer  and  brother  poet, 
Bishop  E.  H.  Bickersteth.  It  contains  seventy-six 
pieces,  including  the  longer  and  shorter  versions 
of  "  Saviour,  again."  Of  them,  eight  were  written 
in  his  Essex  rectory,  namely— 

1.  "O   Father,  bless  the  children."      For  Holy 
Baptism ;    scarcely  so  much  a  hymn  in  the  full 
Augustinian  sense  of  the  word  as  a  very  beautiful 
invocation  addressed  to  the  Three  Persons  of  the 
Holy  Trinity  on  behalf  of  the  baptized. 

2.  "  O  Jerusalem  the  blissful,  Home  of  gladness 
yet  untold."   For  the  restoration  of  a  church,  trans- 
lated   from   O    Beata    Hierusalem^    a     Mozarabic 
Breviary  hymn    at   least  as  old    as  the   eleventh 

3.  "  Praise  to  the  Heavenly  Wisdom."     For  the 
Festival  of  St.  Matthias.     These  three  hymns  were 
written  for,  and  first  appeared  in,  the  "  complete 
edition"  of  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern.      The 
other  hymns  belonging  to  this  latest  period  were 
the   following,  none  of  which  are,  so   far  as  we 
know,  incorporated  into  any  hymnal. 

4.  "  Thrice  Holy,  Thrice  Almighty  Lord."     For 
Trinity    Sunday,    translated     from    the     French 
Breviary   hymn    Ter  sancte,  ter  potens   Deus,    by 
Claude  de  Santeiiil  (d.  1684).     Of  the  version  in 
ChurcJi  Hymns,  the  translation  of  the  first  three 
verses  is  by   Chandler,  and   that  of  the  last  two 
by  Mr.  Ellerton ;  showing  that  though  the  version 
in  the  collected  hymns  is  dated  June   i,  1886,  he 
must  have  made  a  translation  at  some  earlier  period. 

5.  "  English  children,  lift  your  voices."     A  most 
loyal  children's  hymn,  for  Queen  Victoria's  Jubilee, 


1887,  written  for  Skeffington's  collection  of  Jubilee 

6.  "  Again  Thou  meetest  in  Thy  way."     For  the 
Sunday  after  a  funeral. 

7.  "  Spirit  of  God,  Whose  glory."     A  fine  hymn 
for  the  opening  of  a  parish  room,  written  for  the 
dedication  of  the  Charles  Lamb  Memorial  Build- 
ings, Easter  Monday,  April  2,  1888. 

We  may  include  here  a  hymn  the  date  of  which 
is  lost — 

8.  "This  is   the  hour  when  in   full   brightness 
glowing."      For   sext    in    Passion-tide,   translated 
from    Charles  Coffin's    Paris  Breviary  hymn  Jam 
soils  excelsum  jubar.    A  version  beginning  "  Behold 
the  radiant  sun  on  high,"  by  J.  D.  Chambers,  is 
in  the  Hymnary. 

The  hymns  written  subsequent  to  the  publica- 
tion of  Hymns  Original  and  Translated  (1888), 
now  collected  for  the  first  time,  are  given  in  full 
in  another  place.1 

It  now  only  remains  to  give  some  account  of 
Mr.  Ellerton's  connection  with  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern,  the  last  service  he  rendered  to  the 
hymnody  of  the  Church  of  England. 

1  See  p.  138. 


THE  first  edition  of  this  world-renowned  book 
was  published  in  1861.  The  idea  of  reducing  the 
chaotic  state  of  English  hymnody  which  up  to  that 
time  had  prevailed  into  something  like  order  by 
the  compilation  of  one  book  of  commanding  merit 
originated  with  the  Rev.  F.  H.  Murray,  Rector  of 
Chislehurst,  in  Kent.  The  carrying  out  of  the 
idea  was  committed  to  the  late  Rev.  Sir  Henry 
W.  Baker,  who  associated  with  himself  some 
twenty  clergymen,  including  the  editors  of  many 
existing  hymnals,  who  agreed  to  give  up  their 
several  books  in  order,  as  far  as  might  be,  to 
promote  the  use  of  one. 

Small  as  the  book  was  in  its  first  edition,  it  at 
once  gained  the  confidence  of  the  Church.  The 
lines  upon  which  it  was  constructed  were  widely 
recognized  as  the  right  lines.  Although  only  con- 

1  Much  of  the  information  here  given  is  taken  from  a 
paper  by  the  Rev.  W.  Pulling,  Chairman  of  the  H.  A.  M. 
Committee,  read  at  the  Swansea  Church  Congress,  1879, 
from  a  communication  addressed  to  me  by  the  Rev.  G. 
Cosby  White,  the  present  chairman,  and  from  the  papers 
of  Mr.  Ellerton  himself,  kindly  lent  me  by  his  son,  the  Rev, 
F.  G.  Ellerton. 



taining  273  hymns,  132  were  translations  from  the 
Latin,  10  from  the  German,  119  English  hymns 
already  well  known  and  loved,  and  12  were 
original.1  Thus  the  hymnody  of  the  Western 
Church  was  to  a  considerable  extent  represented. 
It  contained,  moreover,  the  vital  principle  of  growth. 
So  favourably  was  it  received  that  the  necessity 
of  an  Appendix  soon  became  apparent.  This  was 
added  in  1868,  when  113  more  hymns  of  sterling 
merit  were  published,  including  two  of  Mr.  Eller- 
ton's  original  compositions,2  and  his  translation  of 
the  Alleluia  perenne.  In  April  1872  the  sub- 
committee reported  that  "they  had  carefully 
digested  a  large  number  of  answers  to  two  sets 
of  questions  circulated  as  widely  as  possible  ;  have 
considered  all  new  matter  hitherto  proposed  to 
them,  and  hope  that  they  may  be  able  after  their 
next  meeting  to  print  the  first  rough  draft  of  the 
revised  book." 

The  final  outcome  of  this  and  subsequent  meet- 
ings was  the  publication  of  the  Revised  Edition  of 
1875.  It  contained  473  hymns,  of  which  the  fol- 
lowing ten,  in  addition  to  the  three  which  were  in 
the  first  Appendix,  were  either  composed  or  trans- 
lated by  Mr.  Ellerton. 

1.  "Joy!  because  the  circling  year."     From  the 

2.  "  King  of  Saints  !  to  Whom  the  number." 

3.  "  Lift  the  strain  of  high  thanksgiving." 

4.  "  Now  the  labourer's  task  is  o'er." 

5.  "O  Son  of  God,  our  Captain  of  salvation." 

1  Julian. 

-  "  Saviour,  again,"  and  "  This  is  the  day  of  light." 


6.  "  O  Strength  and  Stay  upholding  all  Creation." 
From  the  Latin. 

7.  "  Our  day  of  praise  is  done." 

8.  "  Thou  Who  sentest  Thine  Apostles." 

9.  "  Throned  upon  the  awful  Tree." 

10.  "We  sing  the  glorious  conquest." 

But  although  he  had  been  from  time  to  time 
consulted  by  the  compilers,  Mr.  Ellerton's  formal 
connection  with  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  dates 
from  1885.  In  the  spring  of  that  year  he  was 
invited  to  a  Conference  of  Priests  and  Laymen  to 
consider  the  further  enlargement  of  the  book,  it 
having  been  represented  to  the  compilers  "that 
an  impression  exists  that  it  is  desirable  to  supple- 
ment their  book  from  the  large  stores  of  new 
hymns  which  have  been  given  to  the  Church 
since  the  publication  of  the  Revised  Edition  in 

The  result  of  this  Conference  will  be  seen 
in  the  following  letter  from  the  Rev.  William 
Pulling,  then  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of 

"  Eastnor  Rectory  ',  Ledbury, 
"July  1885. 


"  I  have  the  pleasure  of  communicating 
to  you  the  resolution  passed  at  a  meeting  of 
H.  A.  M.  on  Wednesday  last. 

"That  having  considered  the  Report  of  the 
Meeting  held  May  20,  at  the  Army  and  Navy 
Hotel,  we  resolve,  in  compliance  with  the  almost 
unanimous  opinion  expressed  alike  by  those  pre- 
sent at  that  meeting,  and  by  those  invited  but 


unable  to  attend,  that  some  additions  be  made  to 
H.  A.  M. 

"We  are  very  grateful  to  you  for  the  kind 
assistance  which  you  afforded  us  towards  coming 
to  a  decision  upon  the  important  question  discussed 
at  that  Conference.  And  we  shall  be  glad  of  your 
further  kind  help  in  the  steps  which  we  are  initi- 
ating to  carry  our  Resolution  into  effect." 

A  further  Meeting  was  held  in  October,  to  which 
Mr.  Ellerton  was  invited  as  consultee.  The 
subjects  discussed  were — 

1.  Hymns 'for  the  seasons  not  proper  for  the 
Festival  itself,  especially  Easter. 

2.  Hymns  addressed  to  the  praise  of  God  the 

3.  Hymns  for  Holy  Baptism  ;  Holy  Eucharist. 

4.  General  Hymns. 

5.  Hymns  suitable  for  instructions  and  Mission 
Services  on  Sunday  evenings. 

6.  Hymns  suitable  for  use  on  Sundays. 

So  highly  were  Mr.  Ellerton's  services  esteemed 
by  the  compilers,  that  in  the  next  year  the  Chair- 
man, now  the  Rev.  G.  Cosby  White,  wrote  to  him 
in  the  following  complimentary  terms — 

"  San  Geinignano, 

"  Wednesday,  May  19,  1886. 

"You  have  been  so  kind  in  giving  your 
valuable  assistance  in  collecting  materials  for  the 
Supplement  of  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  that 
we  are  emboldened  to  ask  a  further  favour.  Would 
you  be  so  kind  as  to  help  us  in  arriving  at  a  final 


decision  as  to  the  admission  or  rejection  of  the 
hymns  which  have  been  suggested : — to  strengthen, 
in  fact,  as  an  Assessor  our  *  Final  Court  of  Appeal/ 
and  if  so,  would  you  kindly  meet  us  on  the  after- 
noon of  Tuesday,  June  8,  at  Arundel  House,  pre- 
paratory to  a  General  Meeting  of  the  Consultees 
on  the  following  day  ?  " 

His   eldest  son,  the   Rev.  F.  G.  Ellerton,  in   a 
letter  to  me  referring  to  this  period,  says — 

"  From  this  time  he  was  very  much  engaged 
until  the  publication  of  the  book  in  1889,  both 
with  the  general  work  of  selecting  and  judging, 
and  also  in  translating  hymns  from  the  Latin, 
He  re-cast  two  of  his  own,  *  From  east  to  west,' 
and  'Bride  of  Christ,'1  which  had  appeared  in 
Church  Hymns,  and  was  for  a  long  time  occupied 
over  a  rendering  of  O  Beata  Hierusalem,  with  sug- 
gestions from  the  Rev.  Jackson  Mason  :  these  two 
last  hymns  he  was  very  fond  of.  So  too  he  in 
turn  contributed  suggestions  to  the  translations  of 
others.  The  translations  were  a  feature  of  the 
Supplement,  and  he  much  enjoyed  his  old  work 
of  translating,  and  his  Daniel's  Thesaurus  was 
often  consulted,  and  he  asked  me,  and  you  too 
no  doubt,  for  suggestions.  It  is  no  doubt  a  ques- 
tion whether  the  translations  are  popular,  but 
'Bride  of  Christ'  always  seems  to  me  very  fine." 

The  following  letter  to  the  Rev.  G.  Cosby  White, 

accompanying  two  translations  from  the  Latin,  is 

interesting.     As  the  version  of  Puer  Natus  never 

seems  to  have  been  published  it  is  given  on  p.  148. 

1  See  p.  84. 


"  The  Rectory.,  White  Roding, 

"July  22,  1887. 


"I  send  you  (i)  Puer  Natus,  with  coi> 
rections  by  Jackson  Mason.  I  rather  prefer  in 
v.  2, 

''Here  in  a  manger  He  doth  lie.'1 
(Hie  jacet  in  praesepio.) 

But  J.  M.'s  second  line  is  better  than  mine.  His 
verse  about  Bos  et  asinus  is  also  a  great  improve- 
ment. Please  substitute  it  for  mine.  I  do  not 
quite  like 

'  He  comes,  yet  of  our  blood  in  truth.5 

But  if  you  prefer  it  let  it  be  so.  It  is  good  to  get 
in  sanguine.  I  also  prefer  J.  M.'s  Doxology,2  which 
is  nearly  what  was  on  my  first  draft. 

"  2.  Sponsa  Christi  (H.  A.M.  618). 

"J.  M.  has  seen  my  suggested  alterations,  and 
approves  of  them  all.  The  only  one  of  importance 
is — 

'  Blessed  Virgin  Mother/ 

'  Mother  Ever- Virgin.' 

Do  you  not  think  that  (apart  from  our  own  in- 
dividual sympathies)  the  use  of  the  first  phrase 
rather  than  the  second  will  tend  to  a  more 
harmonious  and  general  acceptance  of  the  hymn  ? 

1  J.  M.  suggested— 

"  He  in  a  manger-bed  doth  lie, 
Who  holds  unbounded  sovereignty." 

"  Praise  we  the  Holy  Three  in  One, 
And  thank  our  God  for  His  dear  Son." 


I  should  be  so  sorry  to  see  the  question  raised  and 
discussed  among  those  who  otherwise  would  gladly 
and  thankfully  receive  the  book.  But  having  said 
this  to  you,  I  shall  say  no  more.  To  myself 
personally  the  phrase  would  be  no  stumbling- 
block.  The  holy  Mother  of  our  Lord  is  to  me  for 
all  time  the  '  Blessed  Virgin  Mary.' " 

The  complete  edition  of  Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern,  that  is,  the  edition  of  1875  with  a  Supple- 
ment, was  published  in  1889.  Of  the  165  hymns 
of  which  the  Supplement  is  composed,  no  less 
than  13  are  by  Mr.  Ellerton,  namely — 

1.  "  Behold  us,  Lord,  a  little  space." 

2.  "  Bride    of  Christ,  whose   glorious   warfare." 
From  the  Latin. 

3.  "From   east  to  west,  from    shore   to  shore." 
From  the  Latin. 

4.  "  God  of  the  living,  in  Whose  eyes." 

5.  "  Hail  to  the  Lord  Who  comes." 

6.  "  O  Father  all  creating." 

7.  "  O  Father,  bless  the  children." 

8.  "  O  Jerusalem  the  blissful,  Home  of  gladness 
yet  untold."     From  the  Latin. 

9.  "  Oh  how  fair  that  morning  broke." 

10.  "  Praise  to  the  Heavenly  Wisdom." 

11.  "Shine  Thou  upon  us,  Lord." 

12.  "The  day  Thou  gavest,  Lord,  is  ended." 

13.  "  Welcome,  happy  morning  !  age  to  age  shall 
say."    From  the  Latin.     Making  the  whole  number 
of  his  contributions  to  the  book  twenty-six. 

"  It  would  be  scarcely  possible,"  in  the  words 
of  Mr.  White,  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee, 


"  to  exaggerate  the  value  of  the  assistance  which 
was  rendered  by  Mr.  Ellerton  in  the  production 
of  the  complete  edition." 

Early  in  1892  the  body  of  proprietors  of  Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern  invited  him  to  associate  him- 
self with  them  still  more  closely  in  view  of  the 
intervention  of  Convocation,  foreshadowed  by  the 
appointment  of  a  Committee.  He  accepted  the 
invitation,  but  it  came  too  late ;  he  was  never  able 
to  attend  any  of  the  meetings,  and  his  loss  was 
felt  by  the  compilers  to  be  irreparable. 


As  none  of  Canon  Ellerton's,  composed  subse- 
quent to  the  publication  of  Hymns  Original  and 
Translated '(1888),  have  been  incorporated,  so  far  as 
I  know,  into  any  hymnal,  they  are  here  given.  They 
are  of  unequal  merit,  some  indeed  were  written 
when  the  author  had  already  felt  the  first  touch 
of  that  hand  which  was  commissioned  to  take  him 
from  us.  With  the  exception  of  the  last  they  lack 
the  fire,  the  ring  of  his  best  compositions  ;  still 
they  are  all  full  of  holy  and  beautiful  thoughts. 

The  hymns  for  the  Conversion  of  St.  Paul,  First 
Day  of  Lent,  Ascension  Day,  and  St.  Matthew, 
and  the  Sunday  Hymn  for  Little  Children,  first 
appeared  in  the  Church  Monthly  Magazine,  and 
I  am  indebted  to  the  editor,  Frederick  Sherlock, 
Esq.,  for  permission  to  gather  them  into  this 

i.  Ascended  Lord,  Thy  Church's  Head,  is  worthy 
of  a  place  in  any  hymnal.  Perhaps  the  omission 
of  the  second  and  third  verses  would  render  it 
more  suitable  for  congregational  singing ;  while 
the  second  line  of  the  third  verse  would  certainly 
be  improved  by  A  Son  of  Man  being  altered  to 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  139 

The  Son  of  Man,  inasmuch  as  in  the  original  the 
definite  article  is  used.1 

2.  What  ^vere  Thy  forty  days  ?  is  not,  and  does 
not   profess   to   be,  in   any  sense   of  the  word   a 
hymn  ;  but  it  is  a  very  beautiful  Lenten  medita- 
tion, one  that  should  find  a  place  in   any  future 
collection  of  devotional  poetry. 

3.  'Tis  come,  the  day  of  exultation  ! — One  of  the 
best   of  this  series.     It  might  well  end,  however, 
with    the    sixth    verse,   which    forms    a    suitable 
concluding  doxology. 

4.  To-day  ive  sing  to  Christ  our  King. — In  no 
point   is  our   national   hymnody  weaker   than    in 
historical  hymns,  hymns  which  connect  the  present 
age  of  the  English  Church  with  the  old  heroes  of 
the  faith,  whose  names  are  preserved,  apparently 
only  to  be  ignored,  in  our  Calendar.     We  greatly 
want  hymns  recording  the  deeds  of  what  are  called 
the  "  Black-letter  Saints,"  e.g.  St.  Hugh  of  Lincoln, 
St.  Richard  of  Chichester,  St.  Hilary,  etc.     This 
hymn,  and  the  Brighton  processional,  Praise  our 
God  for  all    the    wonders,    are    models   for   such 

6.  0  Holy  Spirit,  Whom  our  Master  sent. — In  a 
letter  dated  January  2,  1890,  the  Bishop  of  Exeter 
writes  to  Mr.  Ellerton,  "  In  your  most  kind  letter 
of  November  14,  you  were  good  enough  to  say  you 
would  attempt  to  write  a  hymn  on  charity  (i  Cor. 
xiii.)  for  me  ;  and  I  have  not  seldom  breathed 
a  prayer  that  God  would  give  you  one  for  His 
Church."  This  is  the  hymn  composed  in  com- 
pliance with  the  Bishop's  request. 

1  TOV  vibv  TOV  aV0poi7Tov,  Acts  vii.  56. 


6.  "  Follow   Me  ! "   the  Master  spake. — A   very 
valuable   addition    to   the   series  of  Saints'   Days 
hymns,  and  one  that  is  sure  to  find  its  way  into 
future  hymnals. 

7.  A  Sunday  Hymn  for  Little  Children,  dated 
August  24,  1891. 

8.  Say,    Watchman,   what  of  the  night  ? — Mr. 
Ellerton's  last  published  hymn.     The  old  fire  and 
vigour   seems    to  have    returned,  and   this   noble 
Advent  song  will  rank  with  the  compositions  01 
his  best  days. 


ASCENDED  Lord,  Thy  Church's  Head, 
Thou  First-Begotten  from  the  dead, 
Thy  life  is  hid  in  depths  of  light, 
Beyond  the  world  of  sense  and  sight. 

Though  now  withdrawn  behind  the  veil, 
Thy  Pastoral  love  can  never  fail ; 
And  Thou,  Great  Shepherd  of  the  sheep, 
By  night  and  day  Thy  watch  dost  keep. 

Thy  dying  Martyr  saw  Thee  stand, 
A  Son  of  Man,  at  God's  right  Hand  ; 
Thy  blinding  glory  barred  the  path, 
And  stayed  the  persecutor's  wrath. 

Oh,  day  of  blessings  for  our  race  ! 
Oh,  mystery  of  electing  grace  ! 
When  that  Divine  and  loving  call 
Subdued  the  stubborn  heart  of  Saul  ! 

Thy  word  the  fiery  spirit  broke  ; 

The  strong  will  bowed  to  bear  Thy  yoke  ; 

He  rose,  the  bondman  of  his  Lord, 

To  preach  the  Name  he  once  abhorred. 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  141 

Light  of  the  Gentiles  !  Praise  to  Thee, 
For  this  Thy  last  Epiphany  ! 
From  this  great  hour  the  Dayspring  shone 
On  lands  unnamed,  on  tribes  unknown. 

Victorious  Love  !  pursue  Thy  road, 
Till  all  the  earth  shall  see  her  God  ; 
And  many  a  foeman  yet  shall  be 
A  chosen  vessel  unto  Thee  ! 

August  13,  1890. 

2— THE    FIRST   DAY   OF   LENT. 

WHAT  were  Thy  Forty  Days  ? — 
No  calm  retreat  within  the  holy  place  ; 
No  friend  to  speak  one  strengthening,  soothing  word  ; 
No  comfort  of  a  silent,  pitying  face  ; 
No  voice  with  Thine  in  soft  responding  heard  ; 
Long  hours  of  thoughts  unuttered  and  unknown  ; 
Day  after  day,  the  wilderness,  alone  ! 

What  are  my  Lenten  days  ? — 
The  open  portals  of  Thy  house  of  prayer, 
With  friends  and  brethren  kneeling  at  my  side  ; 
A  low-breathed  psalm  of  mercy  in  the  air  ; 
A  pastoral  voice  to  warn,  or  cheer,  or  guide  ; 
The  Bread  of  Heaven  itself,  bestowed  to  win 
Fresh  strength  for  battling  with  my  secret  sin. 

What  were  Thy  Forty  Days  ? — 
The  lonely  vigil  and  the  bitter  fast, 
Chastening  that  Flesh  which  knew  no  taint  of  ill ; 
The  nights  and  days  in  high  communion  passed  ; 
The  self-surrender  to  the  Father's  will ; 
And,  most  of  all,  the  conflict  stern  and  dread, 
Which  bruised  for  us  the  ancient  tempter's  head. 

What  are  my  Lenten  days  ? — 
An  hour's  retirement  from  the  world's  full  round  ; 
A  few  light  pleasures  for  a  while  foregone  ; 
A  little  pausing  here  on  holy  ground, 


My  God  to  seek,  my  sins  to  think  upon  ; 

A  few  faint  sighs  o'er  evil  thought  and  deed  ; 

A  few  resolves  a  holier  life  to  lead. 

Yet  make  my  Lent  like  Thine  ! 
No  strength  have  I  to  climb  that  lonely  height, 
Like  Thee  to  wrestle,  and  like  Thee  prevail ; 
Yet  grant  me,  in  Thy  guiding  Spirit's  might, 
To  follow  Thee,  though  flesh  and  heart  should  fail, 
Alone  with  Thee  to  foil  the  tempter's  skill, 
And  learn  at  length  to  do  my  Father's  will. 


'Tis  come,  the  day  of  exultation  ! 

The  day  for  which  the  ages  yearned  ; 
When  Christ,  the  Hope  of  all  creation, 

The  Mighty  God,  to  heaven  returned. 

God  is  gone  up  on  high  ascending, 
His  rightful  throne  once  more  to  fill, 

And  all  the  realms  of  bliss  unending 
Are  ringing  with  His  welcome  still. 

On  that  great  battlefield  victorious, 
Where  Satan  fell,  He  took  His  prey  ; — 

A  deathless  body,  risen  and  glorious, 
Before  His  Father  to  display. 

From  yonder  cloud  our  King  Immortal 
Speaks  hope  to  each  believing  soul  : 

His  touch  unbars  the  long-closed  portal, — 
The  gates  of  Eden  backward  roll. 

O  joy,  all  other  joys  exceeding  ! 

The  Virgin-Born,  our  Very  Own, — 
Past  all  the  shame,  the  Cross,  the  bleeding, 

Ascends  at  last  His  Father's  Throne. 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  143 

Then  to  our  Champion  of  Salvation 

All  thanks  and  praises  let  us  pay  ; 
Who,  Firstfruits  of  His  ransomed  nation, 

Hath  borne  our  flesh  on  high  to-day. 

For  on  this  day  of  days  'tis  given 

To  men  to  share  in  angels'  mirth, 
They  joy  that  He  is  come  to  heaven, 

And  we  that  He  forsook  not  earth. 

Lord,  give  us  grace,  as  Thou  hast  bidden, 

In  works  of  love  to  wait  for  Thee  ; 
Our  life  with  Thine  in  God  be  hidden, 
.    That  where  Thou  art  we  yet  may  be. 

4— TRANSLATION    OF    ST.    MARTIN.1     (July  4.) 

TO-DAY  we  sing  to  Christ  our  King 

His  valiant  soldiers'  praise  ; 
The  men  who  bore  from  shore  to  shore 

The  Faith  in  ancient  days  ; 
Of  Martin's  work  for  God  we  tell, 

Through  patient  years  sustained, 
Till  thousands  heard  the  Gospel  word, 

And  life  eternal  gained. 

When  first  to  these  lone  woods  and  fields 

Our  conquering  fathers  came, 
They  gave  their  new-built  house  of  prayer 

Saint  Martin's  honoured  name  ; 
Because  from  him  their  sires  had  learned 

The  tale  of  Jesus'  love, 
And  so  from  idol  forms  had  turned 

To  worship  God  above. 

1  The  Patron  Saint  of  White  Roding  church  ;  this  hymn  was  written  for 
the  Parish  Festival,  1891.  St.  Martin  is  commemorated  twice  in  the 
Prayer-book  Calendar  ;  his  death  on  November  n  (he  died  November  8, 
397),  and  the  translation  of  his  remains  on  July  4.  He  died  and  was 
buried  at  Cande,  a  monastery  at  the  extremity  of  his  diocese,  but  in  473 
his  relics  were  removed  to  a  basilica  dedicated  in  his  honour  near  Tours. 
In  England  alone  there  are  one  hundred  and  sixty  churches  dedicated 
to  St.  Martin. 


Eight  hundred  years  haye  passed  away 

Since  this  old  church  was  new  ; 
And  still  to-day  the  Creeds  we  say 

Which  Martin  taught  for  true. 
Then  speed  Thy  Word,  O  conquering  Lord, 

From  rise  to  set  of  sun, 
Till  land  and  sea  shall  bow  to  Thee, 

And  praise  the  Three  in  One  ! 


O  HOLY  SPIRIT,  Whom  our  Master  sent 

Rich  with  all  treasures,  from  the  throne  above, 

We  pray  Thee  for  Thy  gift  most  excellent, 
Thy  greatest,  Thine  unfailing  gift  of  love. 

'Tis  not  for  us  with  one  commanding  word 
To  heal  the  sick,  or  chase  the  hosts  of  hell ; 

In  tongues  unknown  to  make  Thy  mysteries  heard, 
Or  things  of  God  with  lips  inspired  to  tell. 

Those  signs  are  past ;  the  written  word  is  ours  ; 

And  Satan  trembles  at  the  might  of  prayer  : 
The  shield  of  Faith  can  quell  the  evil  powers, 

And  Hope's  bright  helmet  save  us  from  despair. 

These  yet  abide  ;  but  we  would  covet  still 
One  gift,  exalted  faith  and  hope  above  : 

Grant  us  the  new  commandment  to  fulfil, 
And  even  as  Jesus  loved  us,  so  to  love. 

Grant  us  to  follow  His  long-suffering  path, 
Joying  in  truth,  yet  helping  them  that  fall ; 

To  think  no  evil,  give  no  place  to  wrath, 
'But  bear,  believe,  endure,  and  hope  for  all. 

So  when  at  length  we  know  as  we  are  known, 

And  all  the  shadows  are  for  ever  past, 
He  Who  is  Love  may  find  in  us  His  own, 

And  all  in  Him  be  perfect  love  at  last. 

March  24,  1890 

1  Kindly  communicated  by  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Exeter. 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  145 

6— ST.   MATTHEW. 

"He  gave  some  .  .  .  Evangelists." 

"  FOLLOW  Me  ! "  the  Master  spake, 
As  He  passed  beside  the  lake  ; 
This  the  fisher  brothers  heard, 
Left  their  all  at  Jesus'  word. 

"  Follow  Me  ! "  and  Matthew,  too, 
That  constraining  summons  knew  ; 
Cast  away  his  hopes  of  gain, 
Chose  the  labour,  want,  and  pain. 

Oh,  the  blest  exchange  he  made, 
With  the  Master's  pound  to  trade  ! 
Priceless  wealth  of  souls  to  lay 
At  His  feet  on  that  Great  Day  ! 

Following  on  where  Jesus  led, 
Gathering  up  the  words  He  said, 
Watching  every  gracious  deed — 
So  the  world  might  hear  and  read. 

Earliest  of  the  Chosen  Four, 
He,  from  out  his  treasure-store, 
Bringing  forth  things  new  and  old, 
Tidings  of  the  Kingdom  told. 

On  the  Blessed  Mount  He  saw 
Given  the  new  and  holier  Law. 
On  the  shore  he  stood  and  learned 
Mysteries  by  the  few  discerned. 

So  he  spake  of  things  he  knew, 
Type  and  prophecy  come  true  ; 
Words  of  life,  and  signs  of  power, 
Warnings  of  the  Judgment  hour  : 

Spake  of  Jesus'  Cross  and  pain, 
How  His  grave  was  watched  in  vain  ; 
How  on  Easter  morning  He 
Led  His  flock  to  Galilee. 



There  the  Risen  Lord  once  more 
Stood  beside  them  on  the  shore, 
Bade  His  Church  her  charge  fulfil, 
Told  her  He  is  with  us  still. 

Praise  to  Thee,  O  Lord  the  Christ, 
For  Thy  first  Evangelist  ! 
Praise  for  all  which  Thou  dost  give, 
Word  of  God,  by  Whom  we  live  ! 

March  21,  1890. 


IT  was  early  in  the  morning — 

The  first  bright  Sunday  morning — 
That  the  dear  Lord  Jesus  rose  from  the  grave  in  which  He  lay; 

And  in  the  morning  quiet, 

The  holy  Angels  by  it, 
Sat  waiting  for  the  Maries  to  come  along  the  way. 

The  Maries  came  in  sadness, 

But  the  Angels  brought  them  gladness 

When  they  said,  "  The  Lord  is  risen  ;  He  will  never  die 


And  soon  He  came  to  meet  them, 
With  loving  words  to  greet  them — 

Oh,  that  Sunday  put  an  end  to  their  sorrow  and  their  pain  ! 

Now  the  Angels  who  sit  keeping 

Their  watch  while  we  lie  sleeping 
Are  glad  to  see  us  wake  when  the  Sunday  morn  is  here  ; 

For  they  know  their  Lord  rejoices 

To  listen  to  their  voices, 
And  the  praises  of  the  children  to  Him  are  always  dear. 

Then  let  us  take  our  places 

With  gladness  on  our  faces — 
With  hearts  and  voices  ready  our  Sunday  hymns  to  sing  ; 

For  it  is  coming  one  day, 

The  best  and  brightest  Sunday, 
When  all  His  children  rise  again  to  meet  their  glorious  King ! 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  147 


"  SAY,  watchman,-  what  of  the  night  ? 

Is  it  shrouded  in  darkness  still? 
Are  there  no  pale  streaks  of  the  dawning  light 

O'er  the  crest  of  the  Eastern  hill  ?  " 
"  Yea,  the  stars  are  glittering  clear  ; 

Nor  yet  does  the  East  turn  grey  ; 
But  the  night  is  waning,  the  dawn  is  near, 

The  dawn  of  a  cloudless  day." 

"  But,  watchman,  what  of  the  night — 

The  night  of  our  sorrow  and  pain — 
Will  the  darkened  life  never  more  grow  bright, 

Nor  the  joy  return  again  ? " 
' '  Yea,  sorrow  and  pain  for  awhile, 

Are  the  burden  upon  you  laid  ; 
But  soon  on  your  tears  shall  the  sunrise  smile, 

With  the  brightness  that  ne'er  shall  fade." 

"  But,  watchman,  what  of  the  night 

Of  evil,  and  wrong,  and  woe  ? 
For  dark  is  the  time,  and  fierce  is  the  fight, 

And  unyielding  is  the  foe." 
"  Yea,  the  battle  is  sore  and  long, 

Through  the  night  of  the  troubled  years. 
But  the  Advent  morn  brings  the  Victor  song, 

And  joy  when  the  Christ  appears." 

The  following  Translations  and  Hymns  were 
found  by  the  Rev.  F.  G.  Ellerton  among  his  father's 
papers.  None  of  them,  so  far  as  I  know,  have 
hitherto  appeared  in  print.  Some,  especially  the 
Puer  Natus  and  Sous  ton  voile  cPignoininie,  have 
evidently  a  future  before  them.  Although  all  are 
in  the  Canon's  handwriting,  Nos.  6  and  7  are 
believed  to  be  by  Dr.  Monsell,  No.  8  by  Emma 
Toke,  and  No.  10  'by  Joseph  Anstice. 



A  CHILD  is  born  in  Bethlehem, 

And  gladness  fills  Jerusalem.     Alleluia  ! 

Here  in  a  manger  He  doth  lie, 

Who  reigns  for  evermore  on  high.     Alleluia  ! 

His  crib  the  ox  and  ass  have  known, 

And  in  this  Child,  their  Lord  they  own.     Alleluia  ! 

From  Saba  comes  a  train  of  kings, 

Gold,  frankincense,  and  myrrh  it  brings.     Alleluia  ! 

Each  kneels  in  turn  upon  the  floor 

The  new-born  Sovereign  to  adore     Alleluia  ! 

Born  of  a  Virgin  undefiled  ; 

No  earthly  father  calls  Him  child.     Alleluia  ! 

Untainted  by  the  serpent's  tooth, 

Yet  one  with  us  in  very  truth.     Alleluia  ! 

Like  unto  us  in  flesh  is  He, 

But  unlike  us  from  sin  is  free  ;     Alleluia  ! 

That  so  in  man  He  may  restore 

God's  likeness  and  His  own  once  more.     Alleluia  ! 

In  gladness  for  this  wondrous  Birth, 

Bless  we  the  Lord  of  Heaven  and  earth.     Alleluia  ! 

[Glory  to  Thee,  this  happy  morn, 

O  Jesu  Lord,  the  Virgin-born  !     Alleluia  !  ] 

To  Thee,  most  Blessed  Trinity, 

All  thanks,  all  praise,  all  worship  be.     Alleluia  !    Amen. 


Lo,  the  Angel  squadrons  muster  ;  lo,  the  armies  of  the  sky  ! 
Round  the   sapphire  Throne  they  gather,  worshipping  the 

Lord  most  high  ; 
Holy,  Holy,  Holy  Sovereign  King,  Almighty  God,  they  cry. 

THE   LAST    HYMNS  149 

Saviour  Christ,  the  Father's  glory,  life  and  strength  of  loving 


While  the  tide  of  adoration  round  Thy  Feet  in  music  rolls, 
While  the  anthem  of  the  blessed  Thy  beloved  Name  extols. 

With  the  choir  of  mighty  angels  we  our  lowly  hymns  would 

raise ; 
Here  with  psalm  and  song  responsive  swell  the  torrent  of 

their  praise  ; 
Till  at  last  with  them  united  on  Thine  unveiled  Face  we  gaze. 

Thou  art  worthy,  Thou  hast  conquered  ;  grant  us,  Lord,  to 

conquer  too, 
Though  our  foes  are  strong  and  crafty,  and  our  forces  scant 

and  few ; 
Lord  of  armies,  Thou  wilt  aid  us  ;  faithful  is  Thy  Name  and 



"  O  taste  and  see  how  gracious  the  Lord  is." 

O  MEAT  for  travellers  on  their  road, 

O  Angel's  Bread  on  men  bestowed, 
O  Manna,  Heavenly  food  ! 

Fill  Thou  our  hearts  that  faint  for  Thee, 

Forbid  us  not  to  taste  and  see 

That  Thou,  O  Lord,  art  good . 

O  Fount  of  Love,  which  long  ago 
From  one  pure  Source  began  to  flow — 

The  SAVIOUR'S  wounded  Side  ; 
Refresh  the  thirsting  in  their  need  ; 
For  Thee  we  crave,  in  Thee  indeed 

Our  soul  is  satisfied. 

O  JESU  LORD,  Whose  Face  Divine 

Here  through  the  veils  of  Bread  and  Wine 

Believing  we  adore, 
Grant  us  in  Thine  eternity 
With  open  eyes  to  gaze  on  Thee, 

And  love  Thee  evermore. 



O  SACRED  HEAD,  beneath  Thy  veil  of  shame, 
Beneath  Thy  crown  of  pain  I  know  Thy  Name  ; 
Through  the  dim  cloud  of  blood  mine  eye  can  trace 
The  quenchless  majesty  of  that  marred  Face  ! 

Oh,  never  in  the  realm  of  light  till  now 
Did  light  so  heavenly  shine  upon  Thy  Brow ; 
Never  in  Beauty's  home,  Thy  Beauty's  ray 
Beamed  with  such  glow  as  here  on  Golgotha. 

Ye  who  adore  the  Father  in  the  Son, 
Where  life  and  worship  are  for  ever  one, 
Say,  did  He  ever  seem  so  fair  to  see, 
Angels,  as  here  upon  the  atoning  Tree  ? 

His  death  hath  crowned  the  honour  which  was  His 
From  everlasting  in  the  land  of  bliss  ; 
And  with  the  humbling  of  the  Son  of  Man, 
The  glory  of  the  Son  of  God  began. 

The  Father's  voice  proclaimed  it — I  am  Love  ; 
And  Jesus,  stooping  from  His  home  above, 
Bore  the  glad  news  to  earth,  to  every  one — 
Lo  !  I  am  Love  ;  I  am  the  Father's  Son. 

Yes,  He  is  Love  ;  the  God  we  see,  we  know  ; 
The  God  in  whom  God  blesses  man  below, 
Where  is  the  Throne  of  Love,  but  where  we  find 
Brother  and  Victim  in  our  God  combined  ? 

Love  is  the  highest ;  Love  the  joy  of  heaven  ; 
Love  the  true  Crown  to  our  Emmanuel  given  ; 
Poor  dreams  of  power  away  !  henceforth  for  me 
There  is  no  greatness  but  in  charity. 

My  reason  worships  Thee,  O  Love  Divine, 
Come,  fill  and  change  this  empty  heart  of  mine  ; 
Come,  that  my  soul  Thy  Light  and  joy  may  share 
And  carry  Eden  with  her  everywhere. 

THE   LAST  HYMNS  15 1 

Mine  eyes  on  Thine,  Divinest  Brother,  fix  ! 
My  life  with  Thine  vouchsafe  to  intermix  ! 
Pour  into  mine  Thy  heart,  and  so  destroy 
All  longing  in  my  soul  for  other  joy  ! 

(From  Chants  Chretiens). 

[I  have  translated  the  whole  of  the  verses,  but  it 
obviously  requires  much  curtailment] 


"Thou  art  the  same,  and  Thy  years  shall  have  no  end." 

THE  years  pass  on.     We  name  them  good  or  bad  : — 
This  brought  us  hope  and  love  and  bright  success  ; 
That  other  left  us  empty,  dark  and  sad  ; 
Now  both  are  past,  the  joy,  the  bitterness  : 
Glory  to  Thee  for  both,  from  Whom  they  came  ; 
Thou  art  the  same  ! 

The  years  bring  change .     The  fires  of  youth  grow  old  : 
We  half  forget  the  names  we  once  revered, 
Smile  at  the  hatreds  and  the  loves  of  old, 
And  dwell  in  peace  among  the  things  we  feared. 
Glory  to  Thee,  the  One  Unchanging  Name  : 
Thou  art  the  same  ! 

The  years  bring  doubt :  we  count  them  up  and  see 
Our  wisdom  all  at  fault,  our  forecasts  vain  ; 
Nothing  that  hath  been  tells  us  what  shall  be, 
No  past  experience  makes  the  future  plain. 
Thee  only  can  we  trust ;  we  know  Thy  Name  ; 
Thou  art  the  same  ! 

Not  with  high  hopes,  yet  not  with  weak  despair, 
We  cross  the  threshold  of  another  year  ; 
Silent  we  enter  in,  we  know  not  where  : 
All  that  we  know  is  only,  Thou  art  here  ; 
Because  Thy  years,  O  Master,  Guide,  and  Friend, 
Shall  have  no  end  ! 


6- AD  VENT. 

LORD,  to  Thy  holy  temple 

Return,  return  again  ; 
Come  back  and  fill  with  glory 

The  ways  and  hearts  of  men  ! 
Not  now  a  lowly  Infant, 

Unnoticed  and  unknown  ; 
But  in  the  royal  splendour 

Of  Thine  eternal  throne  ! 

Come  back  and  fill  Thy  temple, 

Built  up  of  human  hearts, 
With  that  abiding  Presence 

Which  never  more  departs  ! 
Thy  Spirit  send  before  Thee, 

Till,  by  His  life  restored, 
Thy  people  all  adore  Thee, 

Their  only  King  and  Lord  ! 


BLESSED  Lord,  Who  till  the  morning 

Of  Thine  Advent  shall  appear, 
Words  of  hope  hast  left  and  warning, 

Souls  to  strengthen,  guide,  and  cheer  ; 
Left  them  written  for  our  learning, 

Pointing  out  the  one  true  way, 
Lest  our  hearts  with  all  their  yearning 

After  home,  should  go  astray. 

Grant  us  in  the  sacred  story 

Of  the  deeds  which  Thou  hast  done, 
Grace  to  catch  those  gleams  of  glory 

Which  on  saints  and  martyrs  shone  ; 
Grant  us  faithful  hearts  to  linger 

O'er  the  steps  which  Thou  hast  trod, 
Where  Thy  Cross  with  silent  finger 

Points  the  upward  way  to  God. 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  153 

Fill  us,  as  we  read  the  pages 

Traced  by  holy  men  of  old, 
With  the  hope  which  through  the  ages 

Did  our  fathers'  hearts  uphold  ; 
Still  to  be,  by  wisdom  learning, 

Kept  in  patience  by  Thy  word, 
Faith  still  bright,  and  love  still  burning, 

Servants,  ready  for  their  Lord. 


O  LORD,  Thou  knowest  all  the  snares 

That  round  our  pathway  be  ; 
Thou  knowest  how  both  joys  and  cares 

Come  between  us  and  Thee. 

Thou  know'st  that  our  infirmity 

In  Thee  alone  is  strong  : 
To  Thee  for  help  and  strength  we  fly  ; 

Oh,  let  us  not  go  wrong ! 

Oh,  bear  us  up,  protect  us  now 

In  dark  temptation's  hour  ; 
For  Thou  wast  born  of  woman,  Thou 

Hast  felt  temptation's  power. 

All  sinless,  Thou  canst  feel  for  those 

Who  strive  and  suffer  long  ; 
Then  still  'midst  all  our  cares  and  woes 

Oh  let  us  not  go  wrong  ! 

IN   ZION." 

IN  gladness  to  Thy  House,  O  Lord, 

Thy  children  come  to-day, 
To  bless  Thy  Name  with  one  accord, 

And  with  one  mouth  to  pray. 
High  praise  in  Zion  waits  for  Thee, 

Where  that  New  Song  unknown 
Is  borne  across  the  glassy  sea 

From  saints  before  the  Throne 


For  Thee  our  lowlier  worship  waits, 

Whene'er  with  duteous  feet 
We  stand  within  Thine  earthly  gates, 

Thy  glorious  Name  to  greet. 

For  if  Thy  grace  our  hearts  inspire 

With  faith  and  love  and  fear, 
The  simplest  hymn  of  village  choir 

To  Thee  we  know  is  dear. 

Then  help  us,  Lord,  while  here  we  live 

To  offer  Thee  our  best  ; 
Do  Thou  our  ignorance  forgive, 

And  perfect  all  the  rest. 

Praise  to  the  Father's  Name  is  meet ; 

Praise  to  His  only  Son  ; 
Praise  to  the  Blessed  Paraclete, 

The  Three  for  ever  One. 

October  9,  1891. 


O  LORD,  Thy  Presence  is  revealed 

By  mountain  and  by  flood, 
By  woodland,  and  by  quiet  field, 

And  homes  where  dwell  the  good. 

Yet  Thou  art  with  each  faithful  heart 

That  pure  would  still  remain, 
And  do  its  firm  yet  gentle  part 

Amidst  the  bad  and  vain. 

Dear  Lord,  through  this  world's  troubled  way 
Thy  children's  footsteps  guide  ; 

And  lead  them  onward  day  by  day, 
Unspotted  at  Thy  side. 

Be  ours  to  do  Thy  work  of  love 

All  erring  souls  to  win  ; 
Amid  a  sinful  world  to  move, 

Yet  give  no  smile  to  sin. 

THE   LAST   HYMNS  1 55 

For  the  Son  of  Man  is  as  a  man  taking  a  far  journey,  who  left  his 
house,  and  gave  authority  to  his  servants,  and  to  every  man  his  work, 
and  commanded  the  porter  to  watch." — St.  Mark  xiii.  34. 

WHEN  to  the  far-off  country 

The  Master  took  His  way, 
This  charge  He  gave  His  servants  : — 

"  Take  heed,  and  watch,  and  pray  : 
Lo,  here  your  tasks  appointed 

Until  I  come  again  ; 
And  ever  let  the  watchman 

Look  forth  across  the  plain." 

Great  is  His  house,  and  many 

The  guests  within  the  hall, 
Because  from  street  and  highway 

He  bade  us  welcome  all ; 
The  servants'  tasks  are  heavy, 

They  ply  them  might  and  main  ; 
And  through  the  gate  the  watchman 

Looks  forth  across  the  plain. 

Long  doth  the  Master  tarry  ; 

And  murmuring  voices  cry, 
"  Vain  all  our  care  and  labour, 

His  coming  draws  not  nigh  :  " 
And  slothful  dreamers  prattle 

Of  pleasure  and  of  gain  ; 
Yet  still  the  faithful  watchman 

Looks  forth  across  the  plain. 

Soon  shall  he  mark,  some  midnight, 

The  longed-for  sign  of  fire, 
Or  hail  in  redness  dawning 

The  morn  of  his  desire  ; — 
The  day  when  home  in  triumph 

The  Master  comes  again, 
And  He  shall  haste  to  open 

The  Gate  towards  the  plain. 

June  23,  1891. 


THE  publication  of  the  "  Complete  Edition  "  of 
Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  in  1889  may  be  said 
to  mark  the  close  of  Mr.  Ellerton's  hymnological 
labours.  One  little  thing  indeed  he  undertook  for 
the  S.  P.  C.  K.,  but  this  was  an  amusement  rather 
than  work:  he  thought  that  The  Children 's  Almanac, 
published  annually  by  that  Society,  might  be  made 
more  interesting  by  interweaving  a  Calendar  of 
Nature,  after  the  manner  of  that  in  White's  Set- 
borne,  with  the  chronology  of  the  months,  at  the 
same  time  introducing  a  short  notice  of  a  few 
well-known  birds.  These  last  papers  he  asked  the 
writer  of  these  lines  to  prepare  for  him.  The 
Almanac  was  ready  for  1891,  but  did  not  appear 
till  the  following  year.  Thus  his  last  work  was,  as 
his  first  had  been,  for  children. 

And  now  the  time  drew  near  when  he  must  rest 
from  his  labours.  On  the  morning  of  December  1 1, 
1 89 1,  the  first  of  the  three  warnings  which  paralysis 
usually  gives  reached  him.  Further  work  was 
impossible,  and  appointing  a  trustworthy  priest  to 
continue  to  feed  his  flock  at  White  Roding,  he 
withdrew  to  Torquay.  For  a  time  he  seemed  to 
rally,  and  still  talked  cheerfully  to  his  friends,  and 
took  a  great  interest  in  Dr.  Julian's  magnificent 
Dictionary  of  Hymnology,  which  had  just  been 

THE    CLOSE  157 

published.  On  May  5,  1892,  the  second  summons 
was  received  at  Torquay,  which  crippled  him  still 
more  seriously,  and  he  immediately  began  to  make 
arrangements  for  resigning  White  Roding,  now 
that  all  hope  of  ever  returning  to  his  beloved  work 
as  a  parish  priest  was  taken  away. 

And  now  it  was,  as  he  was  lying  disabled,  wait- 
ing his  Master's  call,  that  he  was  nominated  to  a 
prebendal  stall  in  St.  Albans  Cathedral  Church. 
But  the  promotion  came  too  late  ;  the  installation 
never  took  place.  One  cannot  contemplate  with- 
out pain,  that  he  whose  one  ambition  it  was  to 
have  a  church  possessing  historical  interest,  an 
ambition  which  was  never  attained  until  he  came 
to  White  Roding,  and  then  only  very  partially, 
should  never  have  experienced  the  satisfaction  of 
sitting  in  his  own  stall  in  that  glorious  abbey,  and 
feeling  himself  one  of  its  incorporate  body — cujus 
a  singulis  in  solidum  pars  tenetnr. 

It  appears  to  be  the  custom  of  St.  Albans 
Cathedral  for  the  Prebendaries  to  receive  the  title 
of  "  Canon,"  which  in  some  other  foundations  is 
restricted  to  the  Residentiaries,  so  for  the  last  year 
of  his  life  he  received  the  empty  and  honorary 
address  of  "  Canon  "  Ellerton. 

White  Roding  Rectory  was  bidden  farewell  to 
in  the  following  October,  the  stricken  poet  returning 
to  Torquay,  where,  however,  he  had  the  burden  of 
feeling  that  he  was  still  Rector,  of  which  he  was  not 
relieved  until  March,  after  he  had  taken  to  his  bed. 

He  was  able  to  attend  the  services  at  St.  John's 
Church  up  to  the  Feast  of  the  Epiphany,  January 
6,  1893,  after  which  he  grew  rapidly  worse.  His 


mind  became  overclouded,  and  as  he  lay  peaceful 
and  happy  there  came  back  to  his  memory  in  end- 
less succession  fragments  of  the  hymns  he  so  dearly 
loved.  Gradually  he  grew  weaker,  and  ever  less 
conscious  day  by  day,  until  on  June  15  those 
around  him  witnessed  the  realization  of  his  own 
words — 

"  The  brightness  of  a  holy  deathbed  blending 
With  dawning  glories  of  the  eternal  day." 

Those  who  had  the  privilege  of  following  him 
to  his  grave,  a  sunny  spot  in  the  cemetery  of 
Torquay,  on  Tuesday,  June  20,  attended  a  funeral 
service  such  as  can  but  very  seldom  have  'been 
witnessed  before.  He  was  buried  amid  his  own 
hymns.  At  the  burial  of  many  a  departed  Church 
poet  his  own  hymns  have  been  sung,  but  when 
John  Ellerton  was  carried  to  his  bed  of  hope  all 
the  hymns,  six  in  number,  were  from  his  own  pen. 

The  clergy  and  choir  met  the  body  at  the  porch, 
and  proceeded  up  the  church  chanting  the  proces- 
sional sentences.  The  coffin,  covered  with  flowers, 
was  placed  in  the  chancel,  and  Psalm  xc.  was  sung. 
The  Lesson  was  read  by  one  of  the  poet's  oldest 
friends  and  companions  in  hymnology,  the  Rev. 
R.  Brown-Borthwick ;  after  which  was  sung,  "  God 
of  the  living,  in  Whose  eyes."  Then  followed  the 
celebration  of  Holy  Communion,  fully  choral  with 
Merbecke's  music,  the  Vicar,  the  Rev.  Basil  R. 
Airy,  being  the  celebrant.  The  Introit  was — 

"Rest  eternal  grant  to  them,  O  Lord,  and  let 
light  perpetual  shine  upon  them. 

"  Thou,  O  God,  art  praised  in  Sion,  and  unto 
Thee  shall  the  vow  be  performed  in  Jerusalem. 

THE    CLOSE  159 

"  Thou  that  hearest  the  prayer,  unto  Thee  shall 
all  flesh  come. 

"  Rest  eternal,"  etc. 

As  a  sequence  was  sung  that  hymn  of  tenderest 
beauty,  "  When  the  day  of  toil  is  done."  And 
during  Communion  the  last  verse  of  "  Saviour, 
again  to  Thy  dear  Name  we  raise"  (Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern,  31) — 

"  Grant  us  Thy  peace  throughout  our  earthly  life, 
Our  balm  in  sorrow,  and  our  stay  in  strife  ; 
Then,  when  Thy  voice  shall  bid  our  conflict  cease, 
Call  us,  O  Lord,  to  Thine  eternal  peace." 

After  the  last  prayer — "  Now  the  labourer's  task 
is  o'er." 

The  coffin  was  then  borne  from  the  chancel 
during  the  chanting  of  Nnnc  dimittis,  and  thus 
the  poet  passed  out  of  the  church.  The  six 
pall-bearers  were  representatives  of  the  chief 
works  to  which  Canon  Ellerton  had  devoted 
so  much  of  his  life  :  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern 
by  the  Rev.  C.  W.  Bond,  in  the  absence  of  the 
Chairman  of  the  Committee,  the  Rev.  G.  Cosby 
White;  Church  Hymns  by  the  Rev.  R.  Brown- 
Borthwick;  The  Children's  Hymn- Book  by  the  Rev. 
Herbert  Harvey,  deputed  by  Bishop  Walsham 
How,  who  was  unable  to  attend ;  The  Hymnal 
Companion  by  the  Rev.  C.  E.  Storrs,  in  the  place 
of  Bishop  E.  H.  Bickersteth,  who  was  unavoidably 
absent ;  Colonel  Acton  represented  the  Society  for 
Promoting  Christian  Knowledge,  and  Mr.  W.  M. 
Moorsom  the  parishioners  of  Crewe  Green.  The 
procession  neared  the  grave  singing,  "  O  shining 
city  of  our  God." 


The  Vicar  committed  the  body  to  the  ground, 
the  choir  singing  the  verse  "  I  heard  a  voice  from 
heaven,"  etc.,  while  after  the  concluding  prayer 
the  choir  broke  out  into  the  loveliest  of  all  the 
departed  poet's  translations,  "  O  Strength  and 
Stay,  upholding  all  creation." 

Thus  amid  the  singing  of  his  own  hymns  was 
the  beloved  poet  laid  in  his  honoured  grave — "  Not 
dead  but  living  unto  Thee."  Over  no  one,  be  it 
king  or  conqueror,  prelate  or  statesman,  could  it 
be  said  with  greater  truth  than  over  the  priest  and 
poet  now  left  to  sleep  in  his  Father's  gracious 
keeping,  that  "  his  body  is  buried  in  peace ;  but 
his  name  liveth  for  evermore."  l  For  as  the  Church 
of  to-day  counts  among  her  choicest  treasures  the 
hymns  she  received  from  her  ancient  singers,  from 
Ambrose,  Venantius  Fortunatus,  Adam  of  St. 
Victor,  the  two  Bernards,  and  many  others,  so 
will  the  Church  of  after  ages,  until  the  coming  of 
her  long-absent,  long-expected  Lord,  preserve  and 
treasure  those  which  have  been  given  her  by  John 

1  Ecclesiasticus  xliv.  14. 



IF  a  critical  estimate  of  the  value  of  any  hymn- 
writer's  productions  is  to  carry  weight,  it  must  first 
of  all  be  clearly  stated  what  those  principles  and 
canons  of  criticism  are  upon  which  such  an  estimate 
is  based.  Mere  personal  preference  is  absolutely 
worthless  ;  in  fact,  the  greater  the  respect  and 
affection  felt  for  any  particular  author,  the  greater 
becomes  the  difficulty  of  regarding  his  composi- 
tions with  a  calm  and  unbiased  eye. 

Before  then  presuming  to  offer  any  opinion  upon 
Canon  Ellerton's  hymns,  we  must  bring  forth  the 
standard  by  which  we  would  measure  them,  and 
then  see  how  far  they  come  up  to  or  fall  short 
of  it. 

i.  Now  if  we  are  going  to  speak  of  hymns,  we 
must  begin  by  defining  what  we  mean  by  the  word 
"hymn."  The  definition  was  given  long  ago  by 
St.  Augustine.  Commenting  upon  the  supple- 
mental verse  of  Psalm  Ixxii.,  he  says,  "Hymni 
laudes  sunt  Dei  cum  cantico,  Hymni  cantus  sunt 
continentes  laudes  Dei.  Si  sit  laus  et  non  sit  Dei, 
non  est  kymnus.  Si  sit  laus  et  laus  Dei  et  non 
cantetur,  non  est  hymnus.  Oportet  ergo  ut  si  sit 
y  Jiabeat  haec  tria,  et  laudem,  et  Dei,  et 
161  L 


canticum"1  This  often-quoted  definition  may  be 
enlarged  and  paraphrased,  but  its  central  principle 
remains  unchanged.  We  may  enlarge  it  by  saying 
that  a  hymn  is  praise  to  God  grounded  upon  His 
revelation  of  Himself  in  creation  and  redemption, 
upon  His  dealings  with  mankind  collectively  or 
individually,  or  upon  His  promises.  The  essential 
element  of  a  hymn,  its  primary  object,  is  praise ; 
the  hymns  of  heaven  are  pure  praise,2  adoration, 
thanksgiving.3  So  also  the  highest  hymns  of 
the  Church,  "Benedicite,"  "Magnificat,"  "Nunc 
Dimittis,"  "Gloria  Patri,"  "Te  Deum  laudamus," 
"  Gloria  in  Excelsis." 

But  when  we  assent  to  the  principle  that  a 
hymn  to  be  a  hymn  indeed  must  be  a  song  of 
praise,  we  must  not  restrict  the  term  praise  to  any 
narrow  limit.  There  is  a  subjective  as  well  as 
an  objective  praise.  A  hymn  may  contain  the 
element  of  praise  without  mentioning  the  word. 
For  example,  no  one  will  deny  that  "  Sun  of  my 
soul"  is  a  hymn,  and  a  most  beautiful  hymn  too, 
but  there  is  not  in  it  a  single  word  of  direct, 
objective  praise ;  but  who  does  not  feel  that  in  its 
simple  clinging  to  the  Saviour,  and  commending 
all  to  His  love  and  compassion,  there  is  an  infinite 
amount  of  indirect,  subjective  praise  ?  There  are 
multitudes  of  so-called  hymns  which  are  merely 

1  "  Hymns  are  praises  to  God  sung ;    hymns  are  songs 
containing  praise  to  God.     If,  therefore,  there  be  praise  but 
not  to  God  it  is  no  hymn.     If  it  be  praise,  and  even  praise 
to  God,  yet  not  sung,  it  is  no  hymn.     A  hymn,  therefore,  if  it 
be  a  hymn,  must  have  these  three  things — praise,  praise  to 
God,  and  praise  to  God  sung." 

2  Enarr*  in  Ps.  Ixxii.  "  Isaiah  vi.  3  ;  Rev.  iv.  8. 


metrical  prayers,  but  these  are  for  the  most  part 
weeded  out  from  collections  designed  for  congre- 
gational use.  In  fact,  we  may  assert  without  fear 
of  contradiction,  that  where  the  element  of  self 
prevails,  the  element  of  praise  departs,  and  where 
self  is  lost  sight  of  there  praise  is  supreme,  although 
it  may  be  underlying  the  words  and  not  on  the 
surface.  There  is  no  finer  example  of  indirect 
praise  in  any  language  than  "  Now  the  labourer's 
task  is  o'er." 

Hence  it  follows  that  we  cannot  condemn  or 
reject  a  hymn  because  it  contains  the  personal 
pronoun  in  the  singular  number,  or  where  would 
be  "  My  soul  doth  magnify  the  Lord  " ;  "  For  mine 
eyes  have  seen  Thy  Salvation  "  ?  The  individual 
experience  of  one  may  be,  and  often  is,  the  general 
experience  of  others,  and  when  this  is  the  case  let 
the  others  take  the  language  of  the  one  and  make 
it  their  own. 

2.  Again,  a  hymn  is  a  song  of  praise  and  thanks- 
giving offered  to  God  the  Father  through  the 
Son,  according  to  St.  Paul's  precept  "  giving  thanks 
to  God  and  the  Father  by  Him."  Of  course 
no  one  will  venture  to  affirm  that  hymns,  like 
prayers,  may  not  be  addressed  to  the  other  Persons 
of  the  Holy  Trinity  ;  the  "  Te  Deum "  itself,  al- 
though a  hymn  of  praise  to  the  blessed  Three  in 
One,  seems  in  its  opening  verses  to  address  itself 
to  the  Second  Person,  "Te  Deum  laudamus,"  not 
"we  praise  Thee,  O  God,"  but  "we  praise  Thee, 
the  God,"  or  "we  praise  Thee  as  God."  "That 
hymns  were  addressed  to  Christ  as  God  as  early 
as  the  first  and  second  centuries,  is  not  only  sug- 


gested  by  the  well-known  passage  of  Pliny's  letter 
to  Trajan  (x.  96),  but  asserted  apparently  by  St. 
Hippolitus,  who  speaks  of  Psalms  and  Odes  of  the 
brethren  '  written  by  faithful  men  from  the  begin- 
ning, which  hymn  Christ  the  Word  of  God  calling 
Him  God.'"1  In  fact,  the  new  song  of  the  re- 
deemed, united  afterwards  to  the  full  chorus  of 
heaven,  is  addressed  to  the  Redeemer — "Worthy 
is  the  Lamb  that  was  slain."  The  same  holy 
instinct  of  the  Church  which  constrained  her  to 
offer  prayers  to  the  Son,2  compelled  her  also  to 
direct  to  Him  her  praises ;  still  it  should  be  borne 
in  mind,  that  it  is  her  normal  principle  to  offer 
both  to  the  Father  by,  through,  in  the  Name  of, 
the  Son. 

3.  Again,  hymns  of  praise  offered  to  Him  Who 
is  the  God  of  Truth,  must  be  true  to  those  who 
sing  them.      Nothing  can  excuse  false  sentiment 
in  a  hymn.     To  hear  a  whole  congregation  pro- 
fessing before  God  feelings  which  only  the  most 
saintly  can  truly  know,  and  they  perhaps  but  very 
feebly ;   or  still  worse,  to  listen    to  them  making 
"passionate  entreaties   for  death,  that   there  may 
be  an  immediate   attainment    of  glory,"  is  inex- 
pressibly shocking  ;  it  is  standing  before  God  with 
a  lie  in  their  right  hand.3 

4.  Another   essential    necessity   in   a    hymn   is 
a  soundness  of  doctrine.     The  particular  point  in 

1  Julian,  Dictionary  of  Hymnology,  Art.   "  Te   Deum," 
p.  1125. 

2  Three  of  the  Collects  are  thus  addressed — Third  Sunday 
in  Advent,  St.  Stephen,  First  Sunday  in  Lent. 

3  Isaiah  xliv.  20. 


which  many  fail  is  the  utter  ignoring  of  the  inter- 
mediate state.  Their  teaching  is  that  at  death 
the  godly  go  straight  to  heaven  and  the  ungodly 
straight  to  hell.  This  mistake  is  very  serious,  for 
it  not  only  is  a  practical  denial  of  the  words  of 
the  Saviour  to  the  penitent  malefactor,  "  To-day 
shalt  thou  be  with  me  in  Paradise,"  but  it  obscures 
the  Scriptural  doctrine  of  the  Judgment  of  the  last 
great  day.1 

5.  A  good  hymn  should  be  congregational.  It 
is  by  no  means  a  bar  to  its  reception  into  a  Hymnal 
that  it  is  written  in  the  singular  number.  We  have 
the  warrant  of  many  Psalms  for  this ;  but  the 
Psalms  express,  whether  in  the  singular  or  plural, 
feelings  which  are,  or  should  be,  common  to  a 
congregation  of  Christians  ;  and  if  a  hymn  embodies 
the  same,  it  is  not  sufficient  cause  for  it's  banish- 
ment from  congregational  use  that  it  is  in  the 
singular  number.  At  the  same  time  this  is  a 
hymnic  licence  which  should  not  be  indulged  in 
too  freely.  There  is  a  wide  difference  between 
hymns  suitable  for  public  and  those  for  private  use. 
A  hymn  may  be  eminently  beautiful  and  perfect 
as  a  composition  yet  totally  unsuitable  for  con- 
gregational purposes.  How  many  so-called  hymns 
are  simply  metrical  prayers.  If  all  compositions 
which  embody  private  and  personal  Christian  cx- 

1  As  an  example  see  the  opening  verse  of  a  popular  hymn 
by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Grossman  (d.  1683) — 
"Jerusalem  on  high 

My  song  and  city  is, 
My  home  ivhcnccr  I  die, 
The  centre  of  my  bliss." 


perience,  together  with  all  metrical  prayers,  were 
gathered  out  of  our  best  Hymnals,  and  incorporated 
elsewhere,  there  would  be  room  in  the  former  for 
many  a  fine  hymn  now  lying  under  sentence  of 

Praise,  addressed  chiefly,  though  by  no  means 
exclusively,  to  our  Father  in  heaven  ;  truthfulness, 
soundness  of  doctrine,  forgetfulness  of  self,  these 
are  some  of  the  points  by  which  we  judge  of  the 
excellence  of  a  hymn.  Now  if  we  judge  Mr. 
Ellerton's  hymns  by  these  standards  we  shall  find 
that  they  will  well  bear  the  test.  It  is  true  that 
his  hymns  are  never  pitched  in  the  highest  key  of 
adoration  and  praise ;  there  is  none  of  them  that 
attempt  such  a  seraphic  flight  as  Heber's  "  Holy, 
Holy,  Holy,  Lord  God  Almighty,"  but  the  element 
of  praise  is  powerfully  felt  in  many.  With  what  a 
noble  outburst  of  praise  does  one  of  his  evening 
hymns  open — 

u  Father,  in  Thy  glorious  dwelling, 
All  Thy  works  Thy  praise  are  telling, 

Resting  neither  day  nor  night ; 
With  the  hymns  of  Thy  creation 
Let  our  evening-  adoration 

Rise  accepted  in  Thy  sight." 

Most  of  the  Latin  hymns  he  selected  for  transla- 
tion are  jubilant  with  praise,  notably  the  "  Alleluia 

It  is  impossible  to  study  the  volume  entitled 
Hymns  Original  and  Translated  without  being 
struck  with  the  frequency  with  which  the  hymns 
it  contains  are  addressed  to  the  First  Person  of 
the  Holy  Trinity.  There  are  many  exceptions  \ 


necessarily  those  on  the  Passion,  including  the 
magnificent  "  Throned  upon  the  awful  Tree,"  the 
Christmas  hymns,  and  several  of  those  for  the  other 
Festivals  and  Saints'  Days,  and  the  lovely  hymn 
for  Sunday  evening,  "  Saviour,  again  to  Thy  dear 
Name  we  raise."  Otherwise  his  finest  hymns  are 
addressed  to  the  Father,  e.  g.  "  Father,  in  Thy 
glorious  dwelling,"  "God  of  the  living  in  Whose 
eyes,"  "  Lift  the  strain  of  high  thanksgiving,"  the 
translation  "O  Strength  and  Stay  upholding  all 
creation,"  and  especially  the  two  exquisite  funeral 
hymns,  "When  the  day  of  toil  is  done,"  and 
"  Now  the  labourer's  task  is  o'er." 

It  is  almost  superfluous  to  say  that  all  Mr. 
Ellerton's  hymns  are  as  conspicuous  for  soundness 
of  doctrine  as  they  are  for  truthfulness.  They  are 
eminently  sober  and  reverent ;  contain  no  fulsome 
and  familiar  addresses  to  the  Divine  Being  such 
as  spoil  so  many  of  the  hymns  of  the  last  century, 
no  exaggerated  sentiment.  Indeed,  the  intense 
devoutness  and  reverence  of  their  author  made 
this  impossible.  A  spirit  of  deepest  reverence  runs 
through  them  all,  and  no  writer  was  ever  more 
careful  not  to  put  into  the  lips  of  a  congregation 
words  which,  as  Christians,  they  could  not  make 
their  own. 

Hence  it  is  that  Mr.  Ellerton's  hymns  arc 
eminently  congregational.  A  well-known  writer1 
has  said,  "What  makes  Mr.  Ellerton's  hymns 
especially  valuable — over  and  above  their  high 
poetic  merit — is  their  congregational  character.  A 
too  common  fault  of  modern  hymns  is  that  they 
1  Henry  Attwell,  K.O.C, 


are  suited  to  private  devotion  rather  than  to  public 
worship,  or  that  they  assume  in  those  for  whose 
use  they  are  destined  a  degree  of  spiritual  experi- 
ence which  is  impossible  in  the  young,  and  very 
rare  in  the  average  adult  worshipper.  And  not 
only  so ;  their  diction  is  often  marred  by  peculi- 
arities of  structure  and  by  obscure  metaphors  that 
render  them  unfit  for  mixed  congregations.  Mr. 
Ellerton's  hymns  are  not  chargeable  with  either 
of  these  defects.  Whether  their  tone  is  sad  or 
jubilant,  they  appeal  to  the  faith  and  feelings  of 
young  and  old  alike,  while  they  are  couched  in 
language  of  such  simple  grace  as  will  ensure  them 
a  lasting  place  in  hymnal  literature." 

Not  all  Mr.  Ellerton's  hymns  have  as  yet  been 
incorporated  into  the  great  Hymnals  ;  some  per- 
haps never  will  be,  for  they  vary  much  in  quality. 
Some,  however,  the  Church,  having  once  counted 
them  among  her  jewels  of  praise,  will  keep  and 
guard  to  the  end.  "  This  is  the  day  of  light "  will 
for  many  a  year  stand  side  by  side  with  "Jam 
lucis  orto  sidere,"  and  Bishop  Ken's  "  Awake,  my 
soul."  "  Saviour,  again  to  Thy  dear  Name  we 
raise,"  has  already  taken  such  deep  root  wherever 
throughout  Christendom  English  hymns  are  sung 
that  its  immortality  is  secured.  The  older  hymns 
which  saw  little  or  nothing  beyond  the  physical 
agony  of  the  Cross,  must  allow  that  the  profoundly 
pathetic  "  Throned  upon  the  awful  Tree  "  stands 
higher  than  they  among  the  hymns  on  the  Passion, 
far  higher  than  the  Stabat  mater  dolorosa,  which 
makes  the  central  figure  of  Calvary  to  be,  not  the 
Son  of  God  bearing  the  sin  of  the  world,  but  the 


Blessed  Virgin  Mother.  When  we  remember  that 
before  Mr.  Ellerton  began  to  write,  the  Church  of 
England  did  not  possess  one  really  fine  funeral 
hymn,  for  the  Dies  Ira  is  rather  a  meditation  on 
the  Day  of  Judgment ;  when  the  stock  hymn  for 
such  an  occasion  was  "  Oft  as  the  bell  with  solemn 
toll,"  we  cannot  but  thank  God  Who  put  it  into 
the  heart  of  His  servant  to  write  "  Now  the 
labourer's  task  is  o'er,"  a  hymn  which  brings 
almost  daily,  wherever  graveside  tears  are  falling, 
peace  and  comfort  and  assurance  of  hope. 

As  Canon  Ellerton's  reputation  spread  he  waa 
continually  receiving  requests  from  all  parts  of  the 
world  for  permission  to  use  his  hymns,  an  act  of 
courtesy  which  was  not  strictly  necessary,  since,  as 
we  have  seen  in  his  letter  to  Bishop  E.  H.  Bicker- 
steth,  he  absolutely  refused  to  protect  them  by 
copyright,  regarding  himself  not  so  much  their 
author,  as  the  channel  through  which  God  had 
given  them  to  the  Church. 

As  the  following  letter  appears  to  concern  the 
Authorized  Hymnal  of  the  American  Church,  it  is 
of  sufficient  importance  to  quote  in  part. 

"Boston,  U.S.A. 

"February  24,  1892. 
"  REV.  AND   DEAR   SlR, 

"  At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Commission 
appointed  by  the  General  Convention  of  the 
American  Episcopal  Church  for  the  revision  of 
the  new  Hymnal,  I  was  appointed  to  obtain  of 
authors  whose  hymns  it  is  proposed  to  include  in 
the  collection  the  permission  for  their  publication. 


"  I  therefore  take  the  liberty  to  ask  your  per- 
mission for  the  publication  in  the  new  Hymnal 
of  the  hymns  beginning — 

"  God  of  the  living. 

"  Hail  to  the  Lord  Who  comes. 

"  In  the  Name  which  earth  and  heaven. 

"  King  of  Saints,  to  Whom  the  number. 

"  Lift  the  strain  of  high  thanksgiving. 

"  Now  the  labourer's  task  is  o'er. 

"  O  Son  of  God,  our  Captain  of  salvation. 

"  O  Thou  in  Whom  Thy  saints  repose. 

"  Our  day  of  praise  is  done. 

"  Praise  to  the  Heavenly  Wisdom. 

"  Saviour,  again  to  Thy  dear  Name  we  raise. 

"  Sing,  ye  faithful,  sing  with  gladness. 

"  Thou  Who  sentest  Thine  Apostles. 

"  We  sing  the  glorious  conquest." 

The  letter  contains  a  long  postscript,  asking  for 
the  addresses  of  seventeen  lady  hymnists,  and  how 
to  obtain  leave  to  use  their  hymns. 

In  the  Hymnal  as  published  the  first  of  the 
above  was  omitted,  and  the  following  were  added — 

"  O  Father,  bless  the  children." 

"  Shine  Thou  upon  us,  Lord." 

"  Sing  Alleluia  forth  in  duteous  praise." 

"  This  is  the  day  of  light." 

"  Welcome,  happy  morning." l 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  list  does  not  include 
several  which  we  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  count 
among  the  best,  e.g. — 

"  Father,  in  Thy  glorious  dwelling." 

1  Note  by  Rev.  J.  M earns. 


"  From  east  to  west,  from  shore  to  shore." 
"  O  Strength  and  Stay,  upholding  all  creation." 
And  above  all — 
"  Throned  upon  the  awful  Tree." 

The  following  characteristic  letter  from  another 
American  applicant  is  worth  inserting,  as  showing 
the  estimation  in  which  Mr.  Ellerton  was  held  by 
Transatlantic  hymnologists. 

"  Iowa  City, 

"April 29,  1878. 

"  MY  DEAR  SIR, 

"  I  have  a  semi-professional  occasion  for 
troubling  you  with  a  letter.  In  addition  to  ordinary 
parish  labours,  I  have  for  many  years  exercised  an 
obscure  and  unprofitable  trade,  which,  from  the 
help  you  gave  in  compiling  the  C.  K.  S.  collec- 
tion, may  obtain  some  sympathy  or  commiseration 
from  you.  In  these  Western  wilds  I  am  supposed 
to  be  something  of  an  authority  upon  hymn- 
matters,  and  I  plead  guilty  to  the  eccentricity  of 
owning  by  far  the  largest  Cisatlantic  library  of 
that  sort — some  2300  vols.  Pursuing  these  devious 
paths,  I  have  been  gladdened  by  the  late  and  rapid 
rising  of  your  star,  which  I  hail  as  one  of  high 
magnitude.  You  are  doubtless  aware  that  some 
of  your  hymns  are  known  and  loved  in  America. 
Our  present  Church  Hymnal  contains  but  four 
of  them,  but  these  are  among  your  best.  '  Saviour, 
again  to  Thy  dear  Name  we  raise,'  is  a  great 
favourite.  '  This  is  the  day  of  light '  is  the  best 


of  Sunday  hymns,  far  beyond  all  others  except 
Bishop  Wordsworth's,1  and  as  much  above  Watts's 
famous  '  Welcome,  sweet  day  of  rest/  as  a  cultivated 
Churchman  of  to-day  is  different  from  the  average 
Nonconformist  of  one  hundred  and  seventy  years 

" '  Our  day  of  praise  is  done '  I  esteem  very 
highly  :  it  is  perhaps  too  delicate  and  subtle  to 
be  extensively  popular.  The  other  is  *  Sing  Alle- 
luia forth.'  I  wish  our  not-too-well-posted  com- 
pilers had  admitted  more.  '  Welcome,  happy 
morning,'  goes  into  the  new  Methodist  collection 
which  will  presently  appear.  The  Report,  just 
printed,  of  their  Committee  gives  it  twelve  lines, 
chiefly  from  your  note  in  Borthwick's  collection. 
I  must  thank  you  especially  for  (  O  shining  city 
of  our  God.'  I  know  nobody  else,  except  Pal- 
grave,  who  has  done  that  kind  as  well ;  and 
surely  in  the  hymnody  of  the  future,  pure  Robert- 
sonian  strains  like  this  must  displace  the  coarse- 
ness of  what  Mr.  Martineau  calls  'the  Messianic 

"  All  I  know  about  you  comes  from  a  dissenting 
book,  Stevenson's  Hymns  for  Church  and  Home, 
1873.  He  says  you  were  'born  in  London,  1826. 
Rector  of  Hinstock,  Salop.  Hymns  appeared  in 
Nantwich  Choral  Festival  Book,  1866  ;  ditto,  1867; 
Chester  Cathedral  Hymn-book,  1867;  Brown- 
Borthwick's  Select  Hymns,  1871 ;  S.  P.  C.K.  Church 
Hymns,  1872.'  With  the  two  latter  I  am  familiar, 
the  others  I  never  saw.  I  found  you  first  in  the 
Appendix  to  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern;  you 
1  "  O  Day  of  rest  and  gladness," 


did  not  begin  in  time  to  get  into  Josiah  Miller.1 
I  have  no  English  books  since  the  revised  Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern,  1874,  and  don't  know  what 
you  may  have  done  in  the  last  five  years. 

"  May  I  beg  for  any  information  you  choose  to 
give  about  yourself,  and  specially  of  your  hymns 
in  other  collections  than  those  mentioned  ?  I  do 
not  ask  from  idle  curiosity.  I  have  made  it  a  sort 
of  duty  to  be  informed  on  these  matters,  and  to 
use  what  I  acquire. 

"  Two  hymn-papers  I  would  send  you  if  I 
thought  you  would  care  for  them  ;  one  in  the  last 
number  of  our  Church  Review,  and  another  soon 
to  appear  in  a  new  magazine,  Sunday  Afternoon. 
And  just  now  I  am  writing  some  lectures  on 
English  Hymnody,  to  be  read  under  the  auspices 
of  Bishop  Perry,  in  some  sort  of  connection  with 
a  little  Church  College  he  is  trying  to  revive  at 
Davenport  on  the  Mississippi.  In  these  I  wish  to 
do  justice  to  you. 

"  If  I  can  make  any  return  for  the  favours  I  am, 
perhaps  immodestly,  asking,  I  beg  you  will  com- 
mand me.  If  you  are  a  collector  as  well  as  a  writer 
of  hymns,  my  duplicates  are  very  much  at  your 
service.  They  are  always  more  or  less  numerous, 
though  mostly  trashy.  We  have  no  hymnic  origin- 
ality, and  very  little  hymnic  knowledge  over  here. 

"  With  thanks  and  congratulations,  I  am, 
"  Faithfully  yours, 


1  The  second  edition  of  Miller's  Singers  and  Songs  of  the 
Church  was  published  in  1869.  At  least  fourteen  of  Mr» 
Ellerton's  hymns  had  appeared  before  that  date. 


Among  the  dozens  of  letters  found  among 
Canon  Ellerton's  papers  from  unknown  corre- 
spondents, many  from  places  which  are  positively 
trying  to  ordinary  geographical  knowledge,  the 
following  is  selected  as  being  typical  of  its  kind.1 
There  is  something  quite  pathetic  in  the  thought 
of  this  ardent  student  pursuing  under  so  many 
disadvantages  in  his  northern  solitude  his  favourite 

"  The  Parsonage^  Bttrravoe,  Ye!/,  Shetland, 
"September  7,  1894. 

"REV.  SIR, 

"  Please  forgive  me  taking  the  liberty  of 
writing  to  you,  but  for  many  years  I  have  been 
very  anxious  to  know  if  you  have  published  any 
collection  of  hymns,  or  any  work  on  hymnology, 
and  as  I  do  not  know  to  whom  I  should  apply,  I 
have  thought  it  better  to  write  directly  to  your- 

"  For  several  years  hymns  and  hymnology  have 
had  a  great  attraction  for  me,  but  living  so  far 
out  of  the  world  as  I  do,  I  have  not  had  the 
chance  of  adding  much  to  my  knowledge  of  so 
delightful  a  subject. 

"  It  is  superfluous  of  me  to  speak  of  the  beauty 
of  your  hymns  in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modem, 
especially  Nos.  12,  30,  31,  37,  118,  401,  406,  and 
413  ;  and  I  cannot  tell  you  how  glad  I  was  to  see 
so  many  by  you  in  the  new  Supplement.  I  have 
Mr.  Thring's  Hymnal,  which  contains  several  beau- 
tiful ones  by  you.  I  have  been  told  that  there  are 

1  Showing  that  Hymns  Original  and  Translated,  published 
in  1888,  had  not  reached  the  island  of  Yell  by  1892. 


some  by  you  in  Church  Hymns  (S.  P.  C.  K.),  but 
unfortunately  my  copy  of  that  splendid  collection 
does  not  have  the  names  of  the  authors.  I  have 
heard  that  it  is  probable  that  Church  Hymns  may 
be  enlarged. 

"  I  read  with  great  interest  your  sketches  of 
Hymn  Writers  in  the  Parish  Magazine  last  year. 
I  there  saw  for  the  first  time  the  portraits  of  J.  M. 
Neale  and  Isaac  Williams.  Might  you  not  re- 
publish  these  sketches,1  and  add  some  more  of 
other  hymn  writers,  in  book  form  with  portraits  ? 
I  am  sure  there  would  be  a  great  demand  for  the 
work.  I  also  read  some  years  ago  your  able 
article  in  the  Church  Monthly  on  '  Some  famous 
Easter  Hymns/  and  I  was  especially  interested  in 
'  Jesus  Christ  is  risen  to-day.' 2 

"Again  requesting  to  be  forgiven  for  troubling 
you  so  much,  and  hoping  that  at  your  convenience 
you  will  favour  me  with  a  reply,  and  tell  me  about 
your  hymn  and  hymnological  publications, 

"  I  am,  Reverend  Sir, 

"Yours  very  respectfully, 


Another  enthusiastic  admirer,  writing  from  Chi- 
cago, begs  for  "  one  of  your  hymns  in  your  hand- 
writing and  over  your  signature";  adding,  "If  I 
were  to  suggest  my  preference,  it  would  be  for 
your  hymn  beginning, '  Saviour,  again  to  Thy  dear 
Name  we  raise/  " 

It  is  no  slight  testimony  to  the  affection  with 
which  Mr.  Ellerton's  hymns  were  regarded  that 
1  See  p.  301.  -  See  p.  391. 


some  should  be  translated  into  Latin.  The  follow- 
ing elegant  version  of  "  The  day  Thou  gavest, 
Lord,  is  ended,"  is  rendered  still  more  valuable 
by  the  complimentary  letter  which  accompanied 


"  Malvern  House,  St.  A I  bans, 

"  August  9,  1892. 
"MY   DEAR   SIR, 

"  I  have  interested  myself  when  laid  by 
for  a  month  through  ill-health  with  a  study  of 
English  hymns,  and  I  venture  to  send  you  one 
of  your  own  in  a  Latin  dress.  If  it  interests  you 
for  a  few  moments  I  shall  be  paying  back  some 
of  the  pleasure  with  which  I  have  read  and  re-read 
the  beautiful  lines  of  the  original. 

"  I   must  beg  you,  if  you  find  time  to  look  at 
my  parody,  to  remember  that  the  central  thought 
of  the  hymn  is  unclassical,  and  consequently  hard 
to  make  intelligible  in  Latin. 
"  Believe  me, 

"  Yours  very  faithfully, 



"  Jam,  Deus,  accepit  lux  a  Te  praebita  finem, 

Processit  jussu  nox  tenebrosa  Tuo. 
Te  matutino  grati  celebravimus  ore, 

Inque  Tua  solem  condere  laude  juvat. 
Nos  somnum  petimus  :  terrarum  hie  maximus  orbis 

Volvitur  interea  persequiturque  diem  : 
Nunc  hie  mine  illic  Ecclesia  sancta  perenni 

Pervigilat,  laudes  attribuitque,  vice. 


Jam  rapit  hie  Aurora  diem,  mox  suscitat  illic, 

Et  cunctos  sensim  mobile  lumen  adit ; 
Consequitur  cum  luce  chorus  laudesque  piorum, 

Atque  ubicunque  dies  panditur,  hymnus  adest. 
Oui  nobis  abiens  requiem  tulit,  excitat  idem 

Hesperios  surgens  sol,  oriturque  novus. 
Hora  ut  mutatur,  vocum  mutabilis  ordo 

Laudem  auscultanti  dat  sine  fine  Deo. 
Media  succubuit :  periit  Romana  potestas  : 

Christe,  Tuus  nullo  limite  crescit  honos. 
Regnabis,  donee — nullo  non  hoste  subacto — 

Ouidquid  fecisti,  pareat  omne  Tibi." 

H.  W.  S, 



IN  the  foregoing  pages  we  have  endeavoured  to 
give  a  sketch  of  Canon  Ellerton's  literary  work, 
in  which  hymnody  of  course  holds  the  most  con- 
spicuous place.  From  the  days  of  his  curacy  at 
Brighton  to  the  last  fatal  attack  which  told  him 
that  "  the  labourer's  task  was  o'er,"  his  devotion  to 
this  one  object  was  unceasing.  He  was  the  chief 
compiler  and  editor  of  the  two  important  hymn- 
books,  Church  Hymns  and  the  Children's  Hymn 
Book,  and  joint  compiler  of  the  last  edition  of  that 
great  hymnal  which,  above  all  others,  is  dearest  to 
the  heart  of  the  English  Church,  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern.  He  edited  or  assisted  in  editing 
Hymns  for  Schools  and  Bible  Classes,  the  Temper- 
ance Hymn-Book,  the  London  Mission  Hymn-Book. 
His  advice  was  sought  in  the  compiling  the  last 
edition  of  the  admirable  Hymnal  Companion  to  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer ;  in  fact,  it  is  no  exagger- 
ation to  say,  that  his  hand  may  be  traced  and  his 
voice  heard  in  every  hymn-book  of  importance 
published  during  the  last  thirty  years  ;  while  no 
less  than  eighty-six  hymns,  original  or  translated, 
proceeded  from  his  own  pen. 

We  have  seen,  too,  that  his  prose  works  were 
both  numerous  and  valuable ;  and  if  we  were  to 


add  to  these  the  mass  of  sermons  he  wrote  during 
his  ministerial  life,  we  must  own  that  few  ever 
dedicated  the  talents  committed  to  them  more 
unreservedly,  more  faithfully  to  the  Master's  service 
than  John  Ellerton. 

It  is  a  comparatively  easy  thing  to  speak  of  a 
man's  work,  for  indeed  that  speaks  for  itself;  but 
to  speak  of  the  man  himself,  to  endeavour  to  make 
others  see  what  he  was  to  those  who  knew  him, 
this  is  a  far  harder  task.  John  Ellerton  was  the 
truest  and  sincerest  of  friends,  and  his  friendship 
is  a  golden  memory  to  those  who  were  privileged 
to  share  it.  He  was  the  most  delightful  of  com- 
panions, and  no  one  could  be  long  in  his  company 
without  being  struck  with  the  vast  range  of  his 
information  ;  it  seemed  impossible  to  bring  forward 
a  subject  in  which  he  felt  no  interest,  or  on  which 
he  had  not  bestowed  some  thought  and  study. 
With  the  entomologist  he  was  as  much  at  home 
with  the  Tineae  and  Tortrices  as  with  the  Sphinxes 
and  Fritillaries;  with  the  geologist  he  would  delight 
in  a  collection  of  fossils,  and  in  their  silent  forms 
his  poetic  imagination  would  see  the  creatures 
which  lived  and  enjoyed  their  lives  in  bygone  ages. 
He  was  a  zealous  antiquary,  and  the  ruins 'of  an 
abbey  or  a  collection  of  coins  would  elicit  from 
him  remarks  which  showed  the  largeness  of  his 
acquaintance  with  history ;  in  fact,  he  thoroughly 
came  up  to  that  well-known  standard  of  an  educated 
man — to  know  something  of  everything,  and  every- 
thing of  something,  and  this  last  "  something  "  was 
hymns.  Hymns  were  his  joy  and  delight.  It  was 
impossible  to  mention  a  hymn,  whatever  its  origin 


— Greek,  Latin,  English,  French,  German,  or  Danish 
— but  at  once  he  told  you  its  author  and  history. 
When  lying  half-unconscious  on  his  death-bed, 
hymn  after  hymn  flowed  from  his  lips  in  a  never- 
ending  stream.  But  his  poems,  as  we  have  seen, 
were  not  all  hymns.  "  He  could  write,"  says  one 
who  knew  him,  "  charming  sonnets,  all  of  which 
proved  his  command  over  English,  his  admiration 
for  the  beautiful  in  Art  and  in  Nature,  purity  of 
thought,  and  tender  sympathy  combined  with 
manliness."  But  the  most  remarkable  trait  of  his 
character  was  his  intense  lovingness — always  mak- 
ing the  best  of  and  doing  his  best  for  others,  never 
thinking  of  himself.  All  good  men  loved  him,  and 
his  friends  generally  spoke,  indeed  speak  of  him 
still,  as  "dear  Ellerton." 

What  he  was  in  his  own  family,  how  thoroughly 
he  entered  into  the  amusements  and  recreation  of 
his  children,  showing  his  love  for  and  sympathy 
with  young  people,  it  is  not  for  these  pages  to 
unveil.  What  he  was  in  his  parish  would  be  best 
understood  by  hearing  him  spoken  of  by  those 
among  whom  he  ministered  ;  all  who  so  remember 
him  love  to  speak  of  his  tender  sympathy  with 
them  in  all  their  troubles  and  trials,  identifying 
himself  with  them  alike  in  their  joys  and  in  their 
sorrows.  It  has  already  been  mentioned  how, 
when  he  held  a  Mission  in  Brighton  in  1890,  the 
old  people  who  remembered  him  thirty  years  before 
flocked  to  see  his  beloved  face,  to  hear  his  kindly 
voice,  once  more.  In  the  pulpit — calm,  thoughtful, 
scholarly — he  had  few  equals ;  while  his  reading 
had  a  peculiar  charm,  and  the  pathos  he  threw 


into  such  passages  as  the  last  chapter  of  Ecclesiastes, 
or  David's  lament  over  Saul  and  Jonathan,  will 
never  be  forgotten  by  those  who  heard  him.  As  a 
missioner  too — and  during  his  seven  years  at  White 
Roding  he  conducted  many  Missions  and  Quiet 
Days,  notably  one  to  the  Chichester  Theological 
College  in  1889 — his  devotional  addresses  were 
deeply  impressive. 

Yes,  dear  Ellerton,  would  that  I  could  offer  a 
worthier  tribute  to  thy  memory  than  these  poor 
words,  in  which  thy  pure  and  holy  life  is  so  feebly 
sketched.  To  have  been  thy  friend  and  fellow- 
worker  is  indeed  a  privilege  on  which  it  will  ever 
be  a  delight  to  look  back ;  the  thought  that  we 
may  meet  again,  if  indeed  I  should  be  accounted 
worthy  to  rest  where  thou  art  resting,  gives  renewed 
energy  to  press  forward  to  that  home  where,  as 
thou  didst  sing,  there  is  peace,  and  light,  and  joy, 
and  love,  and  life  for  evermore.  To  thee,  whose 
chiefest  joy  it  was  to  put  words  of  praise  and 
thanksgiving;  resignation  and  peace,  into  the  lips 
of  God's  children  here,  as  midst  temptations  and 
sorrows  they  journey  onward  towards  the  golden 
gates  of  the  city  where  they  would  be  ;  surely  in  that 
day,  when  the  multitude  of  the  Redeemed  which 
no  man  can  number  shall  mingle  their  voices  with 
those  of  cherubim  and  seraphim  in  the  great  seven- 
fold ascription  of  salvation  to  Him  who  sitteth 
upon  the  throne  and  unto  the  Lamb,  to  thee 
will  be  given  a  place  of  high  honour  in  that 
celestial  company,  where  the  joy  which  thou  hadst 
on  earth  in  the  voice  of  praise  and  thanksgiving 
shall  be  fulfilled. 




The  first  four  of  the  following  papers  are  among  the  earliest 
of  Canon  Ellerton's  contributions  to  Hymnology.  They 
appeared  in  the  Churchmaris  Family  Magazine,  a 
periodical  since  defunct,  in  1864.  The  first  is  intro- 
ductory to  the  second,  tracing  the  history  of  English 
Hymnody  down  to  the  publication  of  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern.  The  second  discusses  the  question  whether 
one  Authorized  Hymnal  would  be  of  advantage  to  the 
Church  or  otherwise,  and  the  answer  is  distinctly  in  the 
negative.  The  third  discusses  fully  the  canons  of  criticism 
by  which  a  hymn  should  be  judged.  The  fourth  contains 
practical  suggestions  concerning  congregational  singing 
and  the  choice  of  hymns  and  the  tunes,  although  the 
excellent  hymnals  now  in  use  render  some  of  the  remarks 
somewhat  obsolete. 

Of  the  date  or  occasion  of  the  concluding  paper,  "  Modern 
Theology  as  shown  by  Modern  Hymnody,"  found  among 
the  Canon's  MSS,,  I  can  learn  nothing  ;  but  as  a  just 
and  thoughtful  review  of  Nonconformist  hymns  it  is  well 
worth  preserving. 


NO.    I 


THERE  is  scarcely  any  event  in  the  history  of 
our  Church  worship  during  the  past  sixty  years 
so  great  and  so  remarkable  as  the  substitution  of 
Hymns  for  metrical  Psalms.  It  is  great,  because 
it  involves  a  change  in  the  whole  character  of  our 
Common  Praise  as  important  as  that  which  the 
adoption  of  a  new  Office  for  morning  and  evening 
service  would  make  in  that  of  our  Common  Prayer. 
It  is  remarkable,  because  we  English  Church  people 
hate  all  innovation,  especially  unauthorized  innova- 
tion, and  this  is  entirely  unauthorized  ;  because  we 
hold  fast  to  the  traditions  of  our  Reformation,  and 
this  is  wholly  contrary  to  its  traditions  ;  because 
we  like  in  such  matters  to  be  led  by  our  rulers  in 
Church  and  State,  and  they  have  been  the  last, 
instead  of  the  first,  to  sanction  this.  It  came  to 
us  from  an  unwelcome  source — from  the  Dissenters, 
eminently  from  the  Methodists  ;  it  was  first  adopted 
by  those  of  the  clergy  who  sympathized  most  with 
them  ;  for  many  long  years  it  was  that  dreaded 
thing,  a  "  party  badge "  ;  but  it  held  its  ground 
until  wise  men  of  all  parties  began  to  recognize  its 
value.  First  as  supplementary  to  the  New  Version, 
and  then  as  replacing  it,  hymns  found  their  way 
into  hitherto  inaccessible  quarters  ;  and  the  revolu- 
tion is  at  last  complete. 

I  regard  this  movement  with  unmixed  thankful- 


ness ;  and  I  would  fain  hope  my  readers  do  so  too. 
Besides  the  greatest  benefit  of  all,  that  our  service 
of  praise  is  so  much  more  distinctively  and  speci- 
ally Christian  than  before,  as  being  based  upon  the 
truths  we  confess  in  our  Creeds,  there  are  two 
other  advantages,  scarcely  less  important,  which 
have  resulted  from  it.  This  substitution  of  Hymnals 
for  a  metrical  Psalter  is  valuable,  not  as  a  disuse 
of  the  Psalms,  but  as  a  restoration  of  them  to  their 
right  use.  I  believe  that  we  shall  now  more  than 
ever  learn  the  true  value  of  our  really  authorized 
Psalter,  that  matchless  fragment  of  our  lost 
"  Bishops'  Bible,"  not  as  an  edifying  lectionary,  but 
as  an  exhaustless  treasury  of  praise  ;  and  that  its 
use  in  song  will  not  be  limited  to  "  Choral  Services  " 
and  large  churches,  but  will  become  in  course  of 
time  a  regular  part  of  the  Sunday  worship  of  nearly 
every  village  congregation.  And  if,  by  the  means 
of  good  and  simple  chants,  we  learn  thus  to  use 
our  Psalms,  we  shall,  I  hope,  in  due  time,  get  to 
use  them  less  rigidly.  Foreign  ritualists  (Protestant 
as  well  as  Roman)  smile  at  our  clumsy  English 
way  of  cutting  up  our  Psalter  into  sixty  equal  bits, 
and  binding  ourselves  down  under  heavy  penalties 
to  sing  or  say  precisely  the  same  words  upon  the 
same  day  of  the  month,  whether  it  be  in  Advent 
or  Easter — whether  it  be  a  service  of  supplication 
or  of  thanksgiving,  a  "Lent  Lecture,"  a  School 
Feast,  a  day  of  local  or  national  mourning,  or  a 
Harvest  Festival,  an  Episcopal  Visitation,  or  a 
gathering  of  choirs.  But  the  rule  has  something 
to  say  for  itself;  of  this,  as  of  many  of  our  peculiar 
usages,  we  can  give  a  good  practical  account.  If, 


however,  the  "  custom  which  has  become  a  rule  " 
permits  us  to  sing  hymns  selected  for  the  occasion 
at  "special  services,"  may  we  not  hope  that  selections 
of  specially  suitable  Psalms  will  ere  long  follow  ? 

But  there  is  yet  another  reason  why  we  may 
rejoice  in  this  great  change.  Our  Prayer-book  has 
been  hitherto  our  great  link  with  the  worship  of 
the  Past.  Through  it  we  are  heirs  of  the  best 
devotions  of  Christ's  Church,  from  the  time  of  the 
Apostles  to  the  day  in  which  the  last  revision  was 
made.  But  there,  as  a  matter  of  necessity,  the 
golden  chain  has  stopped.  I  do  not  think  we  can 
add  any  more  links  of  the  same  shape.  Even  if 
we  need  additional  services,  it  is  hard  to  conceive 
of  modern  forms  which  we  could  endure  to  hear 
within  the  same  walls  as  the  old.  But  the  work 
which  our  prayers  began,  our  hymns  must  now 
supplement  and  continue.  One  whole  storehouse 
of  ancient  devotion,  of  which  the  key  was  lost  with 
the  Latin  Offices,  is  unlocked  anew.  Cranmer 
could  render  their  prayers  so  felicitously  that  our 
versions  are  better  than  the  originals.  The  dross 
was  purged  away,  and  the  metal  moulded  into 
forms  more  beautiful  than  ever.  But  the  gift  of 
translating  their  hymns  was  denied  him  ;  melodious 
English  verse  was  then  unknown.1  On  the  other 

1  Cramner's  version  of  Venantius's  processional  Easter 
hymn  "  Salve  Festa  Dies  "  (a  great  favourite  with  our  fathers; 
see  Latimer's  contemptuous  reference  to  it,  Serm.  xii.  207), 
attempted  "  for  a  proof  to  see  how  English  would  do  in  a 
song,"  was  sent  to  Henry  VIII.  in  1544  (apparently),  with 
other  "  Processions,  to  be  used  on  festival  days."  But  he 
evidently  mistrusted  himself;  and  he  worked  against  the 


hand,  while  the  English  Church  now  has  none  who 
could  adapt  mediaeval  prayers  like  Cranmer,  she 
has  already  produced,  within  the  last  twenty  years, 
most  admirable  versions  of  nearly  every  great 
mediaeval  hymn  ;  versions  constructed  if  not  with 
the  skill,  at  least  exactly  upon  the  principle  on 
which  our  collects  were  adapted  from  the  Leonine, 
Gelasian,  and  Gregorian  sacramentaries,  of  silently 
dropping  or  modifying  the  word  or  phrase  here 
and  there  inconsistent  with  the  Reformed  doctrine, 
while  that  which  is  a  witness  for  our  real  unity  of 
faith  is  carefully  preserved.1  While  we  thus  have 

grain,  and  at  Henry's  express  desire.  Cranmer's  Works,  vol. 
ii.  p.  412,  ed.  Parker  Society.  This  hymn  has  now  been 
translated  by  Mr.  Neale,  Hymnal  Noted,  79.  See  p.  50. 

1  See  on  this  point  the  interesting  essay  on  "Ancient 
Collects  in  the  Prayer-book,"  appended  to  Mr.  Bright's 
Ancient  Collects.  As  examples  of  hymns  treated  in  the 
same  spirit  with  great  success,  I  may  notice  St.  Thomas 
Aquinas's  "Adoro  Te  Devote"  (in  Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern,  206),  and  Venantius's  "  Vexilla  Regis"  (in  the 
Church  Hymnal,  published  by  Bell  and  Daldy,  No.  71).  I 
need  not  remark  that  there  is  no  dishonesty  in  this  adaptation 
of  ancient  hymns  ;  the  object  is  not  to  show  what  Aquinas 
or  Venantius  really  wrote  (which  any  one  who  wishes  to  find 
out  may  easily  ascertain),  but  to  present  the  leading  ideas  of 
their  hymns  in  such  a  form  as  it  may  be  fit  for  a  Reformed 
Church  to  offer  to  God.  But  the  extent  to  which  it  is  either 
fair  or  wise  to  depart  from  the  actual  text  of  a  hymn,  whether 
in  translating  or  merely  transcribing  it,  is  a  question  which 
I  must  reserve  for  further  discussion.  Venantius's  hymn 
was  written  for  a  procession  carrying  a  relic  of  the  "  True 
Cross."  It  is  translated  very  literally,  but  with  great  vigour, 
in  Hymnal  Noted,  22.  Those  who  have  the  right  clue  to  its 
comprehension  will  see  that,  as  it  there  stands,  it  is  quite 


fresh  ties  to  bind  us  to  the  ancient  Church,  we 
can  now  at  length  avail  ourselves  of  the  spiritual 
development  of  the  Universal  Church  since  the 
Reformation.  Whatever  hindrances  there  may  be 
to  external  communion  with  foreign  Churches,  we 
are  surely  drawing  near  to  our  brethren  in  a  most 
real  and  blessed  way,  when  we  thus  draw  near  to 
God  with  the  words  of  their  wisest  and  holiest 
men.  The  same  may  be  said  of  those  who  have 
separated  from  our  own  communion.  The  voice 
of  Christian  life  among  them  has  chiefly  found 
expression  in  sacred  song ;  and  when  we  take  the 
best  of  their  hymns  into  our  own  service  books, 
we  take  that  which  is  most  precious  and  most 
lasting  in  their  religious  utterances.  And  lastly, 
the  living  and  growing  Church  of  our  own  day 
pours  her  spiritual  life  into  her  hymn-books.  Long 
did  that  fresh  stream  chafe  and  beat  against  the 
rigid  barrier  of  an  imagined  authority,  which  kept 
out  from  our  churches  all  but  the  two  "  allowed  " 
versions  of  the  Psalms.  Some  small  leakage 
indeed  there  was ;  one  or  two  hymns  found  their 
way  in.  Even  Tate  and  Brady  could  not  keep 

inconsistent  with  the  spirit  of  our  services ;  to  those  who 
have  not  this  clue,  it  must  appear  simply  unmeaning.  Again, 
there  is  a  far  more  famous  hymn  of  Aquinas's,  the  "  Pange 
lingua  gloriosi  Corporis  Mysterium,"  which  has  now  been 
translated  and  revised  many  times,  but  will  never  be  tuned 
to  harmonize  with  our  own  Communion  Office  ;  and  it  would 
be  strange  if  it  could,  seeing  that  it  was  written  by  the  most 
acute  theologian  of  his  day  to  express  precisely  that  very 
form  (the  Paschasian)  of  Eucharistic  doctrine  which  our 
Church  has  deliberately  repudiated. 


Ken  out  of  our  churches.  And  when,  by  a  bold 
stroke,  it  is  said,  of  some  pious  University  printer,1 
one  or  two  of  Wesley's  and  Doddridge's  hymns 
("Hark!  the  herald  angels  sing,"  "High  let  us 
swell  our  tuneful  notes,"  "  My  God,  and  is  Thy 
table  spread  ")  were  appended  to  an  edition  of  the 
New  Version,  they  were  tacitly  accepted  as  covered 
by  the  authority  which  was  supposed  to  sanction 
the  Psalter.  Now  however,  that,  not  by  State  enact- 
ments, Order  in  Council,  or  vote  of  Convocation, 
but  by  the  quiet  yet  irresistible  influence  of  the 
good  sense  and  Christian  feeling  of  her  congrega- 
tions, the  Church  stands  committed  to  the  use  of 
hymns,  the  warmth  and  power  of  her  worship  is 
felt  to  be  enormously  increased.  It  is  cheering  to 
hear  of  a  foreign  observer  like  M.  Taine  (Histoire 
de  la  Litterature  Anglaise]  speaking  with  respect 
and  astonishment  of  English  hymns,  and  the 
enthusiasm  with  which  we  sing  them.  What 
Frenchman's  heart  would  have  warmed  to  us  over 
the  New  Version  ? 

As  an  illustration  of  the  spiritual  wealth  we 
have  acquired  by  breaking  through  our  old  tradi- 
tions, let  us,  before  proceeding  farther,  compare 
the  materials  for  our  thanksgivings  at  this  Easter 
season  forty  or  fifty  years  ago,  in  an  "orthodox" 
church,  with  those  which  are  to  be  found  now,  in 
three  or  four  of  the  best  of  our  hymnals.  The 
Easter  Anthems,  the  Proper  Psalms,  the  Eucharistic 
Preface,  are  still  the  same.  But  for  metrical 
hymnody,  that  which,  as  Sir  F.  Ouseley  has  well 

1  Oxford  Essays,  1858.  Hymns  and  Hymn  Writers,  by 
Rev:  C.  B.  Pearson, 


shown,1  is  especially  the  part  of  the  whole  congre- 
gation  in   the  service  of  praise,  we  had  our  one 
quaint  and  well-known   "Jesus  Christ  is  risen  to- 
day,"  and   two  very  prosaic    paraphrases  of  the 
anthems  already  sung.     But  what  is  the  case  now  ? 
The  Latin  Church  may  be  represented  by  two  of 
its  very  noblest  hymns,  "Aurora  Lucis"  and  "Ad 
ccenam  Agni  "  (Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,   126 
and  127),  as  well  as  by  the  "Victimse  Paschali," 
which  the  Lutheran    Church  has  always  retained 
(Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  131),  and  by  several 
others  of  less  interest ;   the  Eastern  Churches  by 
(let  us  say)  Mr.  Neale's  two  hymns  from  St.  John 
of  Damascus — "  'Tis  the  day  of  resurrection  "  and 
"  Come,  ye  faithful,  raise  the  strain  ; "  the  ancient 
Bohemian    Church    by   "  Christus    ist   erstanden " 
(Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  136);  the  Reforma- 
tion  by  Luther's    "  Christ   lag   in   Todesbanden " 
(Mercer,  104) ;  later  Lutheranism  by  several  ex- 
cellent hymns,  conspicuous  among  them  Gellert's 
"Jesus  lebt"  (Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,   140). 
Wesley  supplies  us  with   one  of  his  best  hymns, 
" Christ  the   Lord  is  risen   to-day;"   Watts  with 
"  Hosanna   to  the   Prince  of  Light ; "  Kelly  with 
"  Come,  see  the  place  where  Jesus  lay ; "    Mont- 
gomery with  "  Songs  of  praise  the  angels  sang  ; " 
and,  of  course,  very  many  more  might  be  enumer- 
ated.    Is  it  possible  to  over-estimate  the  influence 
of  such  a  change    upon  the   next   generation    of 
Churchmen  ? 

The  result  of  this  general  acceptance  of  hymns 
by  worshippers  of  every  school  in  our  Church  is, 
Family  Magazine,  July  1864. 


of  course,  that  just  at  present  her  Hymnody  is  in 
a  state  which  may  be  well  termed  chaotic.  No 
one  has  authorized  the  use  of  any  hymn-book 
whatever,  though  most  of  our  Bishops  have  now 
recommended,  or  at  least  approved,  some  one  or 
more ;  the  field  is  open  to  unrestricted  competi- 
tion, or  at  least  restricted  only  by  the  law  of 
copyright ;  each  clergyman  may  compile  a  fresh 
Hymn-book  for  his  own  congregation,  if  he  have 
time,  money,  and  patience  ;  the  five  or  six  best- 
known  selections,  especially  those  which  are  printed 
as  Chorale  books  with  music,  have  each  its  follow- 
ing of  enthusiastic  supporters.  Thousands  are 
now  interested  in  the  subject  of  hymns,  where  but 
hundreds  a  few  years  ago  knew  of  any  but  the  two 
or  three  above  mentioned,  which  had  strayed,  no 
one  knew  how,  between  the  covers  of  the  "New 
Version "  ;  the  bolder  spirits  are  searching  high 
and  low,  from  the  Oratory  to  the  Camp  Meeting, 
for  fresh  materials ;  while  the  more  cautious  are 
eagerly  imploring,  with  English  love  of  law,  the 
authorities  in  Church  and  State  to  give  the  National 
Church  her  one  Common  Hymn-book,  to  be  bound 
up  with  her  Common  Prayer-book,  and  so  to  put 
a  stop  to  the  confusion. 

I  purpose,  in  the  following  papers,  to  consider 
how  this  movement  may  be  best  turned  to  account 
for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  edification  of  His 
Church  ;  whether  it  is  possible  or  expedient  that 
our  Church  should  have  one  general  hymn-book  ; 
what  are  the  sources  available  for  such  a  book,  and 
the  principles  on  which  it  ought  to  be  compiled  ; 
and  what  may  in  the  meantime  be  done  by  indi- 


vidual  Churchmen,  and  especially  by  the  clergy, 
towards  directing  and  consolidating  the  improve- 
ment in  our  service  of  praise. 

But  before  entering  on  this  investigation,  I  must 
call  the  attention  of  my  readers  to  some  peculi- 
arities in  the  past  history  of  English  Hymns. 

I  said  at  the  outset  of  my  paper  that  the  use  of 
hymns  in  our  public  worship,  as  distinguished  from 
metrical  Psalms,  was  wholly  contrary  to  the  tradi- 
tions of  our  Reformation.  And  this  brings  me  to 
the  first  peculiarity  in  the  history  of  our  Hymnody, 
its  comparatively  recent  groivth. 

Now  I  am  quite  aware  that  the  statement  I 
have  just  made  as  to  our  Reformers  is  very  likely 
to  be  questioned.  There  is  no  doubt  that,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Reformation,  the  feeling  was  in 
favour  of  continuing  the  use  of  the  ancient  hymns, 
and  that  with  this  view  attempts  were  made  to 
translate  them  into  English.  In  Henry  VIII.'s 
Primer  of  1545,  eight  of  the  Ambrosian  hymns  for 
the  Canonical  Hours,  translated  probably  by  the 
king  himself,  were  inserted  in  their  proper  places, 
with  the  other  offices  for  the  Hours.  These  were 
reprinted,  Mr.  Clay  tells  us,1  several  times  down 
to  1552.  But  in  1553,  when  Genevan  influence 
had  become  powerful  over  our  Reformers,  a  new 
Primer  was  put  forth,  from  which  these  hymns 
disappeared.  They  were  revived  in  two  or  three 
Primers  published  early  in  Elizabeth's  reign,  but 
not,  it  would  seem,  later  than  1575.  And  these, 
of  course,  were  not  for  church  singing,  but  for  use 

1  Private  Prayers  put  forth  by  Authority  dtiring  the  Reign 
of  Queen  Elizabeth.     Ed.  Parker  Society.     Preface,  p.  10, 



in  private  devotion.  The  only  metrical  hymn 
authorized  for  use  in  church  was  the  Veni  Creator 
in  the  Ordinal  of  1549,  retained,  with  a  good  many 
alterations,  to  our  own  day.  It  is  interesting,  by 
the  way,  to  compare  this  with  the  shorter  Long 
Metre  version,  inserted  in  the  Ordinal  at  the  last 
revision,  1661 — a  remarkable  improvement  upon 
the  diffuse  and  prosaic  Edwardian  hymn,  both  in 
vigour  and  accuracy  ;  if  to  these  we  add  the  versions 
usually  appended  to  Tate  and  Brady's  Psalter,  and 
finally  Mr.  Caswall's  version l  (Lyra  Catholica,  p. 
103),  we  shall  have  a  very  fair  specimen  of  the 

1  As  the  Lyra  Catholica  is  now  a  scarce  book,  I  subjoin 
the  most  literal  of  Mr.  Caswall's  versions— 

"  Come,  O  Creator,  Spirit  blest ! 
And  in  our  souls  take  up  Thy  rest ; 
Come  with  Thy  grace  and  heavenly  aid, 
To  fill  the  hearts  which  Thou  hast  made. 

Great  Paraclete  !  to  Thee  we  cry  : 
O  highest  gift  of  God  most  high  ! 
O  fount  of  life  !  O  fire  of  love  ! 
And  sweet  Anointing  from  above  ! 

Thou  in  Thy  sevenfold  gifts  art  known  ; 
Thee  Finger  of  God's  hand  we  own  ; 
The  promise  of  the  Father  Thou  ! 
Who  dost  the  tongue  with  power  endow. 

Kindle  our  senses  from  above, 
And  make  our  hearts  o'erflow  with  love  ; 
With  patience  firm,  and  virtue  high, 
The  weakness  of  our  flesh  supply. 

Far  from  us  drive  the  foe  we  dread, 
And  grant  us  Thy  true  peace  instead  ; 
So  shall  we  not,  with  Thee  for  guide, 
Turn  from  the  path  of  life  aside. 


powers  of  the  sixteenth,  seventeenth,  eighteenth, 
and  nineteenth  centuries  respectively,  in  translating 
an  ancient  hymn. 

The  taste  for  metrical  psalmody  sprang  up  rapidly 
among  us  in  the  sixteenth  century.  But  the 
question  to  be  decided  was,  whether  the  words  to 
be  sung  should  be  strictly  versified  Psalms,  as 
those  of  Marot  and  Beza,  or  hymns,  as  those  of 
Luther,  sometimes  translated  Catholic  hymns, 
sometimes  paraphrases  of  Psalms  or  other  portions 
of  Scripture,  or  rather  free  imitations  of  them, 
sometimes  purely  original  hymns.  Germany  had 
already  the  old  hymns  of  the  Bohemian  brethren, 
and  a  few  others.  They  became  the  nucleus  of 
her  subsequent  collections.  Luther  encouraged, 
by  every  possible  means,  the  multiplication  and 
use  of  good  hymns  ;  and  the  Evangelical  Churches 
became  pre-eminently  the  hymn-singing  Churches. 
In  imitation  of  Luther,  Coverdale  published  Goostly 
Psalmes  and  Spirituall  Songes,  many  of  them 
translations  from  Luther,  some  of  them  from  Latin 
hymns,  some  versified  Psalms,  and  a  few  original. 
These  were  published  with  music,  purposely  for 
social  and  domestic  use  ;  but  they  were  at  once 
forbidden  by  Henry  VIII.  in  1539.  On  the  other 

Oh,  may  Thy  grace  on  us  bestow, 

The  Father  and  the  Son  to  know, 

And  Thee  through  endless  times  confess'd 

Of  Both  th'  eternal  Spirit  blest. 

All  glory,  while  the  ages  run, 

Be  to  the  Father,  and  the  Son 

Who  rose  from  death  ;  the  same  to  Thee, 

O  Holy  Ghost,  eternally." 


hand,  Sternhold,  Henry's  Groom  of  the  Robes, 
began,  in  evident  imitation  of  Marot,  his  version 
of  the  Psalms,  thirty-seven  of  which  were  published 
in  the  year  of  his  death,  1549,  ten  years  after 
Coverdale's  hymn-book.  Psalm-singing  became 
popular ;  suppressed  under  Mary,  it  revived  at 
once  under  Elizabeth.  In  March  1560  Jewel 
writes  to  Peter  Martyr : — "  As  soon  as  they  had 
once  commenced  singing  in  public,  in  only  one 
little  church  in  London,  immediately  not  only  the 
churches  in  the  neighbourhood,  but  even  the  towns 
far  distant,  began  to  vie  with  each  other  in  the 
same  practice.  You  may  now  sometimes  see  at 
Paul's  Cross,  after  the  service,  six  thousand  persons, 
old  and  young,  of  both  sexes,  all  singing  together 
and  praising  God."1  This  popular  movement 
soon  gave  rise  to  a  warm  controversy ;  one  party 
advocated  part-singing,  the  re-introduction  of 
organs,  and,  in  the  larger  churches,  what  we  now 
call  Choral  service.  The  others  were  zealous  for 
metrical  tunes  only,  sung  in  unison,  and  unac- 
companied, as  Jewel  describes.2  It  would  seem 
that  Queen  Elizabeth's  well-known  Injunction, 
permitting  "  that  at  the  beginning  of  common 
prayer,  either  at  morning  or  evening  service,  there 
may  be  sung  an  hymn,  or  such  like  song,  to  the 

1  Zurich  Letters,  i.  p.  71. 

2  Ibid.    p.  164.      Cartwright,   in    1573,  in  his  Defence   of 
the  Admonition,  shows   us  that   the  Puritan  demand  was 
specifically  for    "no    other    singing    than    is   used    in    the 
Reformed  Churches  (i .  c.  the  Calvinistic),  which  is,  the  sing- 
ing of  two  psalms,  one  in  the  beginning,  and  another  in  the 
ending,  in  a  plain  tune." 


praise  of  Almighty  God,"  was  really  a  concession 
to  the  advocates  of  metrical  as  against  chanted 
psalms.  The  mention  of  a  "  hymn "  must  not 
mislead  us  ;  the  two  names  were  as  yet  among  the 
people  used  interchangeably.  No  new  translations 
from  the  Latin  service  books  would  now  have 
been  tolerated  by  those  who  were  fresh  from  the 
days  when  these  service  books  had  been  forced 
upon  the  people  by  the  terrors  of  the  stake ;  and 
the  many  who  still  clung  to  the  old  faith  clung 
also  to  the  old  language,  and  did  not  want  that 
new  Protestant  thing,  congregational  singing.  Thus 
it  came  to  pass  that,  even  if  our  people  would 
have  sung  hymns,  there  were  scarcely  any  for  them 
to  sing.  I  say,  scarcely  any,  for  we  have  a  few 
real  hyrnns  of  this  age.  A  few  were  appended  to 
the  Psalter  of  1562,  our  Old  Version.  Among 
these  we  find  metrical  versions  of  all  the  canticles 
(a  proof  of  the  popular  dislike  of  chanting  them, 
stupidly  misunderstood  by  Tate  and  Brady,  who 
proceeded  to  versify  them  anew  in  the  eighteenth 
century)  as  well  as  of  the  Lord's  Prayer,  the 
Apostles'  and  Athanasian  Creeds,  and  the  Ten 
Commandments.  We  have  also  Mardley's  "  Humble 
Suit  of  a  Sinner,"  and  the  better  known  "  Lamenta- 
tion of  a  Sinner  ; "  another  "  Lamentation  "  ;  the 
Veni  Creator  of  1549;  a  really  beautiful  "Prayer 
to  the  Holy  Ghost,  to  be  sung  before  the  sermon," 
and  a  long  "  Thanksgiving  at  the  receiving  of  the 
Lord's  Supper."  In  some  editions  was  inserted  a 
translation,  by  Robert  Wisdome,  of  Luther's  "  Song 
against  Pope  and  Turk,"  beginning  "  Preserve  us, 
Lord,  by  Thy  dear  Word."  To  the  Accession 


Service,  issued  by  authority  in  1578,  were  added 
three  hymns,  the  best  of  which,  "  As  for  Thy  gifts 
we  render  praise,"  has  been  lately  admitted  by  Dr. 
Kennedy  into  his  Hynmologia  Christiana  ;  another 
is  an  acrostic  on  "  God  save  the  Queene,"  "  to  the 
tune  of  the  25th  Psalm  "  !  A  few  more  might  be 
mentioned,  but  they  are  exceptions  which  prove 
the  rule.  No  hymns  were  furnished  for  the  great 
Church  festivals,  or  for  the  course  of  Church 
seasons ;  none  appeared  with  that  power  which 
seems  to  belong  to  almost  every  really  great  hymn, 
of  provoking  imitations  and  sequels.  The  sacred 
poets  of  Elizabeth's  reign  vied  with  one  another 
in  versifying  Psalms,  and  the  rising  school  of  com- 
posers in  setting  those  Psalms  to  music.  In  short, 
the  Church  of  England  followed  the  lead  of  the 
Calvinist  rather  than  of  the  Lutheran  Churches. 
This  is  the  true  explanation  of  the  reproach  some- 
times cast  upon  us,  that  we  are  two  centuries 
behind  Germany  in  hymns.1  It  is  vain  now  to 
speculate  on  what  might  have  been  ;  how  Sidney, 
and  Sandys,  and,  above  all,  Milton,  might  have 
given  us  immortal  hymns  instead  of  very  dis- 
appointing versions ;  how  Drummond  might  have 
continued  his  good  work  of  putting  the  songs  of 
St.  Ambrose  and  St.  Gregory  into  an  English 
dress  ;  how  Herbert  might  have  served  yet  better 
the  Church  he  loved  so  well,  had  he  been  able  to 
offer  some  contributions  to  her  worship  ;  how  Ken 
might  have  become  the  Angelus  of  England,  could 
he  have  foreseen  that  his  holy  words  would  have 

1  See  an  interesting  paper  by  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Stevenson 
in  Good  Words  for  1863,  p.  538. 


been  auxiliaries,  not  to  the  bedside  devotions  of  a 
few  scholars  only,  but  to  the  congregational  singing 
of  thousands.  But  the  opportunities  were  lost. 
Those  two  great  centuries,  the  sixteenth  and  seven- 
teenth, so  rich  and  fruitful  for  the  Church  and  the 
nation  in  all  else,  the  ages  of  our  noblest.  Christian 
poetry,  of  our  best  theology,  of  our  profoundest 
learning,  of  our  highest  pulpit  eloquence ;  ages  of 
conflict  and  suffering  for  the  faith  and  the  order 
of  the  Church ;  ages  abounding  in  ardent,  loyal, 
devout  men ;  ages  in  which  religious  questions 
were  the  most  deeply  felt  and  most  passionately 
discussed  of  all  questions  ;  yet  have  contributed 
nothing,  or  next  to  nothing,  to  the  permanent  store 
of  the  Church's  songs.1  While,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  true  Hymnody  of  England  begins  in  the  much- 
abused  eighteenth  century,  the  age  whose  poetry, 
as  Hare  says,  was  prose,  as  the  prose  of  the  seven- 
teenth had  been  poetry ;  the  age  of  scepticism  in 
religion,  frivolity  in  taste,  laxity  in  morals ;  the 
age  of  evidences,  not  of  convictions  ;  of  toleration, 
not  of  enthusiasm;  an  age  which  sentimentalists 
think  a  dead  level  of  dulness  ;  when  the  devout 
Churchman  had  become  a  tiresome  formalist,  and 
the  brave  and  earnest  Puritan  a  prudent  and 
prosperous  Dissenter.  Then  it  was  that,  from  the 

1  From  a  tolerably  extensive  knowledge  of  English  hymns, 
I  have  been  led  to  the  conviction  that,  of  the  many  thousands 
now  in  use,  not  above  a  hundred  at  most  are  of  an  earlier 
date  than  1700 ;  and  I  doubt  whether  half  of  these  were 
written  for  public  worship.  Of  course  I  leave  out  of  count 
translations,  and  the  curious  Welsh  hymns  of  Rees  Pritchard 
and  others. 


pleasant  arbour  of  Sir  Thomas  Abney's  suburban 
villa,  his  invalid  guest,  the  gentle  Nonconformist 
minister,  sent  forth  at  intervals  the  first  really 
congregational  hymns  which  had  appeared  since 
the  reign  of  Elizabeth.  The  Church,  for  the  most 
part  idle  and  corrupt,  through  the  earlier  years  of 
that  melancholy  half-century,  took  small  heed  of 
what  the  little  Doctor  wrote,  and  what  the  decorous 
tea-tables  of  Stoke  Newington  admired  ;  but  to 
the  Dissenters  the  work  of  Isaac  Watts  was  a 
greater  boon  even  than  they  thought,  and  the 
Church  in  due  time  came  to  recognize  its  value. 
He  was,  if  I  may  so  speak,  the  founder  of  a  school 
of  hymnists,  of  which  Doddridge  is  the  most 
illustrious  member.  I  have  never  myself  felt  much 
affection  for  this  school ;  I  have  little  sympathy 
with  Watts's  theology ;  and  his  verse  seems  to  me 
sadly  encumbered  with  the  artificial  conceits  and 
tinsel  ornaments,  now  grievously  tarnished,  of  his 
age.  Yet  there  is  in  many  of  their  hymns  a  power 
of  faith  and  love  which  still  lives  and  glows.  Even 
in  our  own  Church,  some  of  them,  we  may  venture 
to  say,  will  never  be  forgotten  or  superseded. 

The  new  fashion,  it  is  to  be  observed,  was  strictly 
Nonconformist.  I  do  not  know  how  soon  our 
Church  adopted  it,  though  I  am  acquainted  with 
a  parish  church  in  which  Watts's  Psalms  and 
Hymns  were  sung  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago, 
and  are  in  use  to  this  day.  Among  the  few  devout 
and  ascetic  Churchmen  the  observance  of  the 
Canonical  Hours,  which  the  Nonjurors  had  revived, 
and  which  perhaps  had  never  wholly  been  laid 
aside  since  the  days  of  Cosin,  had  led  to  the 


private  use  of  the  hymns  of  Austin  and  Ken.  It 
is  probable,  also,  that  the  custom  of  introducing 
special  anthems  on  the  occasion  of  charity  sermons 
and  the  like,  may  have  early  led  to  the  adoption 
of  an  occasional  hymn  or  ode  to  be  performed  by 
the  singers.  But  this  was  not  congregational 
worship ;  and  even  among  the  Dissenters  the 
hymn  was  still  subsidiary  to  the  metrical  Psalm. 
Doddridge's  hymns  were  written  each  with  refer- 
ence to  one  of  his  sermons,  and  intended  to  be 
sung  before  or  after  it ;  a  fashion  which  John 
Newton  afterwards  introduced  for  a  time  at 

But  a  greater  movement  was  at  hand.  In  1738 
John  Wesley  returned  home  from  America,  and 
he  and  his  brother  Charles  began  to  found  their 
Societies.  As  is  well  known,  they  were  for  a  time 
intimately  associated  with  the  United  Brethren, 
and  this  connection  had  an  important  effect  both 
upon  the  form  which  the  Wesleyan  discipline 
assumed,  and  upon  the  means  by  which  its 
devotional  fervour  was  sustained.  For  the  first 
time,  men  bred  up  in  the  English  Church,  and 
men  bred  up  in  the  Lutheran  Churches,  learned  to 
understand  and  value  one  another;  and  though 
too  soon  their  friendship  came  to  an  end,  yet  to 
that  brief  intimacy,  more  than  to  any  other  single 
cause,  the  Church  of  England  owes  the  revival  of 
her  hymnody.  From  the  Moravians  the  Wesleys 
borrowed  not  only  the  text  of  many  good  German 
hymns,  but  the  precedent  for  their  abundant  and 
continual  use  ;  and  one  of  the  two  brothers,  at 
least,  was  nobly  inspired  by  their  example.  Charles 


Wesley,  living  and  dying  an  English  clergyman, 
loving  to  the  last  the  Church  from  which  he  at 
least  had  never  dreamed  of  separating,  produced, 
during  the  fifty  years  which  followed,  a  store  of 
hymns  from  among  which  we  may  select  not  a  few 
that  will  bear  comparison  with  those  of  any  age 
and  any  country.  He  is  the  true  founder  of  our 
second  great  school  of  hymnists,  more  fervent, 
thoughtful,  and  subjective  than  the  first ;  a  school 
which  includes  not  only  his  own  immediate  co- 
adjutors and  even  his  rivals,  but  many  an  honoured 
name  besides,  both  within  and  without  our  Church, 
from  Cowper  to  Montgomery.1 

The  third  school  belongs  to  our  own  day,  and 
is  the  result  of  the  influence  of  Ancient,  as  the 
second  was  of  German  hymns.  I  forbear  to  speak 
of  it  here,  because  I  am  not  now  writing  the  history 
of  English  hymnody,  but  merely  commenting  upon 
a  few  of  its  peculiarities.  The  fact  of  its  recent 
origin  is  of  importance  to  us,  in  our  estimate  of 
the  stage  we  have  now  reached  in  our  hymns,  and 
in  our  investigation  of  the  possibility  or  desirability 
of  an  authorized  Hymnal. 

But  connected  with  this  late  maturity  there  is 
another  feature  in  our  Hymnody  worth  notice,  its 
peculiarly  personal  and  subjective  character.  Com- 
pare an  Ambrosian  morning  hymn  with  one  of 
Watts's  or  Charles  Wesley's.  Ken's  is  indeed 

1  Toplady,  the  doctrinal  antagonist  of  the  Wesleys,  yet 
really,  as  a  devotional  poet,  belongs  to  Charles  Wesley's 
school  The  hymns  of  the  one  have  been  frequently  attributed 
to  the  other.  There  is  a  distinct  school  of  Calvinistic 
hymnists,  but  it  is  of  little  importance. 


written  for  private  devotion,  but  Watts's  "  My 
God,  how  endless  is  Thy  love,"  and  Wesley's 
"  Christ,  Whose  glory  fills  the  skies,"  were  each  of 
them  included  by  its  author  in  an  avowedly 
congregational  collection.  "  Jam  Lucis  "  (Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern,  i)  is  childlike  in  its  simplicity 
of  feeling,  for  it  belongs  to  the  childhood  of  the 
Church.  Not  merely  the  plural  number,  but  the 
generality  of  its  expressions,  shows  that  it  was 
written  with  a  view  to  being  sung  by  many 
worshippers,  who  had  indeed  a  sense  of  common 
wants  and  trials,  dangers  and  sins,  but  had  not 
yet  learned  to  estimate  the  individuality  of  each 
separate  soul,  its  difference  from  its  kind,  its 
personal  responsibility  to  God.  The  very  allusion 
to  that  which  is  so  private  a  matter  for  each  one, 
as  the  habit  of  abstinence  in  food,  shows  that  there 
had  not  yet  dawned  upon  the  Church  the  thought 
of  how  differently  each  one  is  constituted  from  his 
neighbours,  physically  as  well  as  spiritually,  and 
of  how  little  avail  general  rules  and  prescriptions 
can  be  in  that  inner  world  of  consciousness  which 
is  the  battle-field  of  the  carnal  and  spiritual  will. 
But  the  spirit  of  self-dedication  and  dependence 
which  animates  Watts's  hymn,  and  the  yet  deeper 
cries  of  the  dark  and  cheerless  heart  for  the  light 
and  warmth  of  communion  with  its  Lord,  which 
breathe  through  Wesley's,  though  they  belong 
essentially  to  all  true  worship,  yet  could  scarcely 
have  found  utterance  in  congregational  worship, 
till  the  time  was  come  when  the  direct  responsi- 
bility to  God  of  the  individual  conscience,  and  its 
true  dignity  as  the  means  by  which  His  Word 


acts  upon  the  human  will,  were   recognized   and 
acknowledged  by  all. 

How  strongly  this  subjective  character  is  marked 
in  the  later  German  hymns  which  are  now  be- 
coming so  common  among  us,  a  cursory  glance  at 
any  collection  of  them  will  show.  But  in  some  of 
our  English  hymns  of  the  second  school — notably 
in  some  of  Cowper's  written  under  deep  religious 
depression — it  assumes  a  form  which  makes  it 
necessary,  I  am  convinced,  that  they  should  be 
excluded  from  the  worship  of  the  congregation, 
and  reserved  to  guide  and  elevate  the  individual 
in  moments  of  private  meditation  and  prayer. 
Because  a  hymn  may  be  in  itself  true  and  beautiful, 
it  is  not  therefore  of  necessity  fit  for  use  in  Church  ; 
and  cannot  be  made  so,  as  some  compilers  seem  to 
think,  merely  by  the  substitution  of  the  plural  for 
the  singular  in  its  personal  pronouns.  To  this 
point,  however,  I  shall  have  to  recur  hereafter ;  for 
it  is  one  of  the  most  important  and  one  of  the 
most  difficult  questions  connected  with  our  future 
hymnody,  what  place  this  later  element  must  find 
for  itself;  how  we  can  best  combine  hymns  ancient 
and  modern  and  thoughts  ancient  and  modern,  in 
our  united  worship.  On  the  one  hand,  we  cannot 
but  feel,  after  long  dwelling  among  the  pathetic 
and  introspective  hymns  of  later  times,  a  craving 
for  the  simpler  and  calmer  language  of  the  Ancient 
Church  ;  for  hymns  which  draw  our  minds  outward 
and  upward,  which  make  the  Trinity  and  the 
Incarnation,  rather  than  the  Atonement,  their 
central  thought ;  which  tell  of  the  source,  rather 
than  the  process  of  sanctification.  We  cannot  do 


without  the  bracing  and  refreshing  influence  of 
the  ancient  hymn.  And  on  the  other  hand  we 
cannot  ignore  the  growth  of  the  Church  out  of 
her  childhood,  the  actual  presence  among  us  of 
thoughts  unknown  to  the  ancient  worshippers ; 
and  therefore  no  mere  collection  of  ancient  hymns, 
be  their  translations  as  spirited  as  Neale's  and 
as  melodious  as  Chandler's,  will  satisfy  the  Church 
now.  Experimental  religion,  as  the  last  generation 
called  it,  must  be  represented  in  our  worship. 
But  surely  no  part  of  our  task  requires  such  sound 
judgment,  such  refined  taste  and  feeling,  such 
clear  spiritual  insight,  such  a  combination  of 
wisdom  and  charity,  of  honesty  and  reverence,  in 
him  who  would  undertake  it,  as  the  adjustment 
of  these  conflicting  claims.  He  must  indeed  be 
a  scribe  instructed  unto  the  kingdom  of  heaven, 
who  shall  be  able  thus  to  bring  out  of  the  Church's 
treasury  things  new  and  old,  and  to  blend  them 
in  due  proportion  for  the  service  of  his  brethren  ; 
who  shall  recognize  the  actual  point  of  her  spiritual 
history  at  which  the  Church  of  our  day  has  arrived, 
and  discern  her  true  voice  among  all  the  artificial 
tones  she  is  made  to  utter ;  who  shall  know  when 
language  the  most  venerable  must  be  rejected, 
because  it  has  ceased  to  find  any  response  in  the 
Christian  consciousness  of  our  people ;  and  when 
language  the  most  attractive  must  also  be  rejected, 
because  it  cannot  by  any  possibility  express  their 
actual  feelings  ;  and  so  its  very  beauty  would  only 
make  it  the  more  dangerous,  in  that  it  would 
tempt  men  to  come  before  the  God  of  Truth  with 
superficial  emotions  and  unreal  words. 


No.  II 


MY  last  paper' was  written  with  the  view  of  bring- 
ing before  my  readers  two  things — the  reason  why 
the  Church  of  England  has  never  yet  had  an 
authorized  Hymnal,  and  the  peculiar  character  of 
the  materials  for  such  a  purpose  at  present  in  our 
hands.  I  now  proceed  to  an  inquiry  naturally 
suggested  by  my  first  point,  namely,  Ought  we  to 
take  steps  to  obtain  such  an  addition  to  our  formu- 
laries ?  What  are  the  reasons  for  and  against  our 
doing  so  ? 

The  first  argument  that  occurs,  I  suppose,  to 
everybody,  is  that,  as  a  matter  of  practical  con- 
venience, one  authorized  Hymnal,  for  use  in  all  our 
churches,  is  much  to  be  desired.  The  multiplica- 
tion of  such  compilations,  in  an  age  when  travelling 
has  increased  to  an  unprecedented  extent,  has 
become  a  very  great  annoyance.  How  few  of  my 
readers,  among  the  many  who  this  summer  or 
autumn,  let  us  say,  are  worshipping  as  strangers  in 
some  church  at  a  distance  from  home,  will  be  able 
to  make  use  of  the  hymn-books  to  which  they  are 
accustomed  ?  Nowhere  is  the  confusion  worse  con- 
founded than  in  our  fashionable  watering-places. 
One  such  is  in  my  thoughts  now,  with  its  fifteen 
churches,  all  crowded  during  the  season  ;  in  those 
fifteen  churches,  a  few  years  ago,  twelve  different 
collections  were  in  use,  and  a  thirteenth  in  pre- 


paration  ;  six  or  seven  of  these  being  peculiar  to 
the  congregation  in  which  they  were  used.  Such 
diversity  as  this  is  a  real  hindrance  to  common 
worship ;  it  seals  many  a  tongue  which  would 
readily  take  part  in  the  service  of  praise;  it 
obtrudes  upon  the  stranger  the  sense  of  separation 
and  distance,  where  all  ought  to  tell  of  unity. 
And  if  it  is  hard  upon  the  stranger,  it  is  no 
less'  hard  upon  those  who  are  even  more  to  be 
considered,  the  poor  of  the  congregation.  For  the 
immense  number  of  hymn-books  in  existence 
necessarily  limits  the  circulation  of  each,  and 
thereby  raises  its  price.  Some  books  are  sold  for 
half-a-crown  which  contain  less  matter  than  is 
furnished  in  others  more  widely  used  for  threepence. 
And  what  is  yet  more  provoking,  the  two  collections 
are  probably  very  nearly  alike.  In  hymn-books 
put  forth  by  clergy  of  similar  views,  the  same 
hymns  will,  as  a  matter  of  course,  constitute  the 
great  bulk  of  each  volume.  For  most  compilers  go 
over  the  beaten  track  ;  their  libraries  are  seldom 
rich  in  originals  ;  they  are  the  copyists  of  copyists, 
and  wield  in  the  service  of  the  Church  the  scissors 
not  the  pen.  Generally  speaking,  new  hymns  of 
real  value  find  their  way  into  collections  made  by  a 
considerable  body  of  compilers,  covering  a  large 
area,  and  procurable  therefore  at  a  small  cost.  A 
hymnal  which  was  used  in  every  congregation  of 
our  Church  would  command  such  a  sale  that,  even 
if  bulky,  it  could  be  offered  at  a  rate  which  would 
bring  it  within  the  reach  of  the  poorest. 

An  authorized  Hymnal,  moreover,  would  secure 
us  uniformity  in  the  wording  of  our  hymns.     The 


worst  result  of  the  great  number  of  collections  in 
existence  is  the  unsettled  state  of  the  text  of  many 
of  our  most  valuable  hymns.  Each  private  com- 
pilation, though  it  may  not  produce  any  new  hymns 
of  more  than  tolerable  merit,  yet  is  sure  to  present 
us  with  a  rich  crop  of  various  readings  in  old  ones. 
Any  one  who  is  accustomed  to  the  use  of  different 
books  knows  the  distracting  effects  of  these  per- 
petually-recurring changes ;  and,  I  may  add,  any 
one  who  is  accustomed  to  one  particular  form  of  a 
hymn  is  not  only  disturbed,  but  in  some  measure 
indignant  at  each  innovation.  It  seems  to  be 
precisely  the  case  in  which  the  judicious  interposition 
of  authority  would  do  good.  Let  the  best  form  of 
each  hymn  be  carefully  selected,  its  use  in  this  form 
be  sanctioned,  the  authorized  volume  find  accept- 
ance, and  in  a  few  years  other  readings  will  silently 
disappear,  even  from  unauthorized  collections,  and 
finally  be  forgotten. 

Let  me,  however,  so  far  anticipate  the  subject  of 
my  next  paper  as  to  say  here,  once  for  all,  that  by 
the  best  form  I  do  not  mean  necessarily  the  original 
form  of  a  hymn.  There  is  much  confusion  of  thought 
upon  this  point.  A  hymn-book — a  book  for  con- 
gregational use — has  one  only  object;  and  every- 
thing in  it  ought  to  be  made  subservient  to  that 
one  object.  It  is  the  material  for  Common  Praise. 
It  is  not  a  "  treasury  "  of  religious  poetry  ;  it  is  not 
a  collection  of  the  opinions  of  four  or  five  hundred 
men  and  women  upon  religious  subjects  put  into 
metre ;  if  real  poetry  is  to  be  found  there,  the 
reason  is  only  that,  cceteris paribus,  poetic  language 
is  better  adapted  for  song  than  prosaic.  Now  it  is 


plain  that  a  composition  may  have  in  it,  as  it  leaves 
its  author's  hands,  the  elements  of  a  valuable  hymn  ; 
while  yet  it  may  need  to  pass  through  other  hands, 
perhaps  through  many,  before  it  reaches  its  best 
shape.  The  author  may  have  intended  it  only  for 
private  use,  or  only  to  express  his  own  passing 
thoughts  ;  his  work  may  be  deformed  by  the  effects 
of  imperfect  education,  of  a  dull  ear  for  rhythm,  of 
narrow  religious  prejudices,  of  a  vulgar  or  rhetorical 
style  ;  and  yet  a  wise  and  devout  Hymnologist 
will  at  once  detect  in  it  the  true  metal,  which, 
properly  purified,  will,  it  may  be,  circulate  in  the 
Church  to  the  end  of  time.  Ought  we  to  reject 
this  because  it  is  blemished?  ought  we  to  carry 
our  veneration  of  relics  so  far  as  to  admit  it, 
blemishes  and  all,  into  a  Church  Hymnal,  because 
we  love  and  revere  the  memory  of  the  author  ? 
Why  should  Prudentius's  Holy  Innocents  still  play 
with  their  palms  and  crowns  through  a  dozen 
different  versions,  because  that  ecclesiastical  Delia 
Cruscan  was  silly  enough  to  think  the  notion  a 
pretty  one  ?  Why  should  Dr.  Watts's  angels  clap 
their  wings  and  sweep  their  strings  in  our  churches  ? 
Why  should  the  noble  last  verse  of  "  Rock  of  Ages  " 
be  disfigured  by  a  physiological  blunder,  pardon- 
able in  a  Devonshire  vicar  a  hundred  years  ago,  but 
in  our  ears  only  ridiculous  ? l  Why  should  a  well- 
meaning  compiler,  like  the  excellent  Rector  of  Bath, 
have  taken  so  much  pains  to  restore  to  the  545 
hymns  in  his  book  all  the  little  bald  and  rugged 
patches  which  the  kindly  hand  of  time,  or  the  taste 

1  "  When  mine  eye-strings  break  in  death."     It  is  fair  to 
say  that  this  is  not  restored  by  Mr.  Kemble. 



of  more  judicious  editors,  had  concealed?1  Why 
should  Mr.  Neale,  in  preparing  Vexilla  (Hymnal 
Noted,  22)  for  English  congregations — if,  indeed, 
English  congregations  must  needs  sing  Vexilla — 

1  Mr.  Kemble's  Hymn-book  is  so  extensively  used,  and  its 
claims  upon  the  attention  of  the  Church  are  so  confidently 
put  forward,  that  I  cannot  refrain  from  directing  attention 
to  another  mistake,  of  an  opposite  kind,  in  its  construction. 
Here  is  a  most  conscientious  and  painstaking  man,  who  lays 
down  for  himself  a  rule,  wise  in  itself,  but  not  without  many 
exceptions,  only  to  adhere  to  it  where  he  ought  to  have  de- 
parted from  it,  and  to  depart  from  it  where  be  ought  to  have 
adhered  to  it.  He  has  restored  many  turns  of  expression 
which  were  better  forgotten  ;  but  he  has  exceeded  most 
editors  in  the  liberty  he  has  taken  of  abridgment.  The 
fatal  scissors  have  not  indeed  been  employed  in  the  appro- 
priation of  the  fruit  of  his  neighbour's  toils,  but  they  have 
made  sad  havoc  of  his  own.  I  will  give  one  example.  Pro- 
fessor Carlyle  wrote  a  hymn  for  the  beginning  of  Divine 
Service,  expressing,  in  devotional  language,  the  part  which 
each  of  the  three  great  Christian  graces — Faith,  Hope,  and 
Charity — fulfils  in  public  worship.  Mr.  Kemble  professes 
to  give  us  this  hymn  (442,  "  Lord,  when  we  bend  before  Thy 
throne ")  in  the  very  words  of  the  author.  But,  alas,  he 
leaves  us  but  the  beginning  and  end  of  the  hymn,  and  "  Love  " 
has  entirely  disappeared  from  it  !  It  is  true  other  compilers 
have  done  the  same  thing  ;  but  then  they  make  no  profession 
of  giving  us  hymns  as  the  authors  wrote  them.  There  is, 
indeed,  one  conceivable  explanation  of  this  strange  curtail- 
ment. Mr.  Kemble  proposes  we  should  sing  this  hymn  to 
"  St.  Matthew's."  Now  a  suburban  organist,  who  thinks  that 
a  tune  is  nothing  unless  it  is  drawled  "  to  bring  out  the 
harmony,"  and  garnished  with  proper  preludes  and  inter- 
ludes, takes  a  long  while  to  get  through  a  somewhat  heavy 
U.C.M.  tune  in  "triple  time."  Possibly  Mr.  Kemble  thought 
that  two  verses  in  this  style  would  exhaust  the  patience  of 
any  congregation  ;  and  perhaps  he  was  right.  But  it  was 
cruel  to  cut  his  picture  to  fit  his  frame. 


first  reproduce  with  "  Chinese  exactness  "  a  mere 
mistake  in  a  reading  of  the  Psalms,  and  then  ap- 
pend a  note  to  warn  us  that  it  is  a  mistake  ?  Let 
us,  indeed,  take  all  due  care  of  the  text  of  our 
hymns.  Let  us  do  for  them  what  Bunsen  has  done 
for  those  of  his  own  country,  or  Daniel  and  Mone 
for  Ancient  and  Mediaeval  Hymns.  Let  us  have 
an  English  "  Thesaurus"  to  contain,  in  chronological 
order,  all  but  the  greatest  writers  ;  and  of  these  let 
us  have  good  uniform  editions.  Gladly  would  I  see 
reprinted  all  those  hymn-books  of  Charles  Wesley's, 
of  which  few  persons  but  Mr.  Sedgwick l  know  even 
the  names  ;  and  gladly  would  I  welcome  the  publi- 
cation by  the  Wesleyan  body  of  his  Psalter,  and 
those  hundreds  of  his  hymns  which,  we  are  told, 
still  lie  in  manuscript.  But  this  will  be  quarrying, 
not  building.  When  we  have  got  our  "  Thesaurus," 
we  shall  still  have  to  construct  our  National 
Hymnal,  and  not  altogether  without  the  sound  of 
axe  and  hammer. 

I  hesitate  to  say,  as  some  do,  that  an  authorized 
Hymnal  would  supply  a  want  in  our  Church 
system ;  for  the  want  is  already  supplied  by 
voluntary  efforts.  There  are  surely  but  few 
churches  now,  and  those  chiefly  village  ones, 
where  some  Hymn-book  is  not  used,  either  as  a 
supplement  to,  or  a  substitute  for,  metrical  Psalms. 
Still  there  are,  no  doubt,  some  congregations  by 
which  hymns  would  be  sung  for  the  first  time, 
when  they  enter  under  the  sanction  and  patronage 
of  our  rulers  in  Church  and  State.  The  authoriz- 
ation of  a  Hymnal  would  be  the  coup  de  grdce  to 
1  See  p.  276. 


Tate  and  Brady.  But  the  real  meaning  of  those 
who  look  to  it  for  the  satisfaction  of  an  acknow- 
ledged want,  is  that  the  whole  material  of  the 
devotions  of  her  children  would  thus  be  supplied 
by  the  Church  as  a  Church,  speaking  through  her 
legitimate  channels,  and  none  of  it  left  to  the 
selection  of  the  individual  clergyman.  It  is  fair  to 
suppose  that  a  work  so  important  would  be  under- 
taken, if  at  all,  with  such  care  as  to  ensure  the  pro- 
duction of  a  better  hymn-book  than  any  now  in 
existence ;  that  from  its  very  nature  it  would  be 
the  most  comprehensive  of  hymn-books  ;  that  its 
merits  would  secure  it  ready  acceptance  ;  that  thus 
it  would  become  permanent,  and  take  its  place  at 
last  in  the  affections  of  our  people,  as  a  part  of  the 
Common  Prayer-book  to  which  it  was  appended. 
Congregations  would  not  then,  as  now,  be  disturbed 
by  each  new  pastor — I  had  almost  said,  each  new 
curate — bringing  with  him  his  favourite  Hymnal  ; 
the  familiar  lesson-book  of  the  child  would  become 
the  solace  of  the  aged  man  ;  the  tunes  sung  at  the 
old  church  of  his  boyhood  would  be  linked  with 
words  to  which  the  worker,  the  sufferer,  the  wan- 
derer in  after  life  might  recur  with  unspeakable 
affection  ;  and  the  Hymn-book  of  the  English 
Church  might  be  a  bond  of  union  no  less  powerful 
than  her  Prayer-book  for  her  scattered  children,  an 
instrument  effectual  beyond  all  other  to  maintain 
her  hold  upon  her  people,  and  to  promote  her  ex- 
tension. Nevertheless,  this  argument  will,  I  admit, 
only  carry  weight  with  those  who  wish  to  abridge 
rather  than  extend,  the  discretion  now  allowed  to 
each  clergyman  in  the  conduct  of  Divine  Service. 


Yet  even  those  who  demand  for  him  the  utmost 
possible  liberty  may  be  reminded  that  it  is  the 
voice  of  the  congregation,  not  of  its  pastor,  which 
would  be  controlled  by  prescribed  forms  of  praise  ; 
that  the  choice  denied  to  him  would  be  merely  the 
choice,  made  once  for  all,  of  a  book,  not  the  con- 
tinual selecting  of  portions  ;  and  that  it  would  be 
practicable,  and  even,  I  hope  to  show,  desirable, 
where  circumstances  might  seem  to  require  it,  con- 
siderably ro  relax  even  this  slight  restriction. 

But  great  as  would  be  these  and  the  like  advan- 
tages arising  from  the  adoption  of  an  authorized 
Hymnal,  the  difficulties  in  the  way  of  such  an 
undertaking  appear  to  me  truly  formidable  ;  and  it 
is  the  consideration  of  these  difficulties  which  has 
been  my  chief  inducement  to  the  discussion  of  the 
subject  in  these  pages.  It  is  not  enough  to  specu- 
late on  the  beauty  and  pleasantness  of  a  National 
Hymn-book  as  excellent  as  our  Prayer-book,  as 
much  venerated  and  beloved,  combining  the  dignity 
of  the  Ancient,  the  holy  associations  of  the  German, 
the  popularity  of  the  Methodist  Hymnody  ;  we 
must  ask  ourselves  calmly  whether  it  is  possible  for 
us  to  get  this,  or  anything  like  this  ?  whether  we 
can  get  anything  at  all  without  great  danger  ?  and 
whether,  when  we  have  what  we  have  asked  for, 
we  shall  like  it,  and  welcome  it,  as  much  as  we 
fancy  ? 

The  first  question  that  arises  is  as  to  the  body 
from  which  an  authorized  Hymnal  ought  to  proceed. 
To  place  a  Hymnal  on  exactly  the  same  footing 
as  our  Prayer-book,  it  ought,  of  course,  after  having 
been  prepared,  to  receive  the  approval  of  the  Con- 


vocations  of  both  Provinces,  of  both  Houses  of 
Parliament,  and  of  the  Crown.  A  special  Act  would 
be  required,  repealing  so  much  of  the  Act  of  Uni- 
formity as  bears  upon  the  subject.  Further,  if  the 
Hymnal  is  to  be  literally  of  equal  authority  with  the 
Prayer-book,  its  use  must  be  compulsory,  under 
penalties  similar  to  those  which  enforce  the  use  of 
the  Prayer-book  ;  and  it  must  be  specified  in  the 
declaration  of  unfeigned  assent  and  consent  required 
of  every  incumbent  at  institution.  No  one,  I 
suppose,  dreams  that  all  this  is  either  possible  or 
desirable.  That  Parliament  should  sanction  the 
imposition  of  new  formularies  of  any  sort  upon  the 
Church  is  highly  improbable  ;  that  it  should  im- 
pose upon  it  a  vast  body  of  hymns  gathered  from 
all  sources,  to  be  forthwith  adopted  to  the  exclusion 
of  many  hundreds  of  rival  collections,  in  which 
great  numbers  of  persons  have  considerable  pecuni- 
ary interest,  and  to  the  use  of  one  or  other  of  which 
thousands  of  Church  people  of  all  ranks  are  warmly 
attached,  is  simply  incredible.  Were  it  possible  to 
pass  such  an  Act,  the  agitation  of  the  whole  Church 
would  ensure  its  speedy  repeal.  All  that  we  can 
ask,  then,  in  the  way  of  authorization,  must  be 
simply  an  Order  in  Council,  permitting  the  use  of 
one  particular  collection,  in  the  same  way  as  that 
which  allowed  Tate  and  Brady's  Psalter  ;  or  at  the 
utmost,  giving  the  sort  of  authority  for  its  use  which 
sanctions  the  use  of  the  Accession  Service.  This 
might  be  done  upon  an  address  to  the  Crown  from 
Parliament,  which,  though  not  probable,  it  is  at  least 
possible  might  be  voted,  if  it  were  known  before- 
hand that  the  measure  would  be  generally  acceptable 


to  the  Church.  But  this  could  only  be  if  the 
Hymnal  had  been  prepared  by  a  body  of  compilers 
which  commanded  general  confidence ;  if  it  had 
been  sufficiently  long  before  the  Church  to  invite 
and  profit  by  free  criticism ;  and  if  it  had  been  to 
some  extent  tested  by  actual  experience.  An 
Order  in  Council  allowing  such  a  book  would 
doubtless  be,  to  a  considerable  extent,  at  once 
acted  upon.  It  is  probable  that  the  authorized 
Hymnal  would  be  adopted  by  the  Cathedrals,  by 
the  Universities,  by  many  Colleges  and  schools,  by 
the  Royal  Chapels,  and  by  a  large  number  of  the 
churches  of  our  towns  and  cities.  Vested  interests 
would  not  be  hastily  and  alarmingly  interfered 
with.  If  the  Hymnal  were  really  good,  it  would 
gradually  make  its  way.  But  how  much  depends 
upon  its  compilers  !  To  whom  shall  we  look  ? 

The  subject  has  been  mooted  in  Convocation 
once  or  twice ;  an  address  from  the  Lower  House 
to  the  Upper  has  been  suggested,  praying  the 
appointment  of  a  Committee  to  compile  a  Hymnal. 
But  of  whom  is  such  a  Committee  to  consist  ?  Not 
surely  exclusively  of  the  members  of  one  or  both 
Houses  of  the  Convocation  of  the  Province  of 
Canterbury.  Such  a  work  is  too  great  to  be  under- 
taken by  any  body,  however  venerable,  so  limited 
in  numbers,  representing  but  one  province  of  the 
United  Church,  and  composed  of  members  not 
necessarily  very  conversant  with  this  subject,  and 
already  largely  occupied  with  other  business.  It 
is  to  be  questioned  whether  the  result  of  the  labours 
of  a  Committee  of  Convocation  would  be  likely  to 
be  a  better  Hymnal  than  some  which  the  Church 


already  possesses.  It  must  be  obvious  indeed,  that 
such  a  task  as  the  preparation  of  an  Authorized 
Church  Hymnal  ought  to  be  entrusted,  as  was  the 
preparation  of  the  Authorized  Version  of  the 
Bible,  to  a  body  of  men  specially  chosen  for  the 
task  from  the  whole  Church  upon  the  one  ground 
of  fitness  for  this  peculiar  duty  ;  and,  moreover, 
left  at  liberty  to  avail  themselves  of  the  services  of 
any  persons,  of  any  nation,  and  in  any  religious 
communion,  whom  they  may  think  competent  to 
render  them  assistance.  It  is  only  thus  that  there 
can  be  any  hope  of  collecting  all  the  materials 
available  for  the  purpose,  for  procuring  the  best 
judgments  upon  their  selection  and  arrangements, 
and  of  producing  a  result  which  shall  disarm 
hostility,  overcome  prejudices,  and  enlist  the  hearty 
sympathies  of  the  Church  at  large.  That  the  book, 
when  prepared,  ought  to  be  admitted  to  the  Con- 
vocation of  each  Province  for  approval, before  being 
allowed  by  the  Queen  in  Council,  I  do  not  question. 
But  I  confess  it  appears  to  me  that  our  efforts  ought 
in  the  first  place  to  be  directed  to  the  obtaining  a 
Royal  Commission  of  clergy  and  laity  for  the 
purpose  of  preparing  it ;  and  that  the  wisest  course 
would  be  for  Convocation  to  petition  the  Crown  to 
that  effect. 

But  suppose  these  preliminaries  adjusted  ;  sup- 
pose a  Commission  appointed,  so  largely  constituted 
as  to  represent  fairly  every  school  of  religious 
thought  within  the  Church,  and  so  judiciously  as 
to  command  general  confidence  in  their  piety, 
learning,  moderation,  and  good  taste  ;  still  the 
difficulties  would  be  but  beginning.  The  task  of 


the  Commissioners  is  to  provide  for  the  Church  a 
Hymnal  which  shall  obtain  from  hundreds  of  con- 
gregations, each  using  its  own  favourite  collection, 
at  least  the  sort  of  suffrage  which  the  Athenian 
general  of  old  is  said  to  have  gained  from  his 
colleagues.  Each  hymnist  must  at  any  rate  acknow- 
ledge that  the  new  book  is  only  second  to  his  own 
in  merit.  And  those  who  bear  in  mind  how  long 
the  Prayer-book  was  unpopular  —  how  long  the 
Genevan  Bible  maintained  its  footing  against 
King  James's  in  general  esteem,  will  not  be  very 
confident  as  to  the  likelihood  of  even  this  amount 
of  success.  Such  persons  will  think  of  the  many 
popular  hymns  which  must  be  called  to  the  bar  of 
the  Commission,  tried,  and  condemned  ;  of  the 
still  more  numerous  ones,  which  will  be  nearly  up 
to  the  mark  of  approval,  and  yet,  perhaps,  on  a 
final  revision  be  rejected,  from  the  dire  necessity  of 
compression  ;  of  the  strange  new  faces  that  will 
surely  take  the  place  of  familiar  old  ones,  ancient 
and  mediaeval  hymns  finding  their  way  for  the  first 
time  into  ears  that  were  accustomed  but  to  Watts, 
Newton,  and  Wesley,  or  vice  versa  ;  of  the  certainty 
that  the  very  comprehensiveness  of  the  new  book 
will  make  it  disagreeable  to  those  who  are  familiar 
only  with  one  type  of  hymn  ;  its  very  Catholicity 
be  mistaken  by  too  many  for  a  cold  and  unspiritual 
neutrality.  It  must,  indeed,  be  a  sanguine  temper 
that  has  not  many  misgivings  as  to  the  success  of 
an  undertaking  which  cannot  fail  to  provoke 
abundant  criticism,  which  must  of  very  necessity 
wound  many  deeply-cherished  prejudices,  break  in 
upon  many  hallowed  associations,  and  claim  to 


disturb,  even  though  with   the  view  of  reforming, 
the  devotional  language  of  thousands.1 

But  an  authorized  Hymnal  would  have  to  make 
its  way,  not  only  against  a  strong  current  of  pre- 
possession, but  one  still  stronger  of  pecuniary  in- 
terest. The  manufacture  and  sale  of  hymn-books 
is  now  a  department  of  British  industry  with  which 
a  prudent  Minister  may  well  deem  it  unadvisable 
for  a  Royal  Commission  to  interfere.  In  any  case, 
the  law  of  copyright,  the  dread  of  which  has  chilled 
the  ardour  of  so  many  a  hymnologist,  who  fondly 
hoped  he  could  gather  into  one  collection  every 
good  and  popular  hymn  of  the  day,  will  confront 
in  all  its  terrors  the  compilers  of  a  hymnal  which 
aspired  to  supersede  all  others.  What  are  they  to 
do  ?  Are  they  to  help  themselves  freely,  and  then 
ask  for  an  Act  of  Indemnity  ?  Are  they  to  try  the 
question  of  copyright  in  the  Law  Courts?  Are 
they  to  go  round  to  each  publisher  in  turn,  solicit- 
ing, in  the  name  of  the  Church  of  England,  per- 
mission to  make  use  of  his  property,  in  the  hope  of 
being  able  to  combine  the  contributions  thus  begged 
from  door  to  door  in  a  volume,  which,  if  successful, 
is  to  make  all  that  property  worthless  ?  Will 

1  I  have  not  questioned  the  probability  of  the  Commis- 
sioners being  able  to  agree  among  themselves.  Yet  there  is 
no  species  of  composition  with  regard  to  which  the  judgment 
of  a  devout  man  is  more  likely  to  be  warped  by  early  associ- 
ations and  prejudices  than  a  hymn.  Who  shall  ensure  our 
compilers  against  the  catastrophe  which  is  said  to  have 
befallen  the  clergy  of  one  of  our  university  towns,  who  resolved 
some  years  ago  to  unite  in  the  compilation  of  a  hymnal  for  use 
in  all  its  churches,  but  differed  over  one  single  hymn,  quar- 
relled, and  separated,  re  infcctd  ? 


Parliament  give  them  power  to  purchase  all  the 
copyrights  they  require  ?  Or  must  they  be  content 
to  construct  their  hymnal  out  of  materials  which  are 
accessible  to  every  one  ;  in  other  words,  to  forego 
almost  all  the  rich  accumulations  of  the  last  thirty 
years  ;  to  pass  over  nearly  every  good  translation 
from  ancient  or  from  German  sources,  and,  with 
such  exceptions  as  the  liberality  of  authors  may 
furnish,  the  whole  hymnody  of  the  Church  of  our 
own  day?  What  prospect  would  so  meagre  a 
selection  have  of  fulfilling  the  requisite  conditions 
of  success  ?  And  if  it  be  replied  that  the  State  can 
surely  do  what  private  individuals  or  associations 
have  done  with  considerable  success,  let  the  reader 
remember  that  the  permission  hitherto  very  gener- 
ously accorded  to  compilers  whose  competition  was 
scarcely  dangerous,  is  hardly  likely  to  be  extended 
to  a  book  which,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Crown, 
is  to  come  before  the  public  with  such  high  claims 
to  universal  adoption.1 

But  there  is  another  difficulty  to  be  encountered. 
The  advantages  of  uniformity  in  our  books  of  Prayer 
and  Praise  are  many  and  obvious,  but  uniformity 
has  its  disadvantages  too.  Admirably  as  our 
offices  of  prayer  are  suited  to  the  habitual  devotions 
of  the  "  faithful,"  they  are  deficient,  we  all  know,  in 
the  power  of  adaptability  to  irregular,  occasional 
services,  to  unforeseen  exigencies,  to  congregations 

1  No  one  can  complain  of  publishers  for  protecting  their 
own  property,  though  the  idea  of  property  in  a  hymn  designed 
for  the  public  glorifying  of  God  would  surely  have  been 
thought  an  unseemly  one  in  any  days  but  those  of  pro- 
prietary chapels. 


of  a  type  differing  from  the  ordinary  one.  Hitherto 
this  deficiency  has  been  the  less  felt,  because  the 
free  use  of  hymns  has  in  a  great  measure  supplied 
the  requisite  elasticity  ;  and  of  course  no  one  would 
now  think  of  making  a  Church  Hymnal  as  rigid  in 
its  structure  as  the  Prayer-book,  or  as  the  Hymn- 
aries  of  the  Ancient  Church.  Yet,  considering  how 
varied  is  the  character  of  our  Church's  work,  it 
seems  hard  to  conceive  of  one  sole  book  which 
shall  be  fit  for  all  times  and  places  of  her 

The  Wesleyans  have  indeed  their  one  book  ;  but 
then  their  congregations  are  chiefly  of  one  class, 
accustomed  to  one  very  definite  type  of  worship 
and  ministry.  But  can  we  indeed  produce  a 
Hymnal  suited  alike  to  the  Court,  the  Cathedral, 
the  University,  and  the  village  Church ;  to  Belgravia 
and  Bethnal  Green  ;  to  the  mission  vessel  in  the 
Channel,  the  Staffordshire  pitmen's  open-air  services, 
the  Londoner  and  the  rustic  ;  to  Yorkshire,  Sussex, 
Lancashire,  Cornwall,  Wales  ;  nay,  if  we  hope  to 
see  it  co-extensive  with  our  Prayer-book,  we  must 
add,  to  Ireland  and  the  Colonies  ?  The  Ancient 
Church,  with  all  its  love  of  uniformity,  never 
ventured  upon  such  a  scheme.  It  is  only  modern 
Ultramontanism  that  seeks  to  impose  upon  all  con- 
gregations and  all  lands  the  one  inflexible  Roman 

Of  old,  each  diocese,  even  each  great  religious 
house,  had  its  own  collection  of  hymns,  and  in 
France,  at  least,  much  liberty  in  this  respect  is  still 
allowed  ;  and  though  it  suits  our  English  notions 
of  propriety  that  "  all  the  realm  shall  have  but  one 


Use,"  yet  the  experience  of  three  centuries  has 
taught  us,  I  think,  that  this  eminently  Tudor  rule 
had  better  not  be  pressed  too  far.  Some  amount 
of  diversity  then  must  be  tolerated  in  our  Hymnals, 
not  merely  for  the  present,  until  uniformity  can 
be  attained,  but  permanently. 

There  are  various  ways  in  which  this  might  be 
provided  for.  The  best  would  probably  be  the 
permitting  each  Bishop,  if  he  shall  think  fit,  to 
allow  the  use,  in  his  own  diocese,  of  a  local  supple- 
ment to  the  National  Hymnal,  containing  such 
additions  to  its  contents  as  he  and  his  clergy  may 
judge  suited  to  their  circumstances.  This  would  be 
better  than  a  distinct  book  for  each  diocese  or 
neighbourhood.  A  few  exceptional  cases,  such  as 
prisons,  or  penitentiaries,  or  public  schools,  or 
sailors'  churches,  might  be  left  to  provide  their  own 
hymnals  ;  and  possibly  a  small  book  for  "  mission  " 
and  other  irregular  services  might  be  desirable. 
This  would  be  better  than  encumbering  the  general 
collection  with  hymns  only  useful  in  a  few  cases,  or 
peculiar  to  certain  localities. 

Lastly,  there  is  one  more  difficulty,  the  thought  of 
which  has  deterred  many  among  us  from  desiring 
an  authorized  Hymnal  ;  the  difficulty  of  providing 
for  the  future  development  of  our  Hymnody.  Noble 
as  it  is,  it  is  yet  far  from  complete,  and  is  in  full 
growth  at  this  day  ;  fostered  mainly  by  its  free  and 
unrestricted  use  in  all  our  churches.  So  long  as  the 
present  state  of  things  continues,  and  the  Church 
demands  fresh  hymns,  fresh  hymns  will  be  produced; 
most  of  them,  no  doubt,  feeble  and  ephemeral,  but 
here  and  there  one  of  great  and  permanent  value. 


But  if  an  authorized  Hymnal  is  to  settle  finally  and 
unalterably  the  Hymnody  of  our  Church,  the  fount 
of  inspiration  will  be  choked  up  ;  and  our  third 
school  of  hymnists,  the  only  one  which  belongs 
specifically  to  the  English  Church  as  such,  will  come 
to  an  untimely  end.  And  there  are  yet  many 
deficiencies  to  be  supplied.  We  have  no  hymn  of 
first-rate  excellence  for  the  New  Year,  for  a  Baptism, 
or  (saving  the  prose  version  of  Notker's,  incorpor- 
ated in  our  Burial  Office,  "  In  the  midst  of  life  ") 
for  a  Funeral.1  Can  we  then  yet  venture  to  gather 
our  stores  together,  and  virtually  forbid,  or  at  least 
discountenance,  any  subsequent  addition  to  them  ? 
May  we  not  fear  lest,  in  a  generation  or  two,  our 
National  Hymnal  appear  almost  as  inadequate  to 
the  spiritual  life  of  our  people  as  that  of  the 
American  Church  ;  that  melancholy  compilation 
of  dull  respectability,  which  now,  neither  old  nor 
new,  resembles  nothing  so  much  as  the  compo- 
Gothic  of  a  suburban  chapel-of-ease  of  five-and- 
thirty  years  ago  ?  Some  provision  then  must  be 
made  for  a  periodical  recasting,  for  the  admission 
from  time  to  time  of  new  matter,  if  our  Church's 
service  of  song  is  truly  to  be  the  utterance  of  her 
inner  life,  the  witness  and  the  helper  of  her  growth. 
Our  uniformity  must  be  organized  development, 
not  lifeless  inflexibility.  Like  the  inspired  Hymnal 
of  the  Old  Testament  Church,  ever  growing  from 

1  Even  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  can  find  no  fitter 
vehicle  for  the  faith  and  resignation  of  mourners  than  the 
terrible  "  Dies  Irae  "  ;  certainly  one  of  the  greatest  of  hymns, 
but,  pathetic  as  it  is,  ill  suited  to  the  calm  and  unexciting 
language  of  our  English  Burial  Service. 


the  Tabernacle  to  the  Second  Temple,  speaking  to 
successive  generations  of  Egypt,  of  Horeb,  of  Sion, 
of  Babylon,  receiving  the  voice  of  Psalmist  and 
Prophet  from  Moses  to  Ezra ;  even  so  must  our 
Church  be  free  to  sing  from  age  to  age  the  eternal 
Song  of  Moses  and  the  Lamb ;  even  so  must  our 
Hymnal  carry  on  in  its  pages  the  unfolding  history 
of  God's  dealings  with  us  ;  and  be  to  our  children's 
children,  "  far  on  in  summers  which  we  shall  not 
see,"  the  heir-loom  of  a  fruitful  Past. 

No.    Ill 


THE  great  task  before  every  one  who  desires 
to  see  the  Church  of  England  furnished  with  a 
National  Hymnal  worthy  of  her,  is  to  do  all  in 
his  power  to  prepare  the  minds  of  his  fellow- 
Churchmen  for  its  reception.  For  it  is  doubtful 
whether  even  yet  our  people  are  ripe  for  it ; 
whether  the  Church  would  really  welcome  a 
Hymnal  of  the  very  best  character.  This  is  a 
doubt  which  must  often  suggest  itself  to  the 
thoughtful  hymnologist  when  he  sees  how  vague 
are  the  notions  of  Churchmen  in  general  as  to 
what  constitutes  a  hymn,  and  wherein  its  merits 
consist.  Few  people  take  pains  to  judge  of  a 
hymn.  Lovers  of  Church  music  too  often  treat  it 


as  the  mere  libretto  of  a  tune ;  if  it  has  an  easy 
refrain,  or  a  lilting  rhythm,  if  it  "goes  well  to 
music,"  they  are  satisfied.  If  I  were  to  send  my 
copy  of  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  round  to  all 
the  parsonages  within  the  district  embraced  by  our 
Association,  with  a  request  that  my  friends  would 
mark  for  me  their  favourite  hymns,  I  know  very 
well  where  the  stars  and  crosses  would  cluster 
thickest;  not  round  the  best,  but  round  those 
which  Mr.  Monk  and  Mr.  Dykes  and  Mr.  Jenner 
have  adorned  with  new  and  pretty  melodies.  I 
myself  think  there  is  no  better  hymn-book  in  print 
at  present  than  this  ;  but  yet  I  can  see  with  sorrow 
that  its  great  popularity  (apart  from  that  of  its 
music)  depends  upon  its  weakest  rather  than  its 
strongest  features.  Let  my  readers  put  me  to  the 
test ;  let  them  take  a  copy  of  the  book  without  the 
music,  and  try  to  dissociate  words  from  tunes ; 
then  let  them  fairly  compare  some  of  the  unnoticed 
and  unpraised  hymns — such  ancient  ones  as  45, 
"  Creator  of  the  starry  height "  ;  or  95,  "  O  Christ, 
Who  art  the  Light  and  Day";  or  173,  "O  Love,  how 
deep  !  how  broad  !  how  high  !  ";  or  273,  "  O  Lord, 
how  joyful  'tis  to  see  ";  or  43 1, "  Disposer  Supreme  "; 
or  such  modern  ones  as  those  of  Heber  (241),  Keble 
(143),  or  Anstice  (276)— not  the  best,  or  the  best 
known,  of  their  respective  authors ;  with  a  corre- 
sponding number  of  the  universally  popular  verses 
in  the  volume,  with  the  sensuousness,  the  effemin- 
acy, or  the  empty  jingle  of  such  hymns  as  "  Oh, 
come  and  mourn  with  me  awhile"  (114),  "Jesu, 
meek  and  lowly "(188),  or  "Nearer,  my  God,  to 
Thee  "  (277).  And  even  when  hymns  are  estimated 


independently  of  tunes,  too  often  the  ear  catches 
at  some  pretty  turn  of  words,  or  some  favourite 
phrase,  without  regard  to  its  true  value,  or  its  fit- 
ness for  the  service  of  the  sanctuary.  In  short,  the 
majority  of  readers,  learners,  buyers,  and  singers 
of  sacred  lyrics  do  not  know  what  a  hymn  is,  or 
when  it  is  really  good,  still  less  whether,  supposing 
it  good,  it  is  suitable  for  congregational  use.  I 
shall  therefore  in  this  paper  endeavour  to  lay  down 
a  few  principles  of  criticism,  and  in  the  next  try  to 
teach  my  readers  to  apply  them. 

What  then  is  a  hymn  ?  Now  I  will  not  supply 
any  answer  of  my  own  to  this  question  ;  I  will  go 
back  to  the  age  in  which  the  metrical  hymnody,  of 
the  Western  Churches  at  least,  began.  I  will  take 
my  definition  of  a  hymn  from  one  of  the  greatest 
theologians,  the  friend  and  disciple  of  the  great- 
est of  Christian  hymnists — one,  therefore,  whose 
judgment  on  such  a  matter  few  will  call  in  question. 
St.  Augustine,  commenting  on  the  words,  "The 
hymns  (Authorized  Version,  '  prayers ')  of  David 
the  son  of  Jesse  are  ended,"  asks,  as  his  manner  is, 
what  a  hymn  means,  and  answers,  "  Hymns  are 
'the  praises  of  God  with  song';  hymns  are  songs 
containing  the  praise  of  God.  If  there  be  praise, 
and  it  be  not  God's  praise,  it  is  not  a  hymn.  If 
there  be  praise,  and  that  God's  praise,  and  it  be 
not  sung,  it  is  not  a  hymn.  To  constitute  a  hymn, 
then,  it  is  necessary  that  there  be  these  three  things 
—praise,  the  praise  of  God,  and  song'' 1 

Certainly  this  definition  is  sufficiently  clear  and 
precise ;  but  is  it  too  narrow  ?  Has  not  the 

1  Aug.,  Enarr.  in  Ps.  Ixxii.     See  also  p.  161. 



practice  of  the  whole  Church,  as  well  as  in  many 
cases  the  authority  of  particular  Churches,  sanc- 
tioned the  use  in  public  worship  of  very  many 
compositions  which  fulfil  none  of  Augustine's  re- 
quirements but  the  last  ?  And  in  so  doing,  has 
not  the  Church  the  Divine  precedent  of  the  Psalter 
to  fall  back  upon  ?  Now,  first,  as  to  this  precedent, 
let  it  be  observed  that  the  Book  of  Psalms  is  much 
more  than  a  hymnal.  It  is  a  manual  of  private  as 
well  as  public  devotion  ;  it  is  a  prophetical  book ; 
it  is  an  inspired  record  of  the  spiritual  experiences 
of  saints  under  the  Old  Covenant ;  it  embraces 
compositions  corresponding  (so  far  as  the  utter- 
ances of  the  Divine  Word  can  correspond  with  the 
merely  human)  with  the  historical  ballads  or 
patriotic  songs  of  other  nations.  Therefore  in 
structure  it  is  not  to  be  compared  with  any  collec- 
tion of  hymns  formed  expressly  for  congregational 
use.  There  is  absolutely  no  evidence  whatever 
that  the  whole  Psalter,  as  we  have  it,  was  so  used 
by  the  Jewish  Church.  Had  this  been  understood 
at  the  time  of  the  Reformation,  the  absurdity  of 
attempting  to  versify  it  from  end  to  end  for  the 
congregation  would  have  been  seen,  and  the 
Church  would  not  have  groaned  for  three  centuries 
beneath  the  incubus  of  successive  Metrical  Versions. 
But  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  wherever  we  have 
distinct  evidence,  or  even  reasonable  probability 
of  the  use  of  any  Psalm  in  the  Temple  services 
there  we  shall  find  Augustine's  three  essentials  of 
a  hymn.  Such  are  the  Dedication  Psalms  of  the 
Tabernacle  of  David  (xcvi.,  cv.,  cvi.),  that  of  his 
house  (xxx.),  those  (probably)  of  the  Second 


Temple  (cxliv.,  cxlv.,  cxlvi.),1  the  Processional 
Hymn  of  the  Ark  (Ixviii.),  the  Paschal  Hallel 
(cxiii. — cxviii.),  a  portion  of  which  was  probably 
the  "  hymn "  of  the  Upper  Chamber,  and  others 
which  might  be  named.  And  further,  even  if  the 
devotional  public  use  of  all  the  Psalms,  penitential 
as  well  as  laudatory,  by  the  Jewish  Church,  could 
be  proved,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  Psalter 
was  its  Prayer-book  as  well  as  its  Hymnal,  and 
was  not  used,  as  ours,  to  supply  merely  the  jubilant 
half  of  public  worship.  I  have  already  spoken  of 
the  use  of  chanted  psalms  in  our  service,  a  practice 
concerning  which  we  may  take  many  hints  from 
ancient  service-books.  But  I  am  far  from  denying 
the  great  value  of  metrical  paraphrases  of  the 
Psalms,  judiciously  selected,  and  properly  adapted 
to  the  needs  of  the  Christian  Church.  Who  would 
willingly  give  up  "All  people  that  on  earth  do 
dwell "  ?  Who  does  not  love  to  recall  some  of  the 
happier  even  of  Tate  and  Brady's  verses  ?  of  which 
I  rejoice  to  see  a  few  interspersed  among  Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern  ;  not,  of  course,  classed  separ- 
ately, as  if  they  were  something  else  than  hymns — 
a  mistake  into  which  many  of  our  compilers  still 
fall.  Indeed,  some  of  our  best  hymns  are  adapt- 
ations from  the  Psalter.  Several  of  Watts's  so- 
called  "  Psalms "  are  better  than  any  in  his  other 
volume  ;  Lyte's  Spirit  of  tJie  Psalms  has  enriched 
the  Church  with  a  few  hymns  of  great  beauty,  and 

1  It  is  but  fair  to  say,  that  Hengstenberg  includes  Pss. 
cxxxvii.  to  cxlvi.  in  the  cycle  of  "  Dedication  Psalms,"  some 
of  them  being  old  and  some  new.  Still,  though  not  all 
Psalms  of  praise,  these  are  all  addressed  to  God. 


there  are  many  isolated  instances  which  might  be 
named.  So  in  Germany,  the  finest  of  some  of 
Luther's  Spiritual  Songs  are  free  adaptations  from 
the  Psalter,  among  them  the  noblest  of  all,  "  Ein 
feste  Burg,"  a  version  of  Ps.  xlvi.  Such  a  use  of 
the  Divine  pattern  of  devotion  is  surely  more  real, 
more  intelligent,  and  therefore  more  truly  reverent, 
than  any  feeble  attempt  to  turn  its  mere  words 
into  metre,  and  to  pour  into  old  bottles  the  new 
wine  of  Christian  thanksgiving. 

But  yet  undoubtedly  the  Christian  Church  in  all 
times  and  nations  has  sung  hymns  which  are  not 
strictly  acts  of  praise  to  God.  It  is  obviously 
impossible  and  undesirable  to  keep  closely  to  the 
letter  of  Augustine's  definition.  The  Church  has 
her  penitential  days  and  seasons,  her  times  of  trial 
and  chastening,  her  longings  for  her  absent  Lord  ; 
and  she  has  a  mother's  true  sympathy  with  all  the 
varied  sorrows  and  wants  of  her  children.  Her 
very  music,  then,  cannot  be  all  alike;  her  Hymnody 
must  find  a  place  for  the  low  tones  of  the  fast-day 
and  the  house  of  mourning,  no  less  than  for  the 
glad  songs  of  the  "  night  wherein  an  holy  solemnity 
is  kept."  A  Hymnal  which  was  all  praise  would 
never  be  human  enough  to  find  a  place  in  the 
hearts  of  the  worshippers.  And  indeed  there  is 
a  sense  in  which  the  lowliest  cry  of  a  broken  heart 
is  praise,  for  God  is  glorified  by  it. 

Every  feeling,  then,  which  enters  into  any  act  of 
true  worship,  may  fitly  find  expression  in  a  hymn. 
But  here  we  must  fix  our  limit.  Hymns  may 
express  adoration,  thanksgiving,  commemoration 
of  God's  mercies;  they  may  be  prayers, penitential, 


supplicatory,  intercessory;  they  may  be  devout 
aspirations  after  God  ;  but  in  any  case  they  must 
be  forms  of  worship.  It  is  not  enough  that  they 
suggest  devotion,  they  must  be  capable  of  expressing 
it.  The  observance  of  this  rule  would  clear  the 
ground  at  once  of  much  irrelevant  matter  with 
which  the  Hymn-books  of  every  Church  and  sect 
are  at  present  encumbered.  The  whole  multitude 
of  didactic  and  hortatory  verses,  the  addresses  to 
sinners  and  saints,  the  paraphrases  of  Scripture 
prophecies,  promises,  and  warnings,  the  descriptions 
of  heaven  and  hell,  the  elaborate  elucidations  of  the 
anatomy  and  pathology  of  the  soul;  all  these,  what- 
ever be  their  value  in  the  chamber,  the  study,  or 
the  pulpit,  ought  utterly  and  for  ever  to  be  banished 
from  the  choir.  But  simple  as  this  principle  is,  that 
a  hymn  is  a  form  of  worshipping  God,  it  is  violated 
afresh  in  almost  every  Hymnal  that  is  published. 
Hymns  addressed  to  saints  departed,  for  instance, 
though  of  course  abundant  in  the  unreformed  times 
and  Churches,  should  have  no  place  among  our- 
selves. Yet  these  have  been  restored  to  some 
collections  (Hymnal  Noted,  15,  16;  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern,  6$,  432). *  This,  however,  if  mis- 

1  The  Reformation,  effecting  as  it  did  a  complete  revolu- 
tion in  the  teaching  of  the  Churches  which  accepted  it,  with 
regard  to  the  saints,  has  of  course  closed  to  us  all,  or  nearly 
all,  the  sources  from  which  we  might  have  been  inclined  to 
draw  our  Saints'-day  hymns.  But,  in  truth,  few  mediaeval 
hymns  to  the  Saints  have  much  merit  as  compositions  to 
counterbalance  that  which  is  wrong  or  defective  in  their 
theology.  The  best  appear  to  me  to  be  two  Gallican  ones, 
translated  by  Mr.  Isaac  Williams  (Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern,  414  and  431 — the  latter  a  difficult  but  very  noble 


directed  devotion,  is  still  devotion,  not  mere  pro- 
fane rhetoric.  But  what  are  we  to  say  of  Bishop 
Heber  offering  to  .  the  Church  as  an  Epiphany 
hymn  an  imaginary  address  of  the  Magi  to  the 
Star  of  Bethlehem  ?  What  of  the  compilers  of  the 
Hymnal  Noted,  proposing  to  us  to  address  our- 
selves to  the  devil  (53),  or  to  the  wood  and  iron  of 
the  Cross  (24)?  Babies  are  the  objects  of  a  good 
deal  of  domestic  idolatry,  but  why  should  a  vener- 
able Church  Society  invite  a  whole  congregation 
to  sing  to  a  baby  in  church  (S.  P.  C.  K.  Hymn-book, 
new  ed.,  227)  ?  To  match  this  baptismal  "  hymn," 
Dr.  Kennedy  has  a  wedding  "hymn"  to  a  bride- 
groom (Hymnologia  Christiana],  successively  as 
"lover"  and  "husband,"  and  Mr.  Blew  a  funeral 

hymn),  the  "  Exultet  orbis  gaudiis"  (Church  Hymnal,  176), 
and  the  famous  hymn  attributed  to  St.  Ambrose,  for  Apostles' 
days,  "Sterna  Christ!  munera"  (Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern^ 
430).  So  that  our  Saints'-day  hymns  have  yet  to  be  written. 
Canon  (Bishop)  Wordsworth  has  some  valuable  remarks 
upon  this  subject  in  the  Preface  to  his  Holy  Year,  pp.  xviii, 
xix,  but  his  efforts  to  supply  the  deficiency  on  which  he 
comments  do  not  seem  to  me  very  successful.  We  have, 
however,  some  few  English  Saints'-day  hymns  of  great 
excellence.  Heber's  two  on  St.  Peter  and  St.  John,  and 
Mr.  Keble's  on  St.  John  (written  for  the  Salisbury  Hymnal], 
it  seems  almost  impertinent  to  praise.  They  exactly  fulfil 
the  idea  which  these  Festivals  in  our  Church  are  intended  to 
express — commemorating  the  Saint  to  the  glory  of  his  Lord. 
Some  of  Bishop  Mant's  are  valuable.  The  hymn  for  St. 
Matthew's  day  (I  suppose  by  Mr.  Anstice)  in  the  Child's 
Christian  Year,  and  one  by  Mr.  Thrupp,  on  the  Brethren  of 
our  Lord,  St.  Simon  and  St.  Jude  (assuming  the  truth  of  his 
theory),  are  both  very  beautiful,  but  rather  too  elaborate  and 
meditative  for  Festival  hymns. 


"hymn"  to  the  earth.  The  American  Church 
sings  Pope's  Ode  to  a  departing  soul  (191),  and 
one  of  her  funeral  hymns  is  a  remonstrance  with 
a  "  joyous  youth  "  ( 1 26).  Mr.  Kemble  prints  stanzas 
to  "angels,"  " mortals,"  "  sinners,"  and  (in  one  case) 
missionaries  ;  to  a  "  believer,"  an  "  afflicted  saint," 
and  to  the  Bible.  Even  Canon  (Bishop)  Words- 
worth, reverent  and  careful  as  he  is,  falls  into  the 
mistake  of  apostrophizing  Sunday,  instead  of  prais- 
ing the  Lord  of  the  Sabbath  (Holy  Year,  i),  and  (if 
I  read  him  aright)  exhorts  St.  Bartholomew  not  to 
"  repine,"  because  none  on  earth  can  tell  the  story 
of  his  life  (100). 

But  is  every  hymn  to  be  condemned  which  is 
not  directly  addressed  to  God  ?  This  would 
obviously  be  too  narrow  a  rule.  The  spirit  rather 
than  the  form  of  the  hymn  is  the  test  of  its  devo- 
tional character.  Hymns  inviting  to  the  praise  of 
God,  on  the  model  of  Psalms  xcv.  and  c.,  form  a 
large  class,  containing  many  eminently  fitted  for 
public  worship.  Another  important  class  com- 
prises hymns  which  "  rehearse  the  righteous  acts  of 
the  Lord,"  which  celebrate  the  Incarnation,  the 
Epiphany,  Passion,  Resurrection,  or  Ascension. 
Such  are  most  of  our  good  hymns  for  the  Christian 
seasons.  These  two  elements  are  magnificently 
combined  in  the  "  Adeste  Fideles,"  the  noblest  of 
Christmas  hymns,  which,  now  that  we  are  familiar 
with  it  in  its  English  dress,  as  we  have  long  been 
with  John  Reading's  beautiful  tune  for  it,  bids  fair 
to  become  the  most  popular  also.  To  this  class 
belong  hymns  which  are  confessions  of  faith.  Such 
was  formerly  what  is  now  called  the  "  Creed  of  St. 


Athanasius."  In  fact,  all  our  creeds  are  hymns,  to 
be  "  sung  or  said."  Canon  (Bishop)  Wordsworth 
insists  strongly  on  the  value  of  hymns  as  vehicles 
for  doctrinal  teaching.  "A  Church,"  he  says, 
"which  foregoes  the  use  of  hymns  in  her  office 
of  teaching,  neglects  one  of  the  most  efficacious 
instruments  for  correcting  error,  and  for  dissemin- 
ating truth,  as  well  as  for  ministering  comfort  and 
edification,  especially  to  the  poor."  This  is  most 
true ;  but  it  is  important  to  notice  that  the  doc- 
trinal element  must  always  be  kept  in  due  subor- 
dination to  be  devotional ;  the  type  of  the  hymn 
must  be  a  creed,  not  an  article  of  religion  ;  a  con- 
fession before  God,  not  a  definition  to  men.  Hence 
those  doctrinal  hymns  are  always  the  best  which, 
if  not  addressed  to  God,  pass,  ere  they  close,  into  a 
direct  utterance  of  prayer  or  praise. 

I  will  illustrate  my  meaning  by  an  example. 
Let  the  reader  compare  the  two  following  hymns. 
They  are  both  doctrinal;  the  subject  of  both  is 
Faith  ;  the  views  expressed  in  both  as  to  the  source 
and  work  of  faith  are  identical.  The  difference  is 
in  the  mode  of  treatment. 

"  Mistaken  souls  !  that  dream  of  heaven, 

And  make  their  empty  boast 

Of  inward  joys,  and  sins  forgiven, 

While  they  are  slaves  to  lust ! 

Vain  are  our  fancies,  airy  flights, 

If  faith  be  cold  and  dead  ; 
None  but  a  living  power  unites 

To  Christ,  the  living  Head. 

Tis  faith  that  changes  all  the  heart, 
Tis  faith  that  works  by  love  ; 


That  bids  all  sinful  joys  depart, 
And  lifts  the  thoughts  above. 

'Tis  faith  that  conquers  earth  and  hell 

By  a  celestial  power  ; 
This  is  the  grace  that  shall  prevail 

In  the  decisive  hour." 

This  is  from  Dr.  Watts  (i.  140).  There  are  three 
more  verses,  which,  as  Watts  himself  bracketed 
them,  I  omit.  They  do  not  alter  the  character  of 
the  hymn.  Compare  it  with  the  following : 

"  O  God  of  our  salvation,  Lord, 

Of  wondrous  power  and  love, 
May  faith,  salvation's  holy  seed, 
Be  sent  us  from  above  ! 

'Tis  faith  that  gives  us  strength  to  fight, 

That  we  our  foes  may  quell  ; 
And  with  the  shield  of  faith  we  quench 

The  fiery  darts  of  hell. 

By  faith  we  make  our  prayers  to  Thee 

In  that  most  holy  Name, 
On  which,  for  mercy  and  for  peace, 

Hope  rests  her  steadfast  claim. 

For  that  Name's  sake  assist  us,  Lord, 

To  run  our  heavenward  race  ; 
And  oh  !  may  no  unholy  life 

Our  holy  faith  disgrace. 

To  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost, 

Be  praise  and  glory  given  ; 
Who  pour  into  the  hearts  of  men 

True  light  and  heat  from  heaven." 

This  is  the  Hymn  for  Vespers  on  Thursdays 
from  the  Parisian  Breviary ',  translated  by  Mr. 


Chandler.  I  do  not  know  the  date  or  the  author,1 
but  most  of  these  Gallican  hymns  are  of  a  com- 
paratively late  period  ;  some  of  them  written  by 
men,  such  as  Coffin  and  Le  Tourneaux,  who  were 
actually  contemporary  with  Watts,  although  the 
hymns  are  all  classed  together  by  Chandler  as  "  of 
the  Primitive  Church."  This  is  not  a  particularly 
good  specimen  of  Mr.  Chandler's  volume ;  I  chose 
it  simply  because  of  its  subject.  Watts's  first  verse 
is  in  very  bad  taste,  but  on  the  whole  his  hymn  is 
homely,  lucid,  nervous  English ;  it  grasps  at  a 
great  truth,  and  states  it  clearly.  But  Watts 
simply  turns  this  truth  over  in  his  mind,  and 
reflects  upon  it.  He  has  sat  down  to  make  a 
judicious  protest  against  two  opposite  errors,  and 
he  does  it.  But  it  is  not  a  hymn  ;  there  is  not  a 
particle  of  devotion  in  it.  To  use  it  in  church 
would  be  like  reading  a  tract  in  place  of  the 
Liturgy.  It  is  the  prevalence  of  compositions  like 
this  which  gives  to  so  many  hymn-books  of  thirty 
years  ago  that  air  of  cold  and  wearisome  wordiness 
which  pervades  them,  as  contrasted  with  more 
recent  collections.  The  Gallican,  on  the  other 
hand,  is  less  clear  about  faith  than  one  could  wish, 
but  he  has  read  his  Psalter  and  his  Augustine. 
What  he  knows  he  feels.  He  does  not  think  about 
convincing  men,  but  about  glorifying  God.  He 
cannot  meditate  upon  faith  without  praying  for  it. 
He  promotes  devotion  while  he  teaches  doctrine. 
He  gives  us  a  true  hymn,  not  very  lucid  or  vigorous, 
but  simple  and  real. 

Another  class  of  hymns,  embracing  many  of  the 
1  Charles  Coffin,  b.  1676,  d.  1749. -H.  H. 


most  popular,  consists  of  meditations  upon  the 
glories  of  heaven,  and  aspirations  after  them.  As 
to  the  admissibility  of  such  hymns  into  church,  I 
am  far  more  doubtful  than  most  hymnologists 
seem  inclined  to  be.  They  have,  indeed,  abundant 
precedents  in  their  favour,  but  those  chiefly  of  a 
bad  period  ;  they  are  liable  to  be  tainted  by  some 
of  the  worst  vices  of  modern  hymns — softness  and 
sentimentalism  ;  they  afford  a  dangerous  opening 
to  unreality  and  sensuousness.  Still  there  are 
some  genuine  hymns  of  this  class,  of  undeniable 
beauty  and  power,  the  best  being  the  least  detailed, 
such  as  the  exquisite  "  O  quanta  qualia  "  (Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern,  235),  or  the  well-known 
"  Jerusalem,  my  happy  home."  But  "Jerusalem  " 
hymns  might  well  have  a  paper  to  themselves.1 

Once  more,  from  among  the  immense  multitude 
of  modern  hymns  which  deal  with  the  relations  of 
the  individual  soul  to  God,  some,  as  I  intimated  in 
my  first  paper,  must  keep  the  place  they  have  won 
for  themselves  in  our  public  worship.  Not  merely 
are  they  necessary  'in  order  to  make  a  hymnal 

1  The  beautiful  rhythm  of  Bernard  of  Morlaix,  with  the 
latter  part  of  which  Mr.  (Dr.)  Neale  has  made  us  all  familiar, 
has  doubtless  done  much  of  late  years  to  bring  the 
"Jerusalem"  hymn  once  more  into  fashion,  so  thoroughly  do 
its  plaintiveness,  its  softness,  and  its  lusciousness,  harmonize 
with  the  habits  of  our  day,  and  the  peculiarities  of  modern 
thought.  But  in  its  very  popularity  lies  its  danger.  It  is  as 
wrong  to  build  castles  with  the  imagery  of  the  Apocalypse  as 
to  denounce  opponents  in  the  language  of  the  prophets. 
Both  the  one  and  the  other  have  been  done  by  many  true 
saints  and  heroes  ;  both  are  mischievous  habits,  nevertheless. 
Yet  we  recoil  from  the  fanatical,  while  we  tolerate  the  senti- 
mental use  of  Holy  Scripture. 


acceptable  to  all,  but  they  represent  a  condition  of 
thought  which  has  become,  under  the  influence  of 
Protestant  theology,  more  or  less  common  to  all 
worshippers  who  have  any  sort  of  true  religious 
enlightenment.  To  admit  them  into  a  national 
hymnal  now  is  therefore  simply  obedience  to  the 
law,  that  forms  of  common  worship  must  express 
such  thoughts  and  feelings  as  are,  or  ought  to  be, 
common  to  all  worshippers.  This  law  I  take  to  be 
the  true  guide  in  the  compilation  of  a  national 
hymnal,  and  the  true  test  of  what  ought  to  be 
admitted  into  it.  Such  a  rule  is  wanted.  No  one 
doubts  that  Heber's  "  Holy,  holy,  holy,"  is  emi- 
nently congregational  ;  no  one  now,  I  suppose, 
would  include  Cowper's  "Far  from  the  world,  O 
Lord,  I  flee,"  in  a  congregational  collection. 
Somewhere  between  these  two  extremes  lies  the 
boundary  line  of  a  Church  Hymnal.  It  may  never 
be  possible  to  draw  that  line  very  clearly  ;  because 
a  hymn  of  first-rate  excellence,  though  belonging 
to  a  class  not  generally  adapted  to  public  worship, 
must  not  be  lightly  rejected,  and  will  sometimes 
compel  us,  as  it  were,  to  admit  it.  Such  a  hymn  as 
Charles  Wesley's  "Jesu,  lover  of  my  soul,"  seems 
to  me  absolutely  to  stand  upon  the  line.  It  is  a 
hymn  for  times  of  sorrow — of  purely  inward  and 
personal  sorrow,  being  originally  entitled  "  In 
Temptation."  It  was  not  included  by  the  Wesleys 
in  their  general  collection,  but  placed  there  by  the 
Conference,  after  the  author's  death,  among  hymns 
for  "mourners  convinced  of  sin."  I  should  think 
that  all  who  have  really  felt  its  wonderful  power 
and  reality  would  wish  to  see  it  in  a  Church 


Hymnal ;  yet  most  clergymen,  I  suppose,  would 
hesitate  before  selecting  it  as  the  vehicle  of  the 
ordinary  worship  of  a  mixed  congregation.  There 
is  less  difficulty  about  "Rock  of  Ages,"  because, 
though  a  strictly  personal  hymn,  it  expresses 
the  very  fundamental  principles  of  Christian  life, 
and  is,  as  its  author  entitled  it,  "  A  Prayer,  Living 
and  Dying."  A  third  famous  hymn,  Cowper's 
"  Oh,  for  a  closer  walk  with  God  !  "  must,  T  think, 
be  rejected  altogether  from  a  public  hymnal :  true 
and  beautiful  as  it  is,  it  belongs  not  merely  to  a 
secret,  but  to  an  exceptional  condition  of  heart ;  it 
is  plainly  impossible  that  it  could  be  real  for  a 
whole  congregation  at  once,  even  on  the  hypothesis 
that  the  whole  congregation  were  living  and  faith- 
ful Christians.  Only  a  few  at  any  one  time  would 
be  in  the  spiritual  state  indicated  in  the  hymn,  and 
therefore,  while  to  these  few  its  value  would  be 
great,  to  the  majority  it  would  be  unmeaning,  and 
thus  unfit  to  offer  to  God.  If  this  seem  to  any 
reader  hard  measure  to  deal  out  to  compositions 
so  widely  and  so  justly  revered,  let  me  ask  him  to 
reflect  whether  the  truest  use  of  such  a  hymn  as 
this  of  Cowper's  is  not  in  private  devotion,  and  to 
remember  that  to  withdraw  such  hymns  from 
public  worship  is  by  no  means  to  slight  them,  but 
only  to  appropriate  them  to  their  right  purpose, 
and  to  provide  for  their  fulfilling  it  in  the  best  way. 
So  much  for  the  subjects  which  should  occupy  a 
Church  Hymnal.  But  there  are  other  considera- 
tions still  which  must  determine  the  acceptance  or 
rejection  of  hymns.  I  will  not  speak  of  doctrine; 
it  is  of  course  to  be  assumed  that  the  Hymnal  of 


the  Church  must  harmonize  with  her  other  formu- 
laries ;  and  if  the  spirit  of  each  hymn  be  truly 
devotional,  the  traces  of  the  school  of  thought  from 
which  it  has  been  derived,  though  conspicuous,  will 
not  be  offensively  prominent.  When  we  are  really 
turning  to  God,  we  are  all  looking  one  way.  Such 
a  volume  as  Sir  Roundell  Palmer's  Book  of  Praise 
shows  us,  as  he  well  points  out,  the  essential  unity 
which  underlies  all  truly  spiritual  utterances  of 
devotion,  and  it  shows  us  too  that  hymns  of  all 
ages  and  countries  may  be  blended  in  one  volume 
without  being  watered  down  by  timid  variations 
into  colourless  and  insipid  neutrality.  Much,  how- 
ever, depends  upon  the  moral  and  intellectual 
character,  so  to  speak,  of  hymns.  Supposing  many 
alike  admissible,  which  are  we  to  prefer?  Let  me 
point  out  a  few  particulars  in  which  the  excellence 
of  a  hymn  may  be  said  to  consist. 

I.  A  hymn  must  be  sincere.  Professing  to  be  a 
form  of  worship,  it  must  be  what  it  professes 
throughout.  Covert  controversial  allusions  (too 
common  in  the  eighteenth-century  hymns),  or  any 
other  evidences  of  spiritual  pride  or  vanity,  are  in- 
tolerable. So  are  theatrical  displays  of  emotion, 
such  as  disgrace  many  hymns,  both  Roman  and 
Protestant,  on  our  Lord's  sufferings.  The  thoughts 
with  which  a  devout  and  intelligent  believer  in  our 
own  day  dwells  upon  the  Passion  can  never  clothe 
themselves  in  the  sensuous  language  of  Faber  and 
Caswall;  they  "lie  too  deep  for  tears."  In  our 
Prayer-book  there  are  no  overstrained  expressions 
either  of  sorrow  or  of  joy ;  no  invitations  to  one 
another  to  weep,  or  prayers  for  "  a  fount  of  tears  ": 


why  should  such  things  be  found  in  our  Hymnal  ? 1 
Yet  many  have  been  awakened  to  spiritual  life  by 
the  Prayer-book ;  and  none  who  have  used  it  faith- 
fully have  failed  to  feel  the  power  of  its  deep 
reality.  The  fanatic  may  think  it  cold  and  formal, 
but  it  is  only  as  the  coldness  of  health  when  touched 
by  the  hand  of  fever. 

2.  A  hymn  must  be  vigorous  !  Not  affected  or 
overstrained  in  tone,  it  must  yet  be  animated  ;  not 
too  reflective  and  diffuse  ;  speaking  in  words  which, 
though  calm,  are  forcible.  I  place  this,  the  most 
important  intellectual  characteristic  of  a  hymn, 
next  to  its  most  important  moral  characteristic  ; 
and  the  two  are  nearly  connected.  Nothing 
weakens  a  hymn  so  much  as  want  of  truthfulness  ; 

1  A  volume  might  be  written  upon  the  changes  in  the  out- 
ward forms  of  emotion,  which  climate,  race,  and  civilization 
bring  with  them ;  changes  which  are  in  nothing  more  con- 
spicuous than  in  the  greater  calmness  of  our  sorrow  as 
compared  with  that  of  our  fathers.  Uncontrollable  grief 
brought  no  suspicion  of  weakness  upon  the  saint  or  hero  of 
the  Middle  Ages ;  nor  does  it  now  upon  the  Oriental. 
Tears  were  true  signs  of  repentance  then  ;  there  was  nothing 
forced  or  unnatural  in  inviting  people  literally  to  weep  at  the 
foot  of  the  Cross.  But  we  have  learned  now  better  the 
Divine  philosophy  of  our  Lord's  warning  not  to  disfigure  our 
faces  when  we  fast.  The  sorrow  which  overflows  at  the  eyes 
and  the  lips  quickly  evaporates,  and  is  already  half  sensuous  ; 
the  sorrow  which  abides  within  is  fruitful  and  permanent. 
Besides,  too,  the  penitence  of  a  redeemed  man  has  already 
begun  to  be  turned  into  joy.  Hence  it  is  that  a  true  English 
churchman  feels  the  hysterical  hymns  of  the  Oratory  merely 
painful  and  loathsome.  I  grieve  that  the  editors  of  Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern  should  have  admitted  one  or  two,  which 
forcibly  remind  me  of  a  certain  saying  of  Mr.  Ruskin's  about 
Swiss  crucifixes. 


unreal  emotion  runs  into  inflated  and  overstrained 
language,  or  into  tame  and  spiritless  imitation. 
Numbers  of  Dissenting  hymns  are  weak  dilutions 
of  Watts  ;  Wesley's  "  Lo,  He  comes,"  gave  birth  to 
a  whole  volume  of  Advent  hymns  in  the  same 
metre ;  just  as  in  our  own  day  the  Christian 
Year  has  been  the  model  for  many  a  set  of  verses, 
like  it  on  nothing  but  its  metres  and  its  Anglicanism. 
The  permanence  of  a  hymn  depends  more  upon  its 
vigour  than  upon  any  other  quality.  The  hymns 
that  can  be  called  really  great — the  representative 
hymns  of  the  Church — are  few  in  number ;  they 
are  most  diverse  in  character ;  but  this  they  have 
in  common,  that  they  had  power  to  embody  in 
themselves  the  characteristics  of  the  time  which 
gave  them  birth.  The  whole  faith  of  the  Primitive 
Church  shines  out  from  the  Te  Deum ;  the  whole 
piety  of  the  Middle  Ages  is  in  Dies  Irce  and  Stabat 
Mater ;  the  whole  power  of  the  Reformation  rings 
through  "  Ein  feste  Burg."  So  Ken's  three  hymns, 
the  dying  words  of  seventeenth-century  Churchman- 
ship,  precisely  represent  its  spirit ;  as  "  Rock  of 
Ages  "  does  the  Evangelicalism  of  the  succeeding 
century.  Now  some  of  these  hymns  are  very  full, 
and  some  very  brief;  they  differ  most  widely  in 
merit ;  but  they  have  one  thing  in  common — vigour 
— and  therefore  they  live  and  speak  on  to  human 

3.  A  hymn  should  be  simple.  Hymns  are  not 
for  the  few,  but  for  the  many,  not  chiefly  to  be  read 
and  pondered  over,  but  chiefly  to  be  sung.  And 
the  hymns  of  a  National  Hymnal,  especially,  are 
meant  for  all  classes  in  the  nation. 


While  then  they  should  not  be  vulgar  or  puerile, 
they  should  be  easy  to  understand ;  the  language 
plain,  the  thoughts  not  too  far-fetched.  Some  of 
Dr.  Neale's  translations  are  faulty  in  this  respect, 
Thus  in  the  O  quanta  qualia  before  mentioned,  a 
hymn  I  long  to  see  in  every  collection,  we  have 
such  lines  as  "  Wish  and  fulfilment  can  severed  be 
ne'er,"  and  "  There  dawns  no  Sabbath — no  Sabbath 
is  o'er  ";  and  in  others  of  his  best  hymns, "  God  the 
Trinal?  "  Conjubilant  with  song,"  "  Laud  and 
honour,"  and  other  perfectly  needless  Latinisms. 
Other  translators,  however,  particularly  Mr.  Wil- 
liams and  Mr.  Blew,  are  nearly  or  quite  as  guilty. 
Indeed,  the  volume  of  the  last-named  editor  has 
almost  the  effect  of  being  written  in  the  days  of 
"  Euphues,"  and  might  have  been  conned  by  Don 
Armado  and  Sir  Percie  Shafton.  Even  in  Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern  there  are  too  many  verses 
that,  as  a  friend  complained  to  me  not  long  ago, 
"  begin  with  the  verb  and  end  with  the  nominative 
case."  Complexity  of  metaphor  and  imagery  is 
yet  more  fatal  to  success.  Perhaps  if  I  were  to 
name  a  model  of  simplicity,  I  might  fix  upon  our 
old  Easter  hymn,  "  Jesus  Christ  is  risen  to-day," 
as  appended  to  the  Prayer-book.  Every  word 
might  be  understood  by  a  child  ;  yet  how  well 
does  it  commemorate  the  one  great  fact  of  the 
Resurrection,  in  language  homely  indeed,  but 
perfectly  sincere  and  adequate. 

4.  This  leads  me  further  to  add — A  hymn  should 
be  brief.  I  protested  last  month  against  the  cur- 
tailment of  hymns ;  and  whenever  a  hymn,  like 
the  one  I  then  cited,  is  framed  on  a  definite  plan, 



it  must  suffer  from  abridgment.  I  am  bound  to 
say,  however,  that  a  very  long  hymn,  which,  like 
some  of  Paul  Gerhardt's,  flows  on  till  it  has  out- 
grown its  strength,  from  lack  of  purpose  and  con- 
centration on  the  part  of  the  author,  is  also  a  great 
evil.  Many  of  the  German  hymns  in  Mr.  Mercer's 
book,  though  curtailed,  are  still  too  long  for  our 
congregations  to  use.  The  Mediaeval  Church,  I 
need  not  say,  constantly  abridged  long  hymns  ;  and 
with  proper  precaution,  we  may  improve  some  of 
our  own  by  this  process.  The  verses  which  have 
disappeared  from  Charles  Wesley's  Christmas 
Hymn,  which  any  one  may  now  see  in  the  Book  of 
Praise  (34),  are  better  away.  Another  fine  hymn  of 
his,  "  Soldiers  of  Christ,  arise,"  has  gained  by  com- 
pression, though  it  is  frequently  too  closely  pruned. 
Indeed,  Charles  Wesley  did  not  scruple  to  abridge 
his  own  hymns  in  preparing  the  present  WTesleyan 
Hymn-book.  Watts  too  bracketed  in  his  own 
hymns  such  verses  as  he  thought  might  be  con- 
veniently omitted ;  and  in  general,  where  the  object 
of  curtailment  is  to  increase  the  clearness  and 
vigour  of  a  hymn,  it  may  be  safely  attempted.1 
Eight  four-line  stanzas,  or  thirty-two  lines,  may  be 
taken  as  a  limit  which  it  is  not  desirable  a  hymn 
should  exceed.  Even  this  implies  quick  singing, 
which,  though  generally  to  be  encouraged,  is  not  of 
course  applicable  to  every  hymn  and  tune. 

5.  Lastly — to  go  back  to  Augustine — we  are  to 
remember  that  a  hymn  is  cum  cantico,  it  is  to  be 
sung ;  and  therefore  it  must  be  adapted  to  music. 

1  The  compressed  version  of  the  writer's  "  Saviour,  again," 
is  a  good  example  of  this. — H.  H. 


The  metre,  therefore,  ought  not  to  be  too  complex, 
or  greatly  varied.  The  rhythm  ought  not  to  be 
rugged,  nor  the  diction  bald  and  prosaic.  We 
cannot  always  expect  real  poetry,  even  in  a  good 
hymn  ;  but  we  have  a  right  to  expect  words  that 
lend  themselves  well  to  the  simple  and  solemn 
music  which  alone  is  fit  for  congregational  worship. 
Moreover,  certain  metres  are  adapted  to  certain 
subjects.  The  stately  march  of  our  Long  Metre 
suits  well  the  dignity  of  the  Ambrosian  hymn;  but 
it  is  not  so  well  fitted  for  jubilant  words.  For 
these  by  far  the  best  metre  would  be  some  form  of 
Trochaic,  particularly  8-7,  with  four,  six,  or  eight 
lines  to  the  verse.  Again,  a  lengthy  hymn  in 
Short  Metre,  or  a  penitential  hymn  in  what  is  called 
1 48th,  would  be  almost  intolerable. 

These  hints  by  no  means  exhaust  the  subject ; 
but  they  may  serve  to  show  my  readers  that  there 
are  principles  of  criticism  other  than  mere  liking, 
or  partisanship,  or  fashion,  by  which  we  may  judge 
of  our  hymns;  principles  too,  I  hope,  easy  to 
understand  and  to  apply.  I  cannot,  however,  bring 
this  paper  to  a  close  without  one  caution.  The 
Church  of  the  present  day  may  find  herself  com- 
pelled, by  the  force  of  circumstances,  to  sit  in 
judgment  upon  the  Hymnody  of  the  past ;  but  let 
not  her  tribunal  be  the  seat  of  the  scorner.  Surely 
the  days  are  past  when  it  was  a  sign  of  good 
Churchmanship  to  ridicule  the  extravagances  of  the 
Methodist,  or  the  vulgarities  of  the  Dissenter.  I 
think  I  have  been  able  to  select  instances  of  the 
faults  I  have  pointed  out  from  hymnists  of  every 
school.  But  it  is  a  thankless  task  merely  to  point 


out  faults.  The  Hymnody  of  our  land  ought  to 
be  criticized  in  a  spirit  of  reverence,  of  humility, 
and  of  brotherly  kindness.  Now  that  the  Church 
is  girding  herself  once  more  to  her  long-neglected 
work,  it  ill  becomes  her  to  sneer  at  the  half- 
educated  men  who  evangelized  England  while  her 
clergy  were  amusing  themselves.  We  are  entering 
into  their  spiritual  labours,  in  laying  our  hands 
upon  their  Hymnody  for  our  own  purposes.  We 
shall  find  bad  taste,  vulgarity,  rudeness  enough. 
We  may  smile  at  Watts  bidding  us  "  drop  a  tear  or 
two,"  at  Newton  "  hoping  to  die  shouting,"  at 
Wesley  protesting  that  "  no  sight  upon  earth  is  so 
fair  "  as  a  corpse ;  but  for  a  century  and  a  half  we 
went  on  singing  what  we  call  Psalms,  which  made 
the  Almighty  talk  to  the  "  conscious  moon,"  and 
proclaim  that  birds  were  "more  happy  far  than" 
ourselves.  And  that  long-despised  Hymnody  has 
done  what  Tate  and  Brady  never  could  do  ;  it  has 
awakened,  nourished,  and  sustained  the  spiritual 
life  of  tens  of  thousands,  in  every  rank  of  society, 
in  every  corner  of  the  earth,  under  every  possible 
circumstance  of  trial.  Let  us  handle  it  modestly, 
patiently,  wisely ;  seeking  for  light  and  guidance 
in  its  use  from  Him  who  resisteth  the  proud,  but 
giveth  grace  unto  the  humble ;  grace  to  separate 
the  good  from  the  evil,  to  discern  the  treasure  in 
the  earthen  vessel — 

"  To  pierce  the  veil  on  Moses'  face, 
Although  his  speech  be  slow." 


No.  IV 


I  SHALL  throw  my  concluding  observations 
into  a  form  somewhat  different  to  that  which  the 
previous  papers  on  this  subject  have  assumed.  For 
in  venturing  to  give  a  few  practical  hints  as  to  the 
use  of  hymns,  I  can  no  longer  address  myself  to 
such  a  mere  abstraction  as  the  "  reader."  I  must 
suppose  myself  in  communication  with  some  of  the 
many  friends,  between  whom  and  myself  a  common 
interest  in  the  training  or  directing  of  our  Parochial 
Choirs  has  become  a  bond  of  union. 

It  is,  I  need  scarcely  say,  the  congregational  use 
of  hymns  of  which  these  papers  have  professed  to 
treat ;  and  to  those  in  whose  hands  the  direction 
of  our  congregational  singing  is  placed  I  now  speak. 
Happily  for  the  Church,  that  direction,  at  least  in 
our  rural  parishes,  is  most  frequently  the  task,  if 
not  of  the  clergyman,  at  any  rate  of  some  member 
of  his  family,  some  friend  or  associate  upon  whose 
taste  and  direction  he  can  rely,  and  with  whom  he 
can  at  any  time  communicate  frankly,  without  fear 
of  giving  offence.  In  large  parishes  the  choir  is 
often  of  sufficient  importance  to  be  under  the 
direction  of  a  paid  trainer  or  leader,  who  ought,  if 
possible,  to  be  an  intelligent  and  well-educated 
Churchman.  And  yet  in  such  cases  the  need  of  a 
strict  organization,  of  definite  rules,  and  of  a  distinct 
understanding  that  the  clergyman  is  really  respons- 


ible  for  what  is  sung,  is  even  more  urgent  than  in 
a  smaller  choir.  If  the  singing  is  an  act  of  worship, 
and  so  a  means  of  grace,  the  minister  of  the  con- 
gregation is  necessarily  the  one  only  right  person 
to  see  that  it  is  really  and  effectually  what  it  ought 
to  be. 

I  have  only  to  do  with  metrical  hymns  and  their 
use  ;  let  me  ask  my  friends,  then,  by  whom  are 
these  to  be  used  ?  Of  course,  the  answer,  in  theory, 
is,  by  the  congregation.  Your  object,  then,  is  to  get 
your  hymns  sung  by  your  congregation. 

Now  a  congregation  consists  of  four  divisions  : — 
First,  those  who  can  and  do  sing  ;  secondly,  those 
who  can  and  don't;  thirdly,  those  who  can't  and 
do ;  and  fourthly,  those  who  carit  and  don't.  All 
four  of  these  divisions  must  be  affected  by  the 
singing.  The  first,  whether  nominally  members 
of  the  choir  or  no,  are  the  natural  leaders  of  the 
service  of  song,  and  through  them  you  must  influ- 
ence the  rest ;  the  second  must  be  encouraged  and 
cultivated  till  they  pass  into  the  first  ;  the  third 
must  be  kindly  borne  with  and  tolerated,  till  they 
are  drowned  by  the  first  two  ;  while  the  last  will 
assuredly  feel  and  enjoy  the  power  of  true  congre- 
gational worship  ;  they  ktoo  will  make  melody  in 
their  hearts,  though  God  has  seen  fit  to  deny  them 
the  privilege  of  doing  so  with  their  lips,  and  among 
them  you  will  often  find  your  chief  encouragement, 
your  warmest  sympathy,  and  perhaps  your  most 
substantial  help.  But  do  not,  I  beseech  you,  fall 
into  the  vulgar  error  of  thinking  that  you  can  pro- 
mote congregational  singing  by  depreciating  your 
choir,  or  that  it  will  come  right  of  itself  in  some 


inexplicable  way,  without  care  or  attention  on  your 
part.  A  congregation  can  no  more  sing  without 
leaders  than  a  regiment  can  march  without  officers. 
Do  not  think  that  the  singing  among  Dissenters, 
which  is  often  spoken  of  as  being  eminently  con- 
gregational, is  purely  spontaneous.  Any  one  who 
is  acquainted  with  the  organization  of  a  meeting- 
house knows  what  pains  are  generally  taken  with 
the  singers,  what  tempting  overtures,  on  special 
occasions,  are  made  to  members  of  neighbouring 
choirs,  what  importance  is  attached  to  the  classes 
for  practice  within  the  congregation.  And  thus, 
though  the  hymns  may  be  in  wretched  taste,  the 
music  vulgar  and  florid,  and  actually  far  more 
difficult  than  really  good  Church  music,  the  result 
is  congregational  singing,  because  of  the  pains  taken 
with  the  matter.  There  is  not  the  slightest  reason 
why  your  congregation  should  not  sing  much 
better  music  quite  as  heartily,  not  for  display,  but 
for  worship.  If  you  dread  a  merely  sensuous 
service,  if  you  are  anxious  that  the  singing,  as  well 
as  the  prayers,  should  reflect  that  spirituality  which 
belongs  to  all  true  communion  with  God,  still, 
believe  me,  you  will  never  promote  spirituality  by 
letting  things  alone.  For  what  is  the  result  ?  If 
you  have  no  choir,  you  either  have  no  singing,  or 
singing  led  by  one  or  two  untrained  voices,  children, 
or  teachers.  Perhaps  a  few  of  the  bolder  members 
of  the  congregation  will  join  in,  but  they  have 
never  practised  together ;  they  cannot  keep  to- 
gether, except  at  a  pace  of  wearisome  slowness  ; 
they  are  chilled  by  the  silence  of  many  around 
them  ;  and  generally  the  singing  becomes  the  most 


tedious  and  unprofitable  part  of  the  whole  service  ; 
and  you  yourself  will  be  left  to  wonder  why,  after 
you  have  preached  to  them  again  and  again  upon 
the  subject,  your  people  will  not  sing  as  warmly 
and  heartily  as  the  Dissenters.  And  yet  there  is  a 
worse  case ;  the  case  in  which  singing  is  sure  to 
become  truly  sensuous  and  profane  ;  when  a  parish 
has  a  choir  which  is  left  to  its  own  devices,  with  no 
judicious  hand  to  control  it,  and  no  pastoral  sym- 
pathy to  encourage  it.  Then  it  is  that  music  is 
selected  purposely  and  avowedly  to  display  the 
skill  of  the  performers  ;  that  chants  and  tunes  are 
changed  perpetually,  lest  the  congregation  should 
learn  them ;  that  the  words  are  so  entirely  sub- 
ordinated to  the  music  as  to  render  the  singers 
indifferent  to  the  most  glaring  absurdities  ;  and, 
finally,  that  all  idea  of  Church  singing  as  an  act  of 
worship  dies  out  of  the  minds  of  those  engaged  in 
it.  The  sooner  such  a  choir  is  abolished  the  better 
for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  welfare  of  the  con- 
gregation. But  if  a  choir  be  well  organized,  well 
trained,  and  directed  by  those  who  have  right  views 
as  to  its  true  object  and  functions,  and  if  the  music 
selected  be  such  as  congregations  generally  can  be 
expected  to  sing,  and  the  words  such  as  they  ought 
to  sing,  then  I  maintain  that  there  is  no  help  to 
congregational  singing  so  powerful  as  such  a  choir ; 
and  that  under  its  leading  the  very  finest  congre- 
gational singing  may  be  expected  to  develop 
itself.  It  may  seem  invidious  to  cite  one  particular 
congregation  in  illustration  of  a  statement  which  is 
now  happily  being  verified  in  hundreds  ;  but  I 
cannot  help  remarking  that  any  one  who  worships 


on  Sunday  evening  in  the  parish  church  of  Leeds 
will  be  speedily  convinced  that  the  grandest  and 
most  hearty  congregational  singing  of  metrical 
tunes  is  perfectly  compatible  with  the  existence  of 
a  very  powerful  and  skilful  choir,  and  even  of  music 
which  errs  on  the  side  of  elaboration  rather  than  of 

The  fact  is,  that  congregational  singing  depends 
much  upon  the  selection  of  the  words  and  tunes  of 
the  metrical  Hymnody,  and  upon  the  manner  in 
which  these  are  sung.  Therefore  my  first  advice 
to  a  friend  who  wishes  to  make  his  congregation 
sing  is,  Be  careful  as  to  what  you  make  them  sing ; 
and  my  second,  Take  some  pains  to  teach  them 
and  to  help  them  to  sing. 

And  first,  as  to  the  selection  of  words.  Look  to 
your  hymn-book ;  criticize  it,  ask  yourself,  not 
whether  you  like  everything  it  contains,  but  whether 
it  is  a  real  help  to  public  worship  ;  whether  the 
hymns  are  hymns  indeed,  and  whether,  upon  the 
whole,  they  are  good  hymns.  If  not,  you  will 
never  have  congregational  singing  till  some  change 
be  made.  You  may  not  think  it  wise  to  abolish 
the  book  ;  it  may  be  quite  good  enough  to  be 
retained,  yet  deficient  in  many  of  the  requirements 
of  a  hymn-book.  In  that  case  you  had  better  try 
to  add  to  it.  If  you  can  print  a  supplement  of 
your  own,  and  present  it  to  your  congregation,  you 
will  often  conciliate  those  who  would  be  disturbed 
by  the  suppression  of  the  book  to  which  they  are 
accustomed.  In  that  case  you  may  choose  freely 
from  existing  books,  so  long  as  you  do  not  sell  a 
single  copy  of  your  compilation.  But  if  you  dis- 


trust  yourself,  or  dread  the  expense  of  this  process, 
or  if  you  have  no  hymn-book  which  you  wish  to 
retain,  you  had  better  fix  upon  some  hymnal 
already  in  existence.  And  here  comes  in  another 
consideration.  If  your  congregation  be  large,  and 
tolerably  well  educated,  containing  many  persons 
who  are  likely  to  sing  from  notes,  it  is  convenient 
to  select  a  hymnal  which  may  be  obtained  in  the 
form  of  a  Choral-book  ;  i.  e.  with  the  tunes  in  short 
score,  on  the  same  page  as  the  words.  This  is  a 
direct  encouragement  to  congregations  to  sing,  and 
to  those  skilled  in  music  to  take  their  own  part, 
when  hymns  are  sung  in  harmony.  In  this  form 
you  may  procure  the  Chorale  Book  for  England 
(too  expensive,  however,  and  consisting  exclusively 
of  translations  from  the  German),  Mercer's  Church 
Psalter  and  Hymn-book  (in  which  German  and 
Wesleyan  hymns  predominate),  the  new  Hymnal 
of  the  Christian  Knowledge  Society,  Chope's 
Congregational  Hynm-Book,  Morrell  and  Hows' 
Psalms  and  Hymns,  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern, 
and  a  few  others.  The  last  is  also  published 
in  the  Tonic  Sol-fa  notation.  The  words  of 
each  of  these,  of  course,  can  be  had  separately 
without  the  music.  The  disadvantage  of  using 
Choral-books  is,  that  the  congregation  is  tied  to 
a  certain  set  of  tunes,  and  these  not  always  the 
best  adapted  to  the  words,  but  only  the  best  which 
the  law  of  copyright,  and  the  judgment  of  the 
editor  combined,  enabled  him  to  set  to  them.  In 
country  churches,  and  wherever  the  congregation 
sing  by  ear  rather  than  by  eye,  it  is  much  better 
that  the  director  of  the  choir  should  keep  himself 


free  to  use  tunes  selected  from  every  source  within 
his  reach,  so  as  to  adapt  to  each  hymn  the  melody 
best  fitted  for  it. 

But  another  and  a  much-neglected  part  of  the 
duty  of  the  director  of  a  choir,  is  the  selection  week 
by  week  of  the  hymns  to  be  sung.  Let  me  urge 
upon  you  to  consider  how  important  a  task  this  is ; 
how  closely  connected  with  God's  glory  is  the 
choosing  the  form  of  words  in  which  His  Church  is 
to  show  forth  His  praise  ;  how  largely  the  spiritual 
life  and  health  of  a  congregation  may  be  fostered 
by  care  or  checked  by  negligence  in  this  particular. 
How  can  a  conscientious  clergyman  ever  delegate 
this  task  to  any  one  whom  he  cannot  thoroughly 
trust?  How  can  he  be  content  with  permitting 
his  people  to  sing  words  which  he  would  not  ven- 
ture himself  to  utter  as  an  act  of  personal  worship  ? 
How  can  he  ever  suffer  it  to  be  supposed  that  the 
hymn  exists  for  the  sake  of  the  tune,  by  allowing 
an  objectionable  hymn  to  be  even  occasionally 
used  for  the  sake  of  the  music  to  which  it  has  been 
set  ?  The  reform  of  our  hymnody  is,  after  all,  very 
much  in  the  hands  of  the  clergy.  If  you  will  be 
firm  in  your  resolve  that  hymns  which  ought  not  to 
be  sung  shall  never  be  sung  by  your  congregation  ; 
if  you  will  keep  your  own  marked  copy  of  your 
hymn-book,  and  determine  to  suppress  every  bad 
hymn,  and  to  give  preference  to  the  best  and  most 
vigorous,  familiarizing  your  people  with  them  by 
frequent  use,  you  will  do  your  part  towards  creating 
a  taste  for  good  hymns,  which  will  soon  show  itself 
in  the  general  improvement  of  existing  collections, 
and  be  the  best  possible  foundation  for  a  National 


Hymnal   worthy  of  our  Prayer-book  in  time  to 

But,  alas !  it  is  surprising  how  thoughtless  and 
unmeaning  is  the  use  of  even  the  good  hymns  we 
have.  Take,  for  instance,  Bishop  Ken's  Morning 
Hymn,  and  consider  how  ingeniously  our  choirs 
generally  contrive  to  spoil  it.  Look  at  it  as  it 
stands  in  the  Winchester  Manual,  or  in  the  Book 
of  Praise  (246),  or  in  its  earlier  form,  if  you  can 
obtain  it,  in  the  Layman's  Life  of  Ken.  The 
hymn  consists  of  fourteen  verses.  It  begins  with 
meditation,  wholly  private  and  personal,  and  rises 
gradually  into  devotion.  First  the  speaker  ad- 
dresses himself;  secondly  the  angels  ;  thirdly  God. 
The  first  eight  verses  are  mere  preparation  ;  the 
true  worship  begins  at  the  ninth.  This  devotional 
part,  though  uttered  in  the  first  person,  is,  in  its 
simple,  universal  character,  perfectly  fitted  for  con- 
gregational use,  with  the  exception  of  two  stanzas 
which  are  a  little  tainted  with  the  extravagance 
and  artificiality  of  the  age.  And  now,  how  do  we 
generally  employ  it?  First,  we  seldom  use  the 
devotional  part  at  all,  except  the  final  doxology, 
but  perversely  select  the  preparatory  verses  ad- 
dressed to  the  soul, — that  is  to  say,  exactly  the 
part  which  is  unfit  for  public  use, — and  make  that 
an  act  of  public  worship.  Secondly,  we  take  the 
words  which  refer  to  first  waking,  and  to  sunrise, 
and  transfer  them  from  the  scholar's  bedside  to  the 
forenoon  service  of  the  congregation,  when  the  sun 
has  been  for  hours  high  in  heaven.  In  Ireland,  I 
am  told,  where  "Morning  Prayer"  usually  begins 
at  mid-day,  this  absurdity  is  still  more  glaring. 


Thirdly,  we  sing  this  hymn  on  Sunday,  and  yet 
avoid  those  verses  which  are  applicable  to  every 
day  alike,  and  use  those  which  specially  refer  to 
the  "daily  stage  of  duty  "  which  a  devout  Church- 
man does  not  willingly  "run"  upon  the  Day  of 
Rest.  And  yet  we  flatter  ourselves  that  the  Church 
of  England,  beyond  other  Churches,  sings  with  the 
understanding  as  well  as  with  the  spirit ! 

But  this  is  only  one  out  of  well-nigh  innumerable 
instances  of  thoughtlessness  which  grievously  im- 
pair the  solemn  beauty  of  our  noble  ritual.  How 
often  we  hear  hymns  which  speak  of  the  daylight 
being  past  sung  in  the  full  blaze  of  a  summer  after- 
noon ;  or  penitential  hymns  on  festivals  ?  I  have 
heard  the  fifty-first  Psalm  sung  on  Whit  Sunday.  I 
know  a  church  in  which  very  great  attention  is 
paid  to  ritual  correctness,  where  at  the  Sunday 
afternoon  catechizings  it  is  customary  for  the 
children  to  sing  a  hymn,  composed  I  have  no  doubt 
originally  for  an  orphan  asylum,  in  which  they  are 
made  to  lament  that  their  fathers  and  mothers  are 
all  dead  !  But  it  is  a  needless  and  a  thankless  task 
to  multiply  instances. 

Next  to  the  hymn  comes  the  tune.  I  will  not 
be  tempted  to  wander  from  the  subject  of  these 
papers  into  any  remarks  upon  the  character  of  our 
metrical  tunes.  I  have  at  present  only  to  do  with 
a  tune  as  interpreting  a  hymn.  I  would  then  warn 
my  friends  who  are  directors  of  choirs,  not  merely 
to  be  satisfied  with  the  excellence  of  a  tune  as  a 
composition,  but  to  be  very  careful  in  noting 
whether  it  is  really  adapted  to  the  words  to  which 
they  purpose  to  sing  it.  And  let  them  not  say 


Cela  va  sans  dire.  Our  very  best  compilers  of 
Choral-books  often  make  serious  mistakes  in  this 
respect,  hence  the  necessity  of  studying  the  charac- 
ter as  well  as  the  metre  and  accentuation  of  each 
tune.  Let  me  give  one  or  two  hints  drawn  from 

1.  Lay  down  as  a  general  rule,  that  each  hymn 
should  have  one  tune  to  it.     The  converse  of  course 
does  not  follow,  that  each  tune  should  be  sung  to 
one  hymn,  and  no  more.     But  try  patiently  and 
carefully  to  match  each  hymn  with  the  tune  fittest 
for  it,  and  keep  to  that.     There  is  only  one  excep- 
tion to  this  rule :  when  you  use   the  same  hymn 
through  the  year  on  any  particular  occasion — e.  g. 
Morning   or    Evening,    Baptism,   or    Holy   Com- 
munion— and  desire  to  vary  the  expression  of  it  in 
accordance  with  the  season  ;  then  you  may  adopt 
the  mediaeval  practice  of  having  a  penitential  and 
a  jubilant  melody  for  it,  in  addition  to  the  ordinary 
or   "  ferial "  one.      But  it  is  better  to  change  the 
hymn  than  the  tune  if  you  can  do  so. 

2.  In    adapting    tunes   to   words,    consider   the 
meaning  and  the  metre.     For  the  first,  it  is  well  to 
know  something  of  the  history  of  the  hymn.     An 
ancient  tune  will  often  best  fit  an  ancient  hymn  ; 
a  German  tune  a  Lutheran,  Moravian,  or  Wesleyan 
hymn.     Each  Church  season  too  has  its  distinctive 
character,  which  ought  to  be  reflected  in  its  music. 
The  tune  of  an  Advent  hymn  ought  not  to  fit  a 
Lent  hymn,  nor  ought  that  of  a  Christmas  hymn 
to  be  used  for  an  Easter  hymn.     But  a  Christmas 
tune  will  often  suit  a  School  Festival,  or  an  Easter 
tune   a    Harvest   hymn,   admirably.      And   as   to 


metre,  it  is  not  enough  to  fit  note  to  syllable,  and 
accent  to  accent,  accurately.  The  place  of  the 
rhymes  should  be  noticed,  especially  in  Long 
Metre  and  "  Sevens "  hymns.  Some  tunes  are 
composed  for  verses  of  which  the  couplets  rhyme 
(as  in  Ken's  hymns)  ;  others  for  verses  of  which 
the  rhymes  are  alternate  (as  in  the  Hundredth 
Psalm).  And  if  a  tune  of  the  first  kind  is  used  for 
a  hymn  of  the  second,  there  will  be  a  sense  of  un- 
fitness  felt,  which  will  often  make  it  difficult  for  a 
congregation,  they  scarcely  know  why,  to  take  it 
up.  Thus,  besides  the  "  Old  Hundredth,"  «  Ware- 
ham  "  and  "  Angels "  ought  never  to  be  sung  to 
rhyming  couplets.  Hymns  which  require  to  be 
sung  slowly  are  the  only  ones  which,  as  a  general 
rule,  should  be  sung  in  "  triple  time."  It  is  better 
to  make  this  restriction  than  to  change  into  "  com- 
mon time"  a  tune  originally  written  with  three 
beats  in  a  bar. 

3.  No  general  rule  can  be  laid  down  as  to  the 
pace  at  which  hymns  should  be  sung.  There  are 
some  good  remarks  on  this  subject  in  the  preface 
to  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern.  But  each  hymn 
has  its  own  proper  speed,  depending  upon  its 
character.  By  repeated  experiments  you  will 
discover  this  in  each  case  ;  and  you  may  take  the 
opportunity  of  testing  your  own  judgment  by  that 
of  some  good  and  carefully  regulated  choir.  Having 
got  the  true  speed  of  any  hymn,  mark  in  your  book 
the  number  of  seconds  which  one  verse  should 
occupy  (as  is  done  in  the  excellent  little  collection 
of  "  Metrical  Tunes  "  originally  published  in  the 
Parish  Choir\  and  never  allow  your  singers  to 


fall  behind  the  standard  rate.  But  remember,  that 
rate  may  very  probably  differ,  not  for  each  tune 
only,  but  for  each  hymn.  Generally,  however,  all 
ill-trained  choirs  sing  metrical  tunes  far  too  slowly, 
and  chant  too  fast. 

Need  I  add  to  these  hints  one  more  ?  Give  your 
congregation  every  opportunity  of  learning  to  sing 
the  hymns  you  select.  Encourage  classes  for 
practice.  Circulate  the  music  you  use  among  those 
who  will  play  and  sing  it  at  home.  Do  all  you  can 
to  break  down  the  notion  that  the  choir  are  to  sing 
instead  of  the  people.  This,  indeed,  is  one  of  the 
many  good  reasons  for  the  choir  being  an  unpaid 
body,  that  it  is  thereby  more  closely  identified  with 
the  congregation,  and  less  likely  to  be  looked  upon 
as  a  corps  of  officials  delegated  to  do  that  which 
the  general  body  of  worshippers  are  unwilling  or 
unable  to  do.  I  am  speaking,  of  course,  of  ordin- 
ary congregations,  not  of  those  whose  circum- 
stances permit  them,  in  addition  to  their  own  part 
in  [the  service  of  song,  to  decorate  the  house  of 
God,  through  the  means  of  a  first-rate  choir,  with 
a  more  difficult  and  elaborate  offering  of  praise. 
But  much  mischief  is  still  done  by  the  attempts 
of  village  choirs  to  imitate  those  of  large  town 
churches  and  cathedrals.  This,  however,  is  an  evil 
which  I  trust  the  progress  of  Church  Choral 
Associations  in  our  rural  districts  will  do  much  to 
remedy.  A  judicious  choir-master,  passing  from 
parish  to  parish,  will  teach  better  than  any  book 
what  the  service  of  song  in  a  village  church  ought 
to  be  ;  and  the  periodical  gatherings  of  country 
choirs  in  some  central  church  will  show  how  noble 


and  beautiful,  in  its  own  place,  such  a  service  may 
be  made. 

My  subject  has  led  me  to  dwell  largely  upon  the 
use  of  hymns  by  the  congregation.  But  before  I 
close  these  papers,  let  me  plead  once  more  for  their 
more  systematic  use  by  the  individual  Christian — 
their  use,  I  mean,  not  simply  like  that  of  the 
Christian  Year,  or  other  religious  poetry,  but  as 
definite  forms  of  worship,  of  private  prayer  and 
praise.  In  the  ancient  Church,  the  distinction 
between  private  and  public  devotion  was  so  much 
less  marked  than  is  now  possible,  that  the  same 
hymns  sufficed  for  both.  The  same  "  Hours" 
might  be  said  in  the  Minster  and  in  the  Hermitage. 
But  wherever  said,  praise  formed  a  part  of  the 
daily  office,  and  that  praise  was  expressed  in 
metrical  language.  Each  canonical  hour,  each  day 
of  the  week,  each  season,  each  festival,  had  its  own 
hymn.  I  do  not  ask  for  so  unnatural  a  thing  as  a 
return  to  this  rigid  system,  or  even  to  the  modifi- 
cations of  it  which  have  been  again  and  again 
attempted  in  our  Church — in  the  "  Primer  "  of  the 
Reformation,  in  the  devotions  of  Cosin  and  Taylor, 
by  the  devout  Nonjurors,  or  by  like-minded  men 
in  our  own  day.  There  are,  doubtless,  some  who 
can  follow  such  a  system  with  profit  ;  but  with 
most  of  us  it  is  a  mere  impossibility.  Yet  this  one 
lesson  I  think  all  might  learn  from  such  manuals 
of  devotion — the  power  of  hymns  as  forms  of 
worship.  And  when  we  consider  the  vast  hymnody 
we  already  possess,  really  true  and  beautiful,  the 
result  of  a  great  and  powerful  movement  within  or 
around  our  Church,  we  can  scarcely  help  feeling 



that  we  are  neglecting  a  great  gift  from  God,  if 
we  simply  reject  all  which  we  cannot  use  in  public. 
The  hymns  of  the  great  Evangelical  school  will 
doubtless  be  its  best  and  noblest  monument  to  the 
end  of  time.     If  those  which  will  become  enshrined 
in  our  Church  Hymnal  are  found  to  be  fewer  in 
number  than  some  among  us  hitherto  have  thought, 
yet,  on  the  other  hand,  no  period  of  our  Church's 
history  has  brought  to  bear  upon  the  sorrows  and 
conflicts  of  the  individual  soul  a  larger  experience 
or  a  truer  sympathy.    While,  then,  the  Pre-Reform- 
ation    ages    will    always    be    those   which    most 
influence  our  forms  of  common  worship,  the  worship 
of  the  individual  must  needs  bear  most  vividly  the 
impress  of  Protestant  theology.    The  one  manifests 
what  all  are  to  God,  the  other  what  God  is  to  each. 
I  trust  to  see  the  day  when  each  idea  shall  find 
its  full  realization  in  our  worship ;  when,  side  by 
side  with  the  simple,  calm,  comprehensive,  object- 
ive   Hymnal   of    the    Common    Prayer-book,   we 
shall  have  a  Hymnal  for  the  hour  when  the  door 
is  shut,  and  the  heart  is  unveiled  to  the  Father. 
For  the  two  can  never  be  one. 

There  are  thoughts  which  it  is  dangerous  to  our 
strength  and  sincerity  of  character  to  utter  before 
man ;  there  are  burdens  upon  the  spirit,  and  per- 
plexities of  the  conscience,  to  which  we  have  now 
found  that  no  words  of  common  worship  can  bring 
relief.  There  are  joys  with  which  a  stranger  does 
not  intermeddle.  The  soul  has  its  Lent,  its  Easter, 
its  Pentecost.  Private  devotion  requires  its  own 
especial  embodiment ;  and  all  who  have  tried  it 
will  own  that  no  form  of  private  devotion  (and 


forms  of  some  sort  must  be  found)  is  to  be  com- 
pared to  a  really  good  hymn,  for  its  expressiveness, 
its  suggestiveness,  its  soothing  or  elevating  power, 
— the  facility  with  which  it  comes  to  mind,  its 
perpetual  and  friendly  presence  to  the  memory,  its 
witness  to  a  thousand  hallowed  and  peaceful  as- 
sociations, its  calming  and  consoling  influence  in 
pain  or  weariness,  in  weakness,  in  death  itself.  It 
is  not  surely  a  thought  to  be  lightly  passed  over,  it 
is  not  without  a  lesson  of  deep  significance  for  us 
all,  that  our  Divine  Master  sustained  His  spirit 
upon  His  awful  deathbed,  not  with  any  new  utter- 
ances of  devotion,  not  with  aspirations  coming  fresh 
from  the  lips  of  Him  who  spake  as  never  man 
spake,  but  with  the  familiar  words  of  His  Church's 
Psalmody,  the  broken  fragments  of  the  Hymnal  of 
His  Childhood.1 

1  Psalms  xxii.  I  ;  xxxi.  5. 


THE  arguments  in  favour  of  an  authorized  hymnal 
are  very  plain  and  obvious.  It  is  a  thankless  task 
to  speak  of  objections  and  difficulties,  even  though 
an  objection  may  resolve  itself  into  a  groundless 
apprehension,  and  a  difficulty  may  exist  only  to  be 

The  very  first  question  that  meets  us  when  we 
speak  of  an  authorized  hymnal  must  be,  What  does 
"  authorized "  mean  ?  From  what  source  is  the 
authority  derived,  and  how  is  it  to  be  exercised  ? 
We  may  be  willing,  as  loyal  Churchmen,  to  be 
bound  by  the  judgment  of  the  Convocations  of  the 
two  Provinces,  and  to  accept  for  ourselves  a  hymnal 
prepared  under  their  auspices  ;  yet  I  think  we  can 
scarcely  hope  that  such  an  authority  is  weighty 
enough  to  command  the  universal  adoption  by  the 
Church  of  such  a  book.  If  "authorized"  means 
authorized  by  the  same  sanctions  as  the  Book  of 
Common  Prayer,  we  are  landed  at  once  in  the  midst 
of  difficult  and  thorny  controversies ;  and  the 
events  which  have  occurred  in  connection  with  the 
far  easier  task  of  revising  our  Table  of  Lessons 
may  well  lead  us  to  despair  of  a  successful  issue. 


Then  what  must  the  book  be  ?  Is  it  to  be 
denuded  of  all  that  might  offend  any  school  of 
thought  in  the  Church  ?  Then  we  shall  have  a 
merely  vapid  and  colourless  book,  and  round  it 
there  will  grow  an  accretion  of  highly-coloured 
supplements  ;  uniformity  will  be  no  nearer;  and 
the  object  sought  will  be  defeated.  Or  is  the  book 
to  be  comprehensive,  so  as  fairly  to  represent,  on 
all  disputed  points,  the  devotional  side  of  each 
party  in  our  Church  ?  Alas,  the  hymns  which 
some  will  regard  as  absolutely  indispensable  are 
just  those  which  will  prove  a  grievous  scandal  and 
stumbling-block  to  others.  Fierce  battles  will  be 
fought  over  its  construction,  and  it  will  come  into 
the  world  only  to  meet  on  all  sides  the  serried  ranks 
of  men  prepared  at  all  risks  to  refuse  acceptance 
to  it. 

But  another  point.  The  time  is  ill-suited  for  the 
task  of  constructing  a  permanent  Church  hymnal. 
There  are  three  sources — 

1.  The    Evangelical   hymns   of   the   eighteenth 
century,   and    of    the    first    thirty   years   of    this 

2.  Translations — Ancient  and  Mediaeval,  as  well 
as  foreign  Protestant,  a  mine  only  very  partially 

3.  The   living    growing    hymnody   of  our   own 
and  sister  Churches.     It  has  burst  into  an  almost 
tropical   luxuriance    under   the   glow    of    revived 
Church  life — tropical  often  in  its  beauty  and  sweet- 
ness, sometimes  in  its  rankness  and  unwholesome- 
ness.     And  here  I  come  to  the  main  point.     Is  this 
rich   growth   to   be  arrested— frost-bound    I    had 


almost  said — by  the  spell  of  authority  ?  Can  it 
be  so  ?  A  uniform  book  cannot  arrest  the  free 
development  of  our  hymns — it  would  be  disastrous 
if  it  could.  Will  all  the  fervid  spirits  who  almost 
chafe  under  the  restrictions  of  our  form  of  prayer, 
who  are  repelled  by  the  majestic  calmness  of  our 
Morning  and  Evening  Offices,  and  prefer  to  kneel 
through  our  Communion  Service,  using  devotions 
more  suited  to  their  temper  of  mind  than  our 
Liturgy  can  furnish — or  those  who  call  (and  not 
unreasonably)  for  new  forms  of  prayer  adapted  to 
the  varying  needs  of  a  growing  and  widespread 
Church — will  these  be  content  to  place  upon  their 
necks  the  yoke  of  an  authorized  hymnal  ?  I  don't 
think  we  have  any  right  to  ask  them  ;  and  I  fear 
if  we  attempt  it  we  shall  either  totally  fail,  or 
achieve  a  success  which  is  worse  than  a  defeat. 
There  is  danger  in  a  move  in  the  direction  of 
restriction  just  at  the  moment  of  a  cry  for 

Then  again,  a  uniform  hymnal  implies  a  uniform, 
or  nearly  uniform,  level  of  Christian  life  in  the 
Church.  But  is  it  so  ?  Can  it  be  that  the  same 
hymn-book  is  equally  fit  for  a  neglected  country 
parish,  and  for  a  devout  and  highly-educated 
suburban  congregation  ;  for  a  Mission  Church  in 
some  poor  district,  and  for  the  College  Chapel  or 
the  Cathedral  Choir;  for  Cornwall  and  for  Lanca- 
shire ;  for  London  and  for  Wales  ?  Other  sects 
are  indeed,  it  may  be  said,  provided  each  with  its 
own  hymnal ;  but  with  these,  just  because  they  are 
sects,  there  must  needs  be  a  more  uniform  level 
of  religion  than  in  a  great  and  national  Church  ; 


uniformity  and  comprehensiveness  cannot  consist. 
Far  better  surely  to  let  the  various  shades  of 
theological  opinion  in  our  own  communion  find 
each  its  fitting  devotional  expression  in  hymns,  so 
long  as  we  can  keep  our  Prayer-book  the  one 
common  heritage,  and  the  one  uniting  bond  of 
them  all. 

But  though  I  think  one  national  hymnal  is 
neither  possible  nor  desirable,  yet  there  is  every 
reason  why  we  should  set  this  before  us  as  an  ideal 
towards  which  we  are  to  work  for  the  future,  and 
which  in  some  calmer  and  happier  day  our 
children  may  yet  attain.  And  I  must  say  a  word 
before  I  sit  down  as  to  what  we  of  this  generation 
can  do  to  purify  and  elevate  our  hymnody.  Now 
we  must  all  confess  that  in  the  new  development 
of  our  hymnody  God  of  His  goodness  has  given  us 
an  instrument  of  great  power  to  do  our  work  with ; 
and  I  do  hope  the  time  may  soon  come  when  we 
shall  be,  not  merely  tacitly  but  avowedly,  permitted 
to  make  the  fullest  and  freest  use  possible  of  this 
instrument  to  quicken  and  express  our  devotion, 
our  penitence,  our  watchfulness,  our  thankfulness  ; 
when  no  one  shall  deem  it  a  badge  of  party  to 
enter  into  His  gates  with  thanksgiving  in  our  joyous 
processionals,  to  fall  low  on  our  knees  before  His 
footstool  in  our  metrical  litanies,  or  to  worship  Him 
in  the  beauty  of  holiness  in  our  Eucharistic  songs. 
From  all  the  hymns  of  the  past  we  may  learn  some 
lesson  for  the  present  as  to  their  varied  use — from 
the  Ambrosians  their  help  in  promoting  daily  and 
hourly  communion  with  God  ;  from  mediaeval 
hymns  their  power  in  interpreting  the  mysteries  of 


our  faith  ;  from  Germany  their  hymns  of  Christian 
experience  ;  from  the  Wesleyans  their  evangelistic 
power.  But  in  our  very  affluence  and  freedom  there 
is  a  special  danger.  And  I  do  desire  to  take  the 
occasion  of  the  first  free  discussion  on  hymns  which 
a  Church  Congress  has  held  to  appeal  most  earnestly 
to  my  brother  clergy  and  choir-masters  to  stand  out 
like  men  against  the  ever-increasing  flood  of  unreal 
and  sensuous  hymns.  I  know  all  that  is  to  be  said  for 
these :  they  are  so  popular — the  children  like  them 
— their  music  is  so  pretty — they  make  our  services 
so  hearty.  But  what  is  the  popularity  of  an  hour, 
if  it  is  purchased  by  the  sacrifice  of  sincerity  ?  If 
we  are  to  maintain  God's  truth  our  words  to  God 
must  be  true.  If  we  are  to  win  back  for  Christ  the 
pith  and  manhood  of  England  we  must  ourselves 
be  manly.  Those  who  grind  among  the  iron  facts 
of  life  cannot  and  will  not  be  fed  upon  the  loveliest 
dreams.  You  want  to  train  our  children  to  perfect 
their  Saviour's  praise.  Ah !  but  when  the  saintly 
prisoner  of  Orleans l  gathered  the  little  ones  round 
the  window  of  his  cell  to  teach  them  their  Palm 
Sunday  Hosannas,  he  did  not  tell  them  that 
banners  brightly  gleaming  would  point  their  path 
to  heaven,  but  that  the  praises  of  their  hearts  were 
the  palms  and  flowers  that  Jesus  would  accept,  and 
that  He  Himself  would  be  their  Guide  into  the 
heavenly  Jerusalem. 

You  want  to  draw  the  weary  and  heavy-laden  to 
the  foot  of  the  Cross — yes  ;  but  when  the  Italian 
Knight2  rose  up  broken-hearted  but  consecrated 

1  St.  Theodulph,  Bishop  of  Orleans,  dr.  820. 

2  Jacobus  de  Benedictus,  cent.  13. 


from  the  grave  of  his  blighted  life  and  buried  love, 
to  take  refuge  in  the  thought  of  the  more  awful 
sorrow  of  her  who  stood  beside  that  Cross,  his 
immortal  Stabat  Mater  does  not  linger  upon  all 
the  merely  physical  details  of  the  death  of  deaths, 
but  goes  straight  to  the  heart  of  the  transcendent 
mystery  of  love  and  sorrow.  You  want  to  nerve 
the  Lord's  champions  to  fight  their  battle  against 
the  banded  powers  of  evil  ;  but "  the  solitary  monk 
that  shook  the  world  "  l  did  not  go  forward  to  meet 
the  devils  whom  he  believed  to  be  opposing  him 
with  the  challenge  of  a  surpliced  train  and  organ 
swell,  but  in  the  power  of  Him  Who  is  a  sure  strong- 
hold in  the  day  of  trouble,  and  Who  knoweth  them 
that  trust  Him.2 

1  R.  Montgomery,  "  Luther."  2  Nahum  i.  7. 


Paper  read  before  the  Church  Congress,  held  at  Stoke-upon- 
Trent,  Friday  evening;  October  8,  1875. 

THE  branch  of  this  subject  with  which  I  am 
now  about  to  deal  is  the  present  condition  and 
future  prospects  of  congregational  hymnody  in 
the  Church  of  England. 

All  of  us,  probably,  are  aware  that  the  present 
condition  of  our  hymnody  is  one  of  rapid — some 
would  say  of  too  luxuriant — growth.  That  growth 
is  not  restricted  to  our  own  Church  or  nation. 
The  old  distinction  between  Lutheran  and  Calvin- 
istic  communions,  that  the  one  were  singers  of 
hymns,  the  others  of  metrical  psalms,  bids  fair 
to  be  entirely  abolished  before  the  present  century 
comes  to  a  close.  Among  French  Protestant 
congregations  Chants  CJiretiens  in  one  form  or 
another  (some  of  them  translations  of  English 
hymns)  have  all  but  superseded  the  psalms  of 
Marot  and  Beza,  just  as  among  ourselves  Tate  and 
Brady  have  fallen  into  disuse.  Even  the  old 
Scotch  Psalms  are  slowly  giving  way  before  the 
newer  rivals,  and  each  of  the  chief  Presbyterian 
communions  in  England  and  Scotland  has  its  own 
modern  hymn-book  in  use  or  in  progress.  Among 


ourselves  the  revolution  is  now  virtually  com- 
pleted. Two  results  have  followed.  The  first,  the 
vast  impulse  given  to  the  multiplication  of  hymns  ; 
their  free  and  abundant  employment  among  us, — 
their  interpolation  at  various  points  of  our  regular 
services,  their  value  in  the  various  special  services 
which  have  arisen  among  us — children's  services, 
missions,  choir-gatherings,  and  the  like,  their  evan- 
gelistic use,  on  which  I  do  not  now  dwell — all  this 
has  enormously  augmented  their  power  and  their 
popularity,  and  has,  of  course,  tended  to  multiply 
their  number.  Then  while  the  twenty-five  years 
from  1835  to  1860  will  be  marked  by  future  hymn- 
ologists  as  the  age  of  translations,  the  time  when 
Latin,  and  to  a  less  extent  German  hymnody  was 
made  available  for  congregational  use  among  us, 
the  fifteen  years  which  have  since  elapsed  have 
been  years  of  almost  unexampled  fertility  in  the 
production  of  original  English  hymns.  Doubtless 
many  of  these  will  ere  long  be  disused  and  for- 
gotten. But  it  is  to  be  noticed  that  these  new 
hymns  are  not  mere  additions  to  our  stock.  They 
are  displacing  the  older  ones  to  a  great  extent. 
While  the  best  of  the  early  Evangelical  and 
Wesleyan  hymns  ar  I  am  convinced,  valued  by 
Church  people  far  lore  than  they  ever  were,  it 
is  worth  while  remaiKing  how  few  of  them  appear 
likely  to  remain  in  use.  I  may  take  as  represent- 
atives of  modern  Church  hymn-books  three  of 
those  which  now  command  the  largest  sale,  Hymns 
Ancient  and  Modern,  Mr.1  Bickersteth's  Hymnal 
Companion  to  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and  the 
Now  Bishop. 


new  Church  Hymns  of  the  S.P.C.K.  Out  of  Watts' 
720  hymns,  five  are  in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern, 
eleven  in  Church  Hymns ,  while  but  twenty-eight 
survive  even  in  Mr.  Bickersteth's.  Of  the  348 
Olney  Hymns  Mr.  Bickersteth  preserves  twenty- 
one,  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  but  four,  Church 
Hymns  but  six.  Notwithstanding  the  strong 
reaction  in  favour  of  Charles  Wesley's  hymns, 
Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  gives  us  out  of  the 
twelve  great  volumes  but  thirteen  hymns,  Church 
Hymns  twenty-three,  and  Mr.  Bickersteth's  thirty- 
six.  Of  the  other  hymn-writers  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  about  ten  of  Doddridge's,  two  or  three  of 
Toplady's,  and  a  few  single  ones  by  other  writers, 
are  the  most  that  will  be  found  in  the  books 
mentioned.  Later  authors,  such  as  Bishop  Heber 
and  James  Montgomery,  are  of  course  men  largely 
represented.  These  statistics  will  show  that  it  is 
not  mere  addition,  but  displacement,  which  is 
occurring.  I  do  not  mention  this  with  unmixed 
satisfaction.  In  the  "struggle  for  life"  of  hymns 
it  is  not  always  the  fittest  which  survive.  Happily, 
in  their  case,  disuse  is  not  always  death.  It  may 
be  that  the  calmer  wisdom  of  a  future  generation 
will  in  some 'cases  reverse  the  hasty  judgment 
of  our  own  day,  and  restore  to  our  children  some 
of  those  words  which  animated  the  praise,  enshrined 
the  experience,  and  cheered  the  dying  hours  of 
saintly  men  and  women  whose  names  still  dwell 
among  the  hallowed  recollections  of  our  own 

Next — this    increased    use    of    hymns    has   of 
course   brought   with   it   a   great   change    in    our 


hymn-books.  But  we  must  not  conclude  from 
this  that  the  number  of  hymn-books  published 
has  increased  in  the  same  proportion.  Local 
selections,  so  common  in  the  early  years  of  this 
century,  have  almost  disappeared.  One  after 
another  large  and  important  hymn-books  for 
general  use  have  arisen  ;  each  of  these  has  killed 
off  many  small  competitors,  and  the  number  in 
future  seems  likely  to  be  diminished  rather  than 
increased.  Such  local  books  as  now  appear  are 
mostly  mere  supplements  to  one  of  these.  Already 
a  clergyman  seeking  to  introduce  a  new  hymn- 
book  into  his  congregation  is  likely  to  make  his 
choice  not,  as  till  lately,  from  among  some  twenty 
or  thirty,  but  from  among  seven  or  eight  at  the 

In  turning  to  the  FUTURE,  it  is  natural  to  ask 
if  the  tendency  of  the  Church  of  our  own  time  is 
thus  to  the  widespread  use  of  a  few  large  hymn- 
books  ?  is  it  possible  or  desirable  to  go  a  step 
further,  and  concentrate  into  one  national  book  the 
few  that  seem  likely  to  distance  all  competitors  ? 
Or  is  it  to  be  desired  that  at  least  a  certain 
number  of  hymns  which  are  common  to  all  these 
books  should  be  authorized,  and  congregations  be 
left  at  liberty  to  add  to  these  according  to  the 
taste  of  those  who  are  responsible  for  their  hymn- 
ody  ?  Each  of  these  questions  I  feel  bound  to 
answer  with  an  emphatic  "  No." 

I  do  not  think  we  are  ripe  for  the  interference, 
to  such  an  extent,  with  the  free  development  of 
our  hymnody.  A  comprehensive  hymn-book  must 
do  one  of  two  things :  either  it  must  contain 


hymns  the  language  of  which  would  be  so  repel- 
lent to  the  views  of  many  congregations  that  they 
would  bitterly  resent  its  being  imposed  upon  them 
by  authority ;  or  it  must  omit  and  alter  to  such 
an  extent,  that  congregations  which  use  existing 
books  would  be  no  less  disturbed  by  the  loss  of 
teaching  to  which  they  are  attached.  We  may 
deplore  our  present  divisions ;  we  may  hope  and 
pray  that  they  may  be  healed  ;  but  for  all  that  we 
ought  to  deprecate  such  an  attempt  at  ignoring 
them  as  would  severely  test  an  obedience  which 
is  not  too  readily  rendered  even  now,  and  would 
turn  our  very  songs  of  praise  into  watchwords  of 
theological  strife. 

And  as  to  the  selection  of  certain  hymns  common 
to  all,  I  doubt  whether  it  is  known  how  few  in 
number  they  are.  The  great  and  excellent  col- 
lections of  hymns  which  the  last  few  years  have 
produced  are  separated  from  each  other  by  strongly 
marked  lines.  Each  covers  its  own  ground,  each 
has  its  own  distinctive  character.  Thus,  to  refer 
again  to  the  three  books  I  have  ventured  to  take 
as  representatives,  the  revised  Hymns  Ancient  and 
Modern  contains  473  hymns,  Church  Hymns  592, 
the  Hymnal  Companion  400 ;  yet  out  of  this  large 
number  of  1465  hymns,  there  are  but  129  common 
to  all  three  books;  and  of  these  129  the  text 
occasionally  differs  in  particulars  which  the  editors 
of  each  would  probably  consider  virtually  affecting 
the  value  of  the  hymn.  It  might  be  convenient 
to  represent  these  by  consecutive  numbers  common 
to  all  three  books  ;  but  I  cannot  think  that  very 
much  would  be  gained  by  authorizing  so  small 


a  fragment  of  our  immense  hymnody.  It  has 
been  urged  indeed  that  an  authorized  hymn-book 
would  benefit  us  by  fixing  the  standard  text 
of  the  hymns  we  use,  especially  if  the  rule  were 
made  of  restoring  every  hymn  to  the  exact  form 
in  which  it  was  originally  written.  On  any  other 
principle,  indeed,  uniformity  in  the  wording  is 
under  present  circumstances  as  hopeless  as  unan- 
imity in  the  selection  of  hymns.  And  yet  I  own  I 
can  scarcely  imagine  an  editor  of  a  hymn-book 
who  has  carefully  investigated  the  original  text 
of  hymns,  seriously  desiring  to  print  every  hymn 
exactly  as  it  was  written.  Many  of  our  old  friends 
it  would  be  absolutely  painful  to  recognize  in  their 
resuscitated  dress.  How  many  of  Faber's,  for 
example,  could  be  included  as  he  wrote  them  in 
a  National  Church  hymn-book  ?  Hard  things  are 
often  said  by  living  writers  as  to  the  mutilation  of 
their  hymns  by  compilers.  May  it  be  permitted 
for  one  whose  own  hymns  have  not  escaped  this 
unpleasant  process  to  say  a  word  on  the  other 
side  ?  That  any  one  who-  presumes  to  lay  his 
offering  of  a  song  of  praise  upon  the  altar,  not  for 
his  own,  but  for  God's  glory,  cannot  be  too  thankful 
for  the  devout,  thoughtful,  and  scholarly  criticism 
of  those  whose  object  it  is  to  make  his  work  less 
unworthy  of  its  sacred  purpose.  A  Church  hymn- 
book  is  not  a  statue  gallery  erected  that  men  may 
pass  through  it  and  admire  the  skill  of  each  artist ; 
it  is  a  temple  for  the  worship  of  the  Most  High, 
in  which  every  stone,  rough-hewn  or  cunningly 
carved,  is  fitted  to  its  place  and  subordinated  to  the 
one  Spirit  which  informs  and  consecrates  the  whole. 


Must  we  then  be  content  to  give  up  all  prospect 
of  a  national  Book  of  Common  Praise  to  match 
our  Book  of  Common  Prayer  ?  If  what  I  have 
said  seems  to  discourage  such  an  expectation,  let 
us  remember  that  Colonial  Churches,  or  Noncon- 
formist bodies  among  ourselves,  are  too  small  and 
too  homogeneous  to  be  any  true  precedent  for  the 
great  and  complex  Mother  Church  at  home.  The 
true  precedent,  I  fear,  would  be  that  of  modern 
Ultramontanism,  which  seeks  to  impose  upon 
every  country  and  diocese  alike  its  own  inflexible 
Roman  Breviary,  and  in  so  doing  is  destroying 
a  multitude  of  hymns  and  sequences  far  better 
than  its  own. 

Some  appeal  to  authority,  indeed,  all  will  allow. 
There  are  frequent  public  occasions  upon  which 
many  would  welcome  the  authorization  by  our 
bishops  of  special  hymns  as  well  as  of  special 
psalms  and  lessons.  There  creep  into  churches 
now  and  then  hymns  which  I  venture  to  think 
ought  to  be  formally  prohibited.  Above  all,  the 
change  of  a  hymn-book  is  a  matter  so  important 
and  interesting  to  a  congregation,  so  deeply  affect- 
ing its  life  and  unity,  that  it  seems  only  reasonable 
to  require  that  the  sanction  of  the  Bishop  should 
be  sought  and  obtained  in  all  cases  by  the  clergy- 
man who  proposes  to  make  the  change. 

But  the  true  hope  for  unity  in  our  songs  of 
praise  lies,  I  am  convinced,  in  a  very  different 
region  from  that  of  law  and  prescription.  It  is 
not  pressure  from  without,  but  the  impulse  of  new 
life  from  within,  which  alone  can  draw  us  nearer. 
Our  hymnody  must  be  the  expression  of  that  life, 


or  it  is  unreal-  and  worthless.  As  in  each  con- 
gregation, in  each  soul,  spiritual  life  becomes 
deeper  and  fuller,  those  hymns  will  be  loved  and 
valued,  and  those  alone,  which  have  in  them  that 
true  inspiration.  And  those  hymns,  whether 
ancient  or  modern,  whether  English  or  foreign, 
whether  Catholic  or  Protestant  in  their  origin,  will 
be  welcomed  and  used  ;  not  all  at  once,  perhaps, 
not  without  hesitation  and  questioning ;  but  if 
slowly,  yet  surely  and  permanently.  Look  at  our 
greatest  hymns ;  it  is  not  authority  and  custom 
that  have  made  them  dear  to  every  congregation  ; 
it  is  not  always  literary  excellence  ;  it  is  not  even 
in  every  case  theological  accuracy ;  it  is  a  true 
correspondence  with  thoughts  and  aspirations  that 
filled  the  heart  of  the  Church.  The  whole  life  of 
the  Patristic  Church  is  in  the  Te  Deum  ;  the  whole 
awfulness  and  pathos  of  the  Middle  Ages  is  in  the 
Dies  Ircz ;  the  whole  gospel  of  Evangelicalism  is 
in  Rock  of  Ages.  And  whenever  a  hymn  arises 
which  thus  says  what  we  want  to  say,  it  must  make 
its  way,  and  be  heard,  and  live.  When  growth  in 
spiritual  life  shall  have  brought  with  it  unity  of 
spirit,  then  our  songs  will  be  uttered  with  one 
accord.  Who  would  substitute  for  that  unity  the 
uniformity  of  compulsion,  of  indifference,  or  of 
compromise  ? 

My  conclusion  then  is,  that  the  future  of  our 
Church  hymnody  can  be  but  the  reflection  of  our 
own  future.  What  our  congregations  are,  what 
the  Church  is,  that  our  hymns  will  be  ;  true  and 
strong  in  faith  and  love,  or  false  and  weak,  empty 
and  lifeless.  And  that,  therefore,  the  way  to  im- 



prove  our  hymnody,  the  way  to  guide  it,  the  way 
to  restrain  it,  is  primarily,  and  above  all,  the 
discipline  of  our  own  hearts.  This  will  give  us 
self-restraint  in  our  choice  of  hymns,  it  will  save 
us  from  being  carried  away  by  mere  fasnion  and 
caprice ;  from  being  slaves  to  the  latest  novelty, 
the  lilting  chorus,  and  the  taking  tune.  But 
especially  I  would  plead  with  my  brother  parish- 
priests,  upon  whose  choice  depends  what  their 
congregations  week  by  week,  and  day  by  day, 
shall  thus  utter  before  God,  to  feel  the  greatness 
of  their  responsibility,  and  to  grudge  no  time  or 
pains  in  the  selection  of  the  words  they  put  into 
the  lips  of  their  people. 

Let  me  urge  them  to  remember  how  this  work 
of  selection,  well  done,  may  not  merely  form  the 
taste,  but  elevate  the  religious  tone  of  our  con- 
gregations. Is  it  then  a  task  to  be  hurried  over  in 
two  minutes,  while  the  choir  are  waiting  to  begin 
practice  ?  Is  it  a  matter  to  be  left  to  a  young 
school-master,  or  a  group  of  young  ladies  ?  Is  our 
chief  care  to  be  that  the  tunes  are  pretty  and 
popular,  and  the  words  something  that  will  "go 
with  a  swing  "  ?  Are  we  thus  to  sanction  the  trash 
which,  alas,  will  find  its  way  even  into  good  hymn- 
books  :  artificial  bursts  of  enthusiasm — sentimental 
complaints  of  weariness,  or  sorrow,  or  even  longing 
for  death1 — feeble  and  confused  dilutions  of  the 

1  In  ridicule  of  this  species  of  cant,  I  have  heard  J.  E. 
delight  in  telling  the  following  story  : — Old  Betty  was  a 
bed-ridden  parishioner,  who  was  for  ever  calling  for  death 
to  release  her  from  her  infirmities  and  take  her  to  glory. 
Whereupon  her  neighbours  resolved  to  put  her  to  the  test, 


imagery  of  the  Apocalypse — exaggerations  and 
affectations  doing  duty  for  precision  in  doctrine 
and  sincerity  in  feeling?  Ought  we  not  rather 
to  pray  and  to  strive  that  the  hymns  we  invite 
our  congregations  to  sing  may  be  scriptural,  not 
merely  in  their  phraseology,  but  in  their  inmost 
spirit,  reverent  not  in  form  only  but  in  meaning, 
definite  with  the  certainty  of  faith,  calm  with  the 
consciousness  of  God's  presence,  lowly  with  the 
reality  of  penitence,  joyful  with  the  sincerity  of 
thankfulness  ;  that  so,  whether  we  prepare  to  enter 
into  His  gates  with  the  thanksgiving  of  our  glad 
processionals,  or  to  speak  good  of  His  Name  in 
the  quiet  hymn  of  the  daily  office,  or  to  fall  low  on 
our  knees  before  His  footstool  in  the  Litany  of 
Penitence,  we  may  be  emboldened  to  say  for 
ourselves  and  for  our  people,  "  Thou  shalt  open  our 
lips,  O  Lord,  and  our  mouth  shall  shew  forth  Thy 

and  as  she  was  lying  alone,  one  of  them  knocked  three 
solemn  knocks  at  the  door  of  her  cottage.  "  Who's  there  ? " 
with  the  answer—"  I  am  Death,  come  for  old  Betty  to  take 
her  to  glory."  "  Oh  no,  no,  no  ! "  shrieked  the  old  crone, 
"  she  isn't  here,  it  is  next  door? — H.  H. 


Paper  read  before  the  Church  Congress  held  at  Swansea, 
Wednesday  evening,  October  8,  1 879. 

I  READ  my  paper  this  evening  under  a  solemn 
feeling  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  Miss  Frances 
Havergal,  who  has  passed  away  from  us  since  she 
accepted  the  invitation  of  the  Committee  to  prepare 
a  paper  on  this  subject  for  this  Congress.  The 
hymns  of  this  lady  will  long  live  in  the  heart  of 
the  Church. 

When  I  was  invited  to  read  a  paper  before  this 
Congress  on  Hymns  and  Hymn-books,  my  first 
question  was,  What  branch  of  so  wide  a  subject  am 
I  expected  to  handle  ?  and  it  was  suggested  to 
me  in  reply  to  give  some  sort  of  outline  of  what  an 
authorized  Church  hymn-book,  if  ever  we  attain  it, 
ought  to  be. 

Let  me  begin  by  reminding  you  of  our  materials. 
They  are  such  as  no  age  of  the  Church  ever  before 
possessed.  First,  for  the  home-grown  hymns. 
Within  the  last  few  months  there  has  passed  away 
an  old  man,  Daniel  Sedgwick l  by  name,  who  kept  a 

1  An  interesting  sketch  of  his  life  and  work  by  William  T. 
Brooke,  who  calls  him  "  the  father  of  English  Hymnology," 
will  be  found  in  Julian's  Dictionary  of  Hymnology,  p.  1036. 


tiny  shop  in  one  of  the  darkest  nooks  of  the  city  of 
London,  ironically  designated  Sun  Street.  This 
good  man  lived,  ate,  drank,  wrote,  and,  for  aught 
I  know,  slept  in  the  midst  of  piles  on  piles  of 
hymn-books.  His  kindly  welcome  and  amazing 
knowledge  were  at  the  service  of  any  one  who  was 
interested  enough  in  the  study  to  explore  his  strange 
domain.  He  could  reckon  up  at  least  1400  authors 
who  within  the  last  1 50  years  had  written  volumes 
of  English  hymns,  all  of  whom  he  has  duly 
catalogued.  We  may  divide  these  roughly  into 
four  great  schools,  three  of  them  existing  side  by 
side,  each  of  them  represented  by  existing  books, 
and  all  four  happily  blended,  though  in  differing 
proportions,  in  our  best  hymn-books — the  early 
Nonconformist,  from  Watts  and  Doddridge  to 
Conder,  Kelly,  and  Montgomery  ;  the  Wesleyan, 
of  which  modern  revival  hymns  are  an  offshoot ; 
the  Calvinistic-Evangelical  ;  and  the  Anglican 
and  Anglo-Catholic  of  our  own  time.  Each 
of  these  four  schools  must  necessarily  be  repre- 
sented in  any  hymn-book  which  is  to  be  a  true 
help  to  the  devotions  of  the  whole  English 
Church.  But  we  have  also,  and  we  need  also, 
hymns  from  other  sources.  I  am  not  going  to 
insult  the  understanding  of  my  hearers  by  assum- 
ing that  any  one  here  entertains  the  strange  notion 
that  while  the  Collects  we  have  translated  from  the 
ancient  service-books  are  an  inestimable  treasure 
of  devotion,  the  hymns  which  lie  beside  them  in 
the  same  quarry  are  unfit  for  our  use.  What  I 
claim  for  Latin  hymns  in  general  is  what  I  claim 
for  Latin  prayers  :  that  many  are  of  exceeding 


value  ;  that  the  oldest  are  generally  the  best ;  that 
the  Church  of  England  may  well  deal  with  them  as 
she  dealt .  with  the  Collects — transferring  many 
whole,  leaving  a  certain  number  alone,  boldly 
altering  and  adapting  others  to  suit  her  own 
requirements.  An  admirable  example  of  the  last 
mode  of  treatment  is  the  Bishop  of  Ely's  translation 
of  Adoro  Te  Devote,  if  only  the  text  be  left  as  the 
Bishop  wrote  it ;  retaining  as  it  does  the  spirit  of 
humble  and  believing  reverence  which  pervades 
the  hymn,  without  any  phrases  which  might  clash 
with  our  authorized  definitions  of  doctrine.  Pre- 
mising this,  I  may  observe  that  now  all  the  great 
Latin  hymns  have  been  repeatedly  translated,  some 
of  them  by  successive  revisions,  as  well  as  it  is 
possible  to  render  them.  Many  have  taken  root 
among  us ;  some  are  as  familiar  as  their  kindred 
Collects,  and  are  sung  by  all  denominations  in 
England  and  Scotland  just  as  heartily  and  uncon- 
sciously as  if  they  were  home-born.  We  may 
almost  say  the  same  of  the  few  imitations  of  Greek 
hymns  which  Dr.  Neale  and  others  have  given  us. 
Few  would  imagine  Mr.  Chatfield's  touching  hymn, 
"  Lord  Jesus,  think  on  me,"  to  be  the  work  of  the 
fifth-century  African  squire-bishop,1  of  whom 
Charles  Kingsley  has  given  us  so  graphic  a  portrait 
in  Hypatia.  The  rich  store  of  German  hymnody 
has  been  opened  to  us  mainly  by  one  who  has 
been  taken  to  her  rest  since  the  last  Congress, 
Catherine  Winkworth.  But  few  of  these  hymns 
are  fitted  for  congregational  use  ;  yet  these  few  are 
of  great  and  permanent  value.  I  think,  too,  that 
1  Synesius,  Bishop  of  Ptolema'is  :  he  died  in  430. — H.  H. 


we  may  gain  something  from  the  hymns  of  Pro- 
testant France  ;  and  to  one  who  may  be  surprised 
at  this,  I  would  recommend  the  study  of  the 
beautiful  little  hymnal  published  by  the  Society 
for  the  Promotion  of  Christian  Knowledge  for  use 
in  the  Channel  Islands.  Nor  must  we  forget  that 
the  Church  Congress  is  welcomed  this  week  among 
fellow-countrymen  who  have  a  hymnody  of  their 
own,  dating  further  back  than  ours.  I,  as  a  Saxon 
stranger,  know  of  the  hymns  of  Rhys  Prichard  only 
through  wretched  translations  from  which  all  the 
poetry  has  evaporated  ;  yet  even  so  I  can  well 
understand  how  the  "  Welshman's  Candle  "  of  the 
early  seventeenth  century,  with  its  manly  piety,  its 
practical  good  sense,  and  its  firm  hold  upon  the 
great  truths  of  our  faith,  expressed  in  the  plainest 
and  homeliest  language,  must  have  been  a  true 
light  from  God  to  many  and  many  a  lonely  home. 
And  our  kind  hosts  have  shown  us  this  week  how 
they  love,  and  how  they  can  sing,  the  hymnody  of 
William  Williams,  represented  in  our  hymnals,  I 
believe,  only  by  the  well-known  hymn,  "  Guide  me, 
O  Thou  Great  Jehovah." 

I  pass  on  to  consider  the  far  more  difficult 
question,  how  to  use  our  materials  ? 

We  are  all  agreed  that  a  Book  of  Common  Praise 
ought  to  follow  the  lines  of  our  Book  of  Common 
Prayer,  and  yet,  in  some  sense,  to  fill  up  and 
supplement  the  Prayer-book.  The  question  is,  In 
what  sense  ?  Not,  surely,  by  any  inconsistency  or 
even  development  of  doctrine.  Whatever  the 
limits  of  comprehension  may  be  as  regards  indi- 
viduals, or  even  as  regards  particular  congregations, 


a  book  which  shall  appear  as  an  addition  to  the 
existing  formularies  of  the  Church  of  England 
must  not  differ  from  these  any  more  widely  than 
they  differ  from  one  another.  But  if  it  be  the  case 
that  the  different  elements  of  which  our  Prayer-book 
consists  bring  out  different  sides  of  the  same  truth, 
and  set  forth  the  faith  from  varying  points  of  view, 
then  this  amount  of  comprehensiveness  we  may 
fairly  claim  for  an  authorized  hymn-book.  To 
secure  this,  it  must  not  be  the  work  of  one  school, 
or  of  a  very  small  body  of  divines.  No  existing 
book  ought  to  become  the  authorized  book.  I  am 
glad  to  support  this  view  by  the  opinion  of  one 
whose  loss  we  are  still  lamenting,  who  presided 
over  the  compilation  of  our  most  popular  and 
widely-used  hymn-book.  The  late  Sir  Henry 
Baker,  heartily  as  he  rejoiced  in  the  wonderful 
success  of  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  always 
expressed  his  conviction  that  it  could  never  become 
more  than  one  of  two  or  three  hymnals  which 
should  ultimately  divide  our  congregations  among 
them.  He  felt  that  it  was  the  product  but  of  one 
school  in  the  Church  of  England,  though  a  school 
into  which  he  himself  infused  a  large  spirit  of 

We  must  further  remember,  that  if  ever  the  day 
comes  that  our  Church  possesses  an  authorized 
hymn-book,  it  will  be  quite  as  much  used  out  of 
church  as  in  it ;  it  will  grow  to  be  used  in  the 
family  and  in  private  devotion,  by  the  poor,  the 
sick,  the  aged,  the  lonely,  the  mourner,  just  as 
much  as  the  Prayer-book,  or  even  more.  It  is  vain, 
then,  to  fancy  we  can  keep  out  private  and  what 


are  called  subjective  hymns.  Some  such,  wisely 
selected,  there  must  be  ;  as  subjective  as  the  42nd 
Psalm,  or  the  5ist,  or  the  losrd.  There  are  those 
who  gravely  tell  us  that  hymns  in  the  singular 
number  are  unfit  for  public  worship,  and  so  would 
shut  out  "  Rock  of  Ages  "  and  "  Sun  of  my  soul " — 
why  not  also  the  "Miserere"  and  the .  "  Nunc 
Dimittis  "  ? 

Again,  when  an  authorized  selection  is  made, 
something  must  still  be  left  to  individual  liberty. 
I  have  on  a  former  occasion  given  my  reasons  for 
believing  that  the  number  of  hymns  which  would 
be  accepted  freely  by  all  congregations  alike  is 
comparatively  small — judging  from  our  most 
popular  hymn-books,  not  more  than  about  150. 
These  would  be  placed  in  a  class  by  themselves. 
Others  might  be  allowed  by  the  Ordinary,  at  least 
tacitly,  if  not  formally  ;  and  perhaps  from  time  to 
time  additions  made  to  the  hymns  authorized  ;  for 
it  would  indeed  be  a  grievous  mistake  to  apply  an 
arbitrary  rule  of  finality  to  the  only  part  of  our 
public  worship  which  retains  the  elasticity  which 
our  changing  circumstances  demand. 

It  is  possible,  then,  to  conceive  of  a  hymn-book 
compiled  by  some  Committee  or  Commission  such 
as  might  command  general  confidence  ;  receiving 
the  recommendations  of  the  Bishops,  and  perhaps, 
after  the  precedent  of  the  New  Version  of  Psalms, 
that  of  Her  Majesty  in  Council ;  and  so,  without 
the  dangerous  course  of  an  amended  Act  of 
Uniformity,  making  its  way  by  degrees  into  our 
congregations.  Were  this  wisely  done,  we  should 
not  all  at  once,  but  we  may  hope  gradually,  lose 


many  foolish,  unsound,  and  exaggerated  hymns, 
which  now  pass  muster  in  better  company  than 
they  deserve,  often  for  the  sake  of  their  popular 
tunes.  We  should  lose  the  abominable  habit  of 
ticketing  clergy  and  churches  by  the  hymn-book 
they  use,  and  rinding  party  catch-words  in  the  very 
language  of  our  praise.  We  should  feel  a  little 
more  formal,  a  little  less  free  ;  but  we  should  be 
drawn  into  closer  fellowship  with  one  another,  and 
find  ourselves  relieved  from  some  of  the  hindrances 
to  our  fellowship  with  God.  But  if  I  am  asked 
whether  these  results  are  likely  to  be  attained,  I  see 
but  little  to  encourage  me  in  predicting  them.  An 
authorized  hymn-book  means  willing  submission  to 
authority,  cheerful  toleration  of  divergencies.  These 
are  not  exactly  our  strong  points  just  now.  And 
there  is  one  other  consideration,  which  I  cannot  do 
more  than  indicate.  I  very  much  doubt  whether 
the  tone  of  our  popular  devotion,  as  indicated  by 
the  style  not  merely  of  hymns,  but  of  other 
devotional  manuals,  at  present  most  in  demand,  is 
one  which  it  would  be  wise  to  stereotype  in  an 
authorized  hymnals  A  Bishop  of  our  own  Church 
recently  remarked  in  addressing  some  clergy,  that 
it  had  occurred  to  him  to  spend  a  whole  Sunday 
in  a  large  and  influential  London  church.  In  that 
congregation  during  the  day  he  had  heard  eleven 
hymns  sung  ;  but  in  only  one  verse  of  the  whole 
eleven  hymns  was  there  any  allusion  to  God  the 
Father,  and  in  that  verse  He  was  glorified  not  as 
the  Reconciled  Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
but  merely  as  the  Maker  of  this  world,  and  the 
Giver  of  its  good  things.  Not  till  we  return  to  a 


higher  and  more  really  Catholic  ideal  of  worship 
can  we  afford  to  bind  our  devotion  by  any  closer 
bond  of  authority  ;  and  not  till  the  God  of  patience 
and  consolation  grants  us  to  be  more  like-minded 
one  towards  another,  can  we  hope  with  one  mind 
and  one  mouth  to  glorify  Him. 




My  answer  to  the  question,  When  are  we 
to  have  an  Authorized  Hymnal,  is  a  very  simple 
one — not  during  the  existing  state  of  things  in  the 
Church  of  England,  I  most  earnestly  trust. 

The  advantages  of  one  general  hymn-book  are 
obvious — 

I.  Convenience  to  travellers.  2.  Cheapness. 
3.  Exclusion  of  undesirable  hymns.  4.  The  appear- 
ance of  unity,  with  hope  of  approximation  to  the 

Besides  this,  many  people  are  influenced  by  the 
desire  to  be  like  "  the  nations  around."  Other 
Churches  and  denominations  have  their  one  hymn- 
book,  why  not  we  ? 

Thirty  years  ago  there  was  a  good  deal  to  be 
said  for  convenience  and  cheapness,  for  that  was 
the  age  of  local  "  selections,"  sold  at  a  high  price, 
and  generally  hard  for  a  chance  visitor  to  procure. 
But  now  that  three  or  four  large  and  carefully  com- 
piled books  have  really  all  but  starved  out  the 
multitude  of  inferior  ones,  there  is  very  little 
difficulty  about  rinding  a  hymn  if  one  does  worship 


in  a  strange  church  ;  especially  now  that  our  people 
are  sufficiently  well-trained  in  the  ethics  of  worship, 
to  wish  to  see  a  stranger  supplied  with  a  book  and 
using  it. 

Again,  since  each  of  your  correspondent's  four 
typical  books  can  be  had  for  a  penny,  not  much 
need  be  said  about  the  expensiveness  of  a  variety 
of  hymn-books.  If  our  clergy  would  adopt  the 
practice  in  use  in  such  churches  as  Nantwich, 
where  the  clergy  mean  that  everybody  shall  sing, 
and  instead  of  giving  out  "  Hymn  300,"  give  out 
the  first  line,  afterwards  stating  the  number,  then 
even  strangers  with  books  of  their  own  would  (with 
few  exceptions)  be  able  to  find  the  hymn  the 
congregation  is  about  to  sing.1 

But  I  should  like  those  who  want  an  authorized 
hymn-book  to  ask  themselves  a  few  questions  as  to 
what  it  is  they  desire.  Authorized  by  whom  ?  By 
a  joint  Committee  of  both  Houses  of  Convocation 
say  some.  Well,  that  committee  could  draw  up  a 
book,  but  the  authorization  must  come  either  from 
the  State,  which  is  neither  possible  nor  desirable, 
and  which  would  provoke  tremendous  resistance  ; 
or  from  the  Bishops,  which  could  only  mean  that 
the  Bishop  of  each  diocese,  if  he  thought  fit,  could 
recommend  the  book  to  his  clergy  :  would  this 
avail  ?  Has  it  been  successful  in  the  one  diocese  in 
which  it  has  been  tried  with  every  possible  advan- 
tage, and  an  excellent  collection,  the  diocese  of 
Sarum  ?  Would  people  who  now  use  the  Hymnal 

1  Mr.  Ellerton  was  strongly  opposed  to  the  recent  practice 
of  giving  out  the  Scripture  text  prefixed  to  a  hymn,  instead  of 
the  first  line.— H.  H. 


Companion,  or  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  and  like 
the  book  they  use,  give  it  up  because  the  Bishop 
suggested  a  new  one  ?  It  needs  no  deep  knowledge 
of  human  nature — of  clerical  nature — choir  nature 
— church-going-ladies'  nature,  to  answer  such  a 

But  the  Americans  have  done  it  ?  Yes,  when 
the  American  Church  was  a  very  small  and 
homogeneous  body.  Now  they  have  enlarged  their 
book,  and  picked  out  all  our  best  tunes  from 
H.  A.  M.  and  elsewhere,  having  no  law  of  copy- 
right to  deter  them  ;  yet  still  I  doubt  whether 
their  own  very  dull  hymn-book  will  long  satisfy 
the  young  American  Church.  So  with  the  Presby- 
terian Churches,  the  Wesleyans,  Congregationalists, 
etc.  All  these  are  bodies  much  more  uniform  in 
views,  much  less  comprehensive  than  the  Church 
of  England.  We  are  so  large  a  body,  compounded 
of  so  many  elements,  that  we  must  have  more 
freedom  than  they.  Surely  they  are  ill  readers  of 
the  signs  of  the  times  who  wish  to  destroy  the  last 
remnant  of  elasticity  in  our  Church  Services  for  the 
sake  of  uniformity.  We  are  complaining  of  the 
want  of  adaptability  in  our  services ;  we  are  asking 
for  additional  offices,  for  greater  freedom  in  the 
selection  of  forms  of  prayer.  And  yet  this  is  the 
moment  that  people  choose  for  asking  us  to  put  a 
fresh  yoke  on  our  necks,  and  submit  to  be  restricted 
to  a  new  measure  of  centralization !  And  this 
while  our  hymnody  is  daily  growing,  and  we  are  all 
recognizing  the  need  of  all  the  freedom  we  can  get 
in  employing  its  treasures  for  the  various  uses  to 
which  our  great  task  calls  us. 


And  there  is  a  fallacy  which  I  must  notice  in 
the  argument  that  so  many  hymns  are  used  by  all 
congregations  in  common,  as  to  make  it  easy  to 
authorize  them  all.  People  forget  the  variations  of 
the  text,  and  the  adaptations  of  doctrinal  statements 
to  the  prevailing  colour  of  the  hymn-book.  The 
Dissenters  sing  Aquinas's  hymns,  but  not  -what 
Aquinas  himself  wrote.  Unitarians  sing  a  great 
many  Evangelical  hymns  ;  but  invocations  to  Christ 
are  omitted.  But  people  say,  Why  not  revert  to 
the  original  text  ?  I  reply,  Because  you  cannot. 
Those  who  use  the  Hymnal  Companion,  for  instance, 
cannot  sing  Faber's  hymns  as  Faber  wrote  them  ; 
but  Mr.  Bickersteth  has  made  a  very  good  and 
legitimate  selection  from  them.  People  who  talk 
loosely  about  the  evil  of  altering  hymns  are  for  the 
most  part  people  who  do  not  know  how  the  original 
text  reads. 

I  long  for  unity  in  worship  as  much  as  any  one ; 
but  I  do  not  think  unity  can  be  forced  on  us  from 
without.  The  . 


I  HAVE  been  asked  to  put  down  a  few  thoughts 
on  a  subject  which  is  worth  the  study  of  Church 
people,  especially  of  all  who  are  interested  in  the 
question  of  the  future  relations  of  the  English 
Church  with  the  religious  bodies  which  surround 

Mr.  Bayne,  himself  a  Nonconformist,  called 
attention  some  three  years  ago,  in  an  able  paper  in 
the  Contemporary  Review^  to  the  phenomenon  of  the 
widespread  existence  of  a  religious  sentiment  in 
England  which  is  wholly  inorganic — entirely  vague 
and  loose,  not  adhering  to  any  form  whatever  of 
doctrine,  government,  discipline,  or  method,  in 
worship  and  fellowship.  Such  a  state  of  things 
obviously  cannot  be  measured  by  any  of  the 
ordinary  standards  of  doctrine  or  of  discipline — it 
owns  none.  But  there  is  one  form  in  which  re- 
ligious sentiment  impresses  itself — and  that  of 
course  is  hymnody.  Moreover,  it  may  be  said  of 
nearly  every  religious  body  in  the  country,  that  it 
has  been  more  or  less  affected  by  the  Catholic 
revival  in  the  English  Church — so  far  at  least  as  to 
be  thrown  into  a  state  of  fermentation  and  con- 


troversy.  Still  more  deeply  have  the  Nonconform- 
ist bodies  been  leavened  by  the  Liberal  or  Free- 
thought  movement,  so  that  their  divergence  from 
their  old  standards  is  in  many  cases  avowed,  in 
many  more  not  the  less  real  for  being  unavovved. 

Now  if  we  want  to  study  and  to  gauge  this  state 
of  things,  we  have  a  convenient  test  ready  to  our 
hands  in  modern  Nonconformist  Hymnody.  We 
all  know  what  is  the  case  among  ourselves.  Our 
Hymnody  is  the  only  region  in  which  our  forms  of 
prayer  and  praise  are  elastic  enough  to  reflect  the 
changes  in  the  theology  of  the  Church,  or  rather  in 
the  grasp  which  the  Church  of  our  day  has  upon 
her  fixed  standards  of  faith. 

Thus,  early  in  the  century,  the  adhesion  of  the 
High  Churchmen  of  that  period  to  Metrical  Psalms 
represented  faithfully  their  prudent,  narrow,  Angli- 
can conservatism ;  the  Evangelical  hymn-books, 
almost  identical  with  those  of  Dissenters,  show  us 
that  spiritual  energy  and  life  was  almost  confined 
to  that  section  of  the  English  Church  which  was 
most  nearly  allied  to  Calvinistic  Nonconformity. 
Again,  the  rise  of  the  Catholic  movement  has  been 
signalized  by  those  distinct  developments  of  Church 
Hymnody.  At  first  it  was  patristic  and  scholarly ; 
that  was  the  age  of  translations  of  Ambrosian 
Hymns,  and  of  such  Gallican  ones  as  are  least 
Roman  in  character — of  Mant,  and  Chandler,  and 
Isaac  Williams.  Then  rose  the  idea  of  the  un- 
broken continuity  of  our  own  rites  with  the  Pre- 
Reformation  period  in  English — and  the  Hymnal 
Noted,  and  all  the  other  translations  of  the  Sarum 
Breviary  hymns,  embodied  this  idea.  We  were  to 



have  in  every  office  its  own  prescribed  hymn, 
unchangeable,  and  set  to  its  own  traditional  melody, 
however  severe  and  unlovely.  These  Purists 
passed  away.  The  younger  generation  of  Catholics 
began  to  acknowledge  the  beauty  and  goodness  of 
many  of  the  popular  Evangelical  hymns  ;  and 
meanwhile  such  leaders  of  the  secession  to  Rome 
as  Faber  and  Caswall  wrote  fresh  hymns  avowedly 
to  catch  people's  taste,  which  were  readily — almost 
too  greedily — picked  up  by  their  old  friends  in  the 
Church  they  had  deserted.  This  state  of  things  is 
well  represented  by  the  first  edition  of  H.  A.  M. 
(1861),  and  its  enormous  popularity  shows  'how 
well-timed  the  concession  was.  But  H.  A.  M. 
itself  called  into  being  a  school  of  English  hymn- 
writers  ;  and  its  second  form  has  shown  us  that  the 
English  Church,  while  ready  to  borrow  freely  good 
hymns  of  sound  theology  from  all  sources,  ancient, 
mediaeval,  modern,  foreign  and  English,  Catholic 
and  Protestant,  has  yet  abundant  spiritual  life  of 
its  own,  and  is  now  capable  to  a  large  extent  of 
meeting  from  within  its  own  resources  the  devotional 
aspirations  of  its  children.  Our  Dissenting  friends 
meanwhile  have  by  no  means  stood  still  ;  and  it  is 
important  to  notice  the  changes  in  the  aspect  of 
their  hymnody,  because  while  so  large  a  minority 
of  the  population  are  still  under  Nonconformist 
influence,  it  must  ever  be  of  the  deepest  interest  to 
English  theologians  to  inquire  how  they  are  taught 
to  worship  God  and  to  think  of  God. 

A  few  words  must  be  said  as  to  the  sources  of 
Nonconformist  hymnody.  We  all  know  it  began 
with  Dr.  Watts.  Till  his  time  the  meeting-houses 


and  the  churches  alike  sang  metrical  Psalms,  with 
of  course  a  few  exceptions,  which  I  need  not 
enumerate.  Watts,  Doddridge,  Browne,  Beddome, 
etc.,  form  the  first  school  of  Dissenting  hymnodists. 
Watts  was  fond  of  Latin  sacred  poetry,  and  I  often 
think  he  must  have  been  familiar  with  Santeiiil 
and  Coffin.  His  school  are  especially  the  singers 
of  the  Atonement.  His  Calvinism  is  of  a  very 
faint  and  mild  form.  His  theory  of  sacramental 
grace  is  a  good  deal  like  Antoine  Horneck — a  sort 
of  modified  "  Virtualism,"  by  no  means  so  pro- 
nounced as  Wesley's,  but  readily  lending  itself  to 
Anglican  theology  ;  hence  Doddridge's  "  My  God, 
and  is  Thy  table  spread,"  has  never  been  disused 
among  us,  though  we  have  revived  so  much  Catholic 
teaching  about  Holy  Communion.  Of  course  the 
level  of  poetry  in  this  school  is  wretchedly  low ; 
otherwise  doubtless  more  of  their  hymns  would 
have  been  revived,  for  its  theology,  ever  chiefly  by 
defect,  except  indeed  upon  the  one  most  important 
point — one  entire  misconception  of  the  Fatherhood 
of  God,  and  its  work  in  man's  redemption.  Yet 
another  point  I  would  notice.  Hymns  of  direct 
adoration  and  worship,  almost  wholly  wanting  in 
late  Nonconformist  hymnody,  are  here  conspicuous. 
In  the  last  New  Congregational  and  Baptist  books, 
where  hymns  of  adoration  are  separated  from  the 
rest,  and  classified  by  themselves,  it  will  be  found 
that  such  as  are  not  Primitive  Roman  or  Anglican 
are  almost  wholly  taken  from  the  school  of  Watts. 
This  school  is  the  parent  of  the  Congregational 
and  Baptist  hymn-books — with  an  exception  to  be 
presently  noticed.  Josiah  Conder,  the  great  Con- 


gregational  hymn-writer  of  the  first  half  of  this 
century,  who  wrote  the  Eucharistic  hymn,  "  Bread 
of  Heaven,  on  Thee  we  feed,"  compiled  the  present 
Congregational  Hymn-Book,  and  did  not  depart 
from  Watts's  traditional  theory ;  he  only  modified 
and  softened  it  down.  Modern  Congregationalism, 
however,  is  rapidly  dropping,  under  Broad  Church 
influence,  all  that  was  left  of  Calvinism  to  Watts, 
and  the  revision  of  the  Congregational  Hymn-Book 
is  a  most  curiously  eclectic  production.  Almost  any 
hymn  which  has  become  popular  among  us  is 
welcomed,  in  the  hope,  of  course,  of  rivalling  the 
hymnodic  movement  among  ourselves ;  and  ap- 
parently all  sense  of  incongruity  of  doctrine  is  lost, 
though  hymns  are  freely  mutilated  when  expressions 
too  plain-spoken  occur.  Thus  Faber's  "  Dear 
Angel,  ever  at  my  side,"  is  altered  to  apply  to  our 
Blessed  Lord,  apparently  without  a  notion  of  the 
wild  heresy  which  is  taught  by  such  a  use  of  it. 
Dr.  Allen  has  even  adopted  St.  Thomas  Aquinas's 
Penge  lingua,  and  that  with  scarcely  any  altera- 
tion, apparently  without  any  conception  of  that 
which  it  was  meant  to  set  forth. 

The  new  Baptist  Hymnal  has  only  just  reached 
me.  It  is  the  production  of  the  more  Liberal 
Baptists,  and  though  less  wildly  selected  than  the 
Congregational,  it  is,  so  far  as  I  have  had  time  to 
look  into  it,  open  to  the  same  remarks. 

The  second  great  school  in  historical  order — the 
first  by  far  in  importance — is  the  Wesleyan.  Much 
depends  on  our  understanding  its  history.  John 
Wesley  was  all  his  life  long  very  ready  to  take  up 
new  ideas,  and  his  will  largely  influenced  his  con- 


victions.  The  groundwork  of  his  theology  was  the 
decent,  formal,  narrow  Anglicanism  of  the  Restora- 
tion ;  but  he  was  never  thoroughly  trained  in 
theology,  though  an  eager  devourer  of  theological 
books.  Probably  his  mother's  influence  gave  a 
strong  prominence  to  the  emotional  in  his  religion, 
which  was  increased  by  his  acquaintance,  through 
Law,  with  seventeenth  century  Protestant  mysticism. 
Then  he  fell  very  readily  under  Moravian  influence, 
and  gradually  shaped  for  himself  his  especial 
theories  of  Conversion  and  Assurance.  All  this  was 
reflected  in  his  brother's  hymnody — for  Charles  was 
led  on  by  John  to  a  great  extent,  until  John  finally 
threw  off  his  family  Anglicanism  in  a  fit  of  self-will 
and  despondency  ;  but  this  Charles  never  approved, 
and  showed  on  his  death-bed  his  disapprobation. 

Wesleyans  of  the  present  day  are  often  disposed 
to  depreciate  the  hymns  which  rebuke  most  strongly 
their  departure  from  their  founder's  principles,  by 
drawing  a  line  at  some  imaginary  point  at  which 
he  changed  his  views.  But  every  hymn  in  the 
Wesleyan  book — I  may  say  every  hymn  in  the 
thirteen  volumes  of  their  works — was  written  sub- 
sequently to  the  two  dates  which  John  and  Charles 
Wesley  respectively  claimed  as  those  of  their 
conversion  ;  and  the  only  important  modification 
which  they  ever  made  in  the  theology  of  their 
hymns  was  in  the  striking  out  all  reference  to 
human  perfectibility  on  earth  ;  a  theory  which 
Wesley  at  one  time  had  adopted,  and  which  some 
of  his  followers,  especially  in  America,  have  taken 
up,  but  which  he  afterwards  emphatically  repudiated 
and  strongly  condemned. 


The  famous  little  book  of  Hymns  on  the  LorcPs 
Supper  is  chiefly  a  recast  in  verse  of  portions  of  a 
treatise  by  Dr.  Brevint,  a  French  Protestant,  but  a 
man  who  held  very  strongly  the  theory  of  a 
Memorial  Sacrifice,  coupled  with  what  has  since 
been  called  the  "  Virtual "  Presence  ;  and  thus  it 
accords  very  well  with  the  views  in  which  doubt- 
less the  Wesleys  had  been  trained  from  childhood. 
These  views  the  brothers  never  repudiated,  nor  is 
there  any  sign  of  their  having  modified  them.  In 
the  compilation  from  their  hymns  made  by  John 
Wesley,  which  till  last  year  was  the  standard 
Wesleyan  hymn-book  in  England,  he  inserted 
several  of  them,  and  doubtless  would  have  inserted 
more,  but  that  he  was  so  strongly  averse  to  his 
preachers  assuming  the  priestly  office ;  so  that  he 
leaves  out  most  of  those  hymns  which  absolutely 
imply  a  present  celebration. 

I  have  not  had  an  opportunity  as  yet  of  seeing 
the  present  Wesleyan  book,  just  published  ;  but  it 
has  not,  I  believe,  parted  with  any  of  the  Com- 
munion Hymns  which  Wesley  himself  inserted  in 
the  older  book.  Its  existence  is,  however,  a  sig- 
nificant token  that  the  Wesleyans,  ever  so  conserv- 
ative of  their  Founder's  views,  are,  like  all  other 
Nonconformist  bodies  now,  in  a  state  of  flux,  and 
likely  to  undergo  yet  further  changes. 

The  special  feature  of  real  Wesleyanism  was 
that  it  was  a  "  Revival."  And  it  has  been  the 
type  which  has  been  again  and  again  followed  in 
subsequent  attempts  made  by  other  religious  bodies 
to  influence  large  masses  of  men  through  their 
emotions  by  systematic  and  organized  efforts. 


A  "  Mission  "  in  an  English  parish  now,  though 
its  form  is  of  course  borrowed  from  Rome,  has 
certain  elements  in  it  which  are  undoubtedly  of 
Wesleyan  origin  ;  and  it  may  almost  be  said  that 
the  Roman  and  the  Wesleyan  type  prevail  pretty 
much  in  proportion  to  the  dogmatic  standard  of 
the  parish  priest,  or  of  the  Missioner  whom  he  has 
invited  to  conduct  the  Mission.  Outside  of  the 
English  Church  the  Wesleyan  type  in  England 
and  America  is  still  the  normal  one.  A  certain 
class  of  Wesleyan  hymns  have  therefore  of  late 
been  brought  into  very  prominent  use ;  and  these 
have,  so  to  speak,  created  a  whole  literature  of 
Revival  Hymns,  which  form  a  curious  index  to  the 
theology  of  large  masses  of  earnest  and  well-mean- 
ing people  among  us.  With  them  conversion  is 
everything — about  what  follows  they  have  really 
nothing  to  say.  Almost  inevitably,  therefore,  their 
hymnody  has  a  taint  of  Antinomian  teaching;  or 
perhaps  I  should  say  lends  itself  readily  to 
Antinomian  theories  of  Christian  sanctification. 
This  is  the  great  danger  before  so  much  of  that 
loose  and  inorganic  religious  sentiment  which  is 
perpetually  being  stirred  up  by  revival  preaching, 
and  the  so-called  "  Evangelistic "  services,  which 
are  so  universal  and  so  popular  now.  Another 
danger,  not  less  great  and  deadly,  is  visible  in  the 
fact  that  not  merely  does  all  Church  teaching,  all 
Sacramental  teaching,  absolutely  disappear,  but 
the  Sacraments  themselves  pass  out  of  sight ;  grace 
itself  is  utterly  misunderstood,  the  nature  of  our 
union  with  our  Lord,  the  whole  work  of  God  the 
Holy  Ghost  utterly  misconceived ;  not  only  is  the 


individual  everything,  but  the  consciousness  of  the 
individual  is  everything.  No  one  can  take  up  a 
modern  revival  hymn-book  without  seeing  what  I 
mean.  I  lately  saw  the  MS.  of  a  new  one  prepared 
by  professing  Church  people  for  the  use  of  a  con- 
gregation gathered  from  heathenism  under  a  Bishop 
of  our  own  Church,  and  ministered  to  by  an  Arch- 
deacon. In  this  book  all  Church  services  are 
entirely  ignored — even  Christmas  and  Easter,  the 
Sacraments,  are  not  once  mentioned,  the  work  of 
the  Holy  Spirit  is  reduced  to  making  people  certain 
that  they  are  the  objects  of  the  love  of  Christ; 
even  penitence  is  very  slightly  and  almost  apolo- 
getically dealt  with.  The  only  people  who  can 
gain  by  such  teaching  are  of  course  the  Plymouth 
Brethren  and  their  congeners ;  and  of  course 
Revivalism  is  largely  recruiting  their  ranks. 

The  one  definite  theological  standing-ground 
left  for  English  Dissent  is  the  Calvinistic.  The 
great  Calvinist  theory  which  saturated  Puritan 
England  and  Scotland,  which  slept  through  three- 
fourths  of  a  century,  till  it  blazed  out  afresh  in 
George  Whitfield  and  the  early  Evangelicals  of  our 
Church,  has  now  entirely  died  out  of  the  Church  of 
England,  and  from  nearly  all  the  existing  Dissent- 
ing bodies  save  one.  Among  the  Baptists  Calvinism 
retains  its  hold  mainly  through  the  wonderful 
energy  and  ability  of  one  man,  Mr.  Spurgeon. 
His  hymn-book,  Our  Hymn-Book,  is  the  confession 
of  faith  of  a  strong,  clear,  definite  Calvinism  ;  but 
a  Calvinism  adapted  to  modern  controversies,  and 
opposing  a  well-defined  system  of  belief  to  the 
vague  and  gelatinous  hesitancies  of  modern  Pro- 


testant  Nonconformity  ;  let  me  add,  too,  opposing 
to  our  system  a  system  more  logically  complete  in 
its  very  narrowness,  and  in  many  ways  skilfully 
adapted  to  the  hard,  practical,  self-asserting  temper 
of  the  English  middle  class.  How  long  will  it 
survive  him  is  a  different  question.  But  some 
form  of  Christian  Stoicism  will  doubtless  always 
be  a  factor  in  the  theology  of  the  northern  and 
western  nations. 

I  only  draw  one  moral  from  these  rough  notes. 
It  is  this.  The  study  of  Nonconformist  hymn- 
books  does  not  encourage  me  in  any  hopes  of  what 
is  sometimes  called  Home  Reunion.  A  solid  body 
may  absorb  a  fluid,  or  may  be  dissolved  in  a  fluid, 
but  there  is  no  other  way  of  uniting  them. 
Catholic  theology  is  solid — Protestant  theology  in 
England  at  last  is  becoming  more  and  more  fluid, 
not  to  say  gaseous.  Organic  union,  if  we  thought 
it  right,  seems  to  me  simply  impossible.  If  Non- 
conformists unite  with  us,  it  can  be  but  by  one 
way — by  individual  absorption,  by  conversion  to 
the  full  Catholic  faith. 




THE  following  series  of  articles  on  modern  Hymn- 
writers  was  written  in  the  autumn  of  1892,  at  the  re- 
quest of  Canon  Erskine  Clarke  for  the  Parish  Magazine. 
They  afterwards  re-appeared  in  the  Church  Monthly,  and 
it  is  by  the  kind  permission  of  Canon  Clarke  and  of  Mr. 
Frederick  Sherlock,  the  Editor  of  the  latter  periodical, 
that  they  are  inserted  here.  For  the  experienced  hymn- 
ologist  they  may  have  but  little  value,  as  they  are 
entirely  elementary  and  popular,  being  merely  designed 
to  interest  the  general  reader  in  those  sacred  poets  to 
whom  we  owe  some  of  our  most  favourite  hymns. 

The  portraits  which  were  engraved  for  the  above-named 
Magazines  are  also  reproduced  by  the  kind  permission 
of  the  above-named  Editors. 

The  references  throughout  have  been  verified,  and  in 
many  places  corrected,  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Julian's 
Dictionary  of  Hymnology. 


IT  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  almost  all  who 
are  attached  to  the  services  and  the  work  of  our 
Church  take  interest  in  her  hymns.  Not  that  by 
this  pronoun  I  mean  to  claim  for  the  English 
Church  more  than  is  her  due.  Very  many  of  our 
best-loved  hymns  have  been  adopted  into  our 
books  from  those  of  other  denominations.  Non- 
conformists were  before  Church  people  in  hymn- 
singing,  mainly  because  our  forefathers  stuck 
loyally  for  many  a  long  year  to  the  "  Old  Version  " 
or  "  New  Version "  of  the  Psalms.  These  were 
"  allowed "  by  Royal  authority ;  and  I  am  old 
enough  to  remember  when  it  was  scarcely  thought 
"  orthodox  "  to  sing  anything  else  in  church.  The 
fact  is,  Psalms  in  metre  are  a  relic  of  the  Reform- 
ation, and  of  that  particular  school  of  reformers 
of  which  John  Calvin  was  the  master  spirit,  and 
which  largely  coloured  the  thoughts  of  the  English 
Protestants  of  the  sixteenth  century.  Their  very 
reverence  for  the  letter  of  the  Bible  made  them 
think  it  hardly  excusable  to  use  in  worship  what 
they  regarded  as  uninspired  forms.  Men  might 
pray  extempore,  but  they  must  sing  Holy  Scripture. 
It  was  not  till  the  eighteenth  century  that  hymn- 


books  and  hymn-singing  in  worship  began  in 
England.  It  was  not  till  within  the  memory  of 
some  now  living  that  they  became  really  general 
in  the  Church  of  England.  And  now,  it  has  been 
calculated  by  Mr.  Julian,  the  compiler  of  the  great 
Dictionary  of  English  Hyninology,  which  has  been 
many  years  in  preparation,  that  there  were  some 
years  ago  no  fewer  than  seventeen  thousand  English 
hymns  in  use  somewhere.  Yet  out  of  these  the  really 
good  hymns  will  always  be  but  few.  Different 
experiments  have  been  tried  to  discover  which  of 
our  hymns  are  the  best  loved  and  the  most  fre- 
quently used.  In  giving  a  few  sketches  of  the 
writers  of  our  best-known  hymns,  I  cannot  of  course 
restrict  myself  to  writers  of  our  own  Church  ;  yet 
I  do  not  believe  that  there  is  one  in  my  brief  list 
whose  hymns  are  not  now  loved  and  welcomed 
among  all  our  congregations. 

The  first  two  names  on  my  list,  however,  are  the 
names  of  English  Bishops,  men  who  wrought  and 
suffered  in  defence  of  the  Church  of  their  baptism 
against  enemies  from  opposite  quarters.  The  first 
hymn  I  shall  mention  is  one  of  the  four  hymns 
other  than  Scriptural,  authorised  for  use,  as  distin- 
guished from  being  merely  permitted,  in  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer.  These  are  the  Te  Deum,  the 
Gloria  in  Excelsis,  the  Media  vita  ('  In  the  midst 
of  life  we  are  in  death,'  said  or  sung  in  the  Burial 
Service),  and  the  Veni  Creator.  The  first  three 
are  what  we  should  call  prose  hymns,  or  canticles  ; 
the  Veni  Creator  is,  in  the  Latin,  in  what  we 
call  "  long  metre,"  only  not  in  rhyme.  All  four 
hymns  are  from  the  Latin,  but  the  Gloria  in 

JOHN   COSIN  303 

Excelsis  and  part  of  the  Te  Deum  were  originally 
in  Greek. 

If  you  look  at  the  Ordination  Service  you  will 
see  there  are  two  versions  of  the  hymn  called 
Veni  Creator — one  in  common  metre,  another, 
much  shorter,  in  long  metre,  '  Come,  Holy  Ghost, 
our  souls  inspire,'  which  is  the  one  we  know  best, 
and  use  most  frequently.  This  was  put  into  our 
Prayer-book  in  the  year  1662,  and  its  writer,  or 
rather  translator,  was  John  Cosin,  at  that  time 
Bishop  of  Durham. 

John  Cosin  was  born  in  I5941  at  Norwich,  where 
his  father  was  in  business.  He  was  brought  up  at 
Caius  College,  Cambridge,  and  distinguished  him- 
self by  his  learning.  The  higher  clergy  of  the 
Church  of  England  in  the  time  of  James  I.  and 
Charles  I.  were  many  of  them  great  and  ripe 
scholars,  so  much  so  that  they  were  sometimes 
said  to  be  "  the  wonder  of  the  world  "  for  learning. 
Among  these  John  Cosin  took  a  high  place. 
When  the  Puritan  controversy  broke  out  he  was 
Archdeacon  of  the  East  Riding ;  Charles  I.  made 
him  Dean  of  Peterborough.  In  the  year  1627  he 
compiled  a  very  simple  and  beautiful  book  of 
prayers  for  his  Yorkshire  flock,  with  devotions  for 
the  hours  of  nine,  twelve,  and  three — such  as  were 
in  common  use  before  the  Reformation,  and  in 
a  reformed  shape  reprinted  by  order  of  both 
Henry  VIII.  and  Elizabeth.  But  this  innocent 
book  gave  great  offence  to  the  Puritans,  who  were 
never  tired  of  making  grim  jokes  about  Cozen's 
Cozening  Devotions,  as  they  called  it.  For  this 
i  ?iS96(H.H.). 


book  John  Cosin  translated  the  Veni  Creator,  not 
intending  it  to  be  sung  in  Church,  but  said  privately 
every  morning  at  nine  o'clock,  in  commemoration 
of  the  hour  when  God  the  Holy  Ghost  came  down 
upon  the  Church.  Poor  Cosin,  however,  suffered 
from  his  Puritan  foes.  When  the  monarchy  was 
suppressed  he  lost  all  his  preferments,  and  had 
to  live  abroad,  acting  as  chaplain  to  the  English 
members  of  Queen  Henrietta  Maria's  household  in 
Paris.  At  the  Restoration  he  came  back  again, 
was  made  first  Dean,  and  then  Bishop  of  Durham, 
and  died  in  1672,  at  the  age  of  seventy-eight.  He 
was  one  of  the  revisers  of  the  Prayer-book  in 
1661-2,  and  thus  it  came  to  pass  that  his  version 
of  the  Veni  Creator  was  inserted  in  the  Ordination 
Service — a  small  compensation  to  the  good  old  man 
for  the  cruel  attacks  to  which  he  had  been  subject. 

The  Veni  Creator  itself  dates  back  at  least  to 
the  ninth  century.  By  some  it  is  ascribed  to  the 
Emperor  Charlemagne,  which  is  scarcely  possible ; 
by  others  to  one  of  his  sons.  It  has  been  used  at 
ordinations  all  over  Europe  for  nearly  nine  hundred 
years.  Cosin's  version,  though  the  best  known,  is 
not  the  most  accurate,  and  is  slightly  abridged. 
The  older  one,  which  dates  back  to  Archbishop 
Cranmer's  time,  has  the  opposite  fault  of  being 
unnecessarily  lengthened.  There  is  a  good  version 
in  Hymns  A.  &  M.,  No.  347,  and  another  by  Bishop 
Bickersteth  in  the  Hymnal  Companion  (1890),  No. 
252,  besides  various  others.  But  none  of  these 
come  near  to  Cosin's  in  majestic  simplicity  of 

Far  better  known  even  than  the    Veni  Creator, 


known  wherever  the  English  tongue  is  spoken,  are 
the  Morning  and  Evening  hymns  of  Thomas  Ken — 
"  the  Morning  and  Evening  hymns,"  as  we  love  to 
call  them.  These  are  not  translations,  but  of  home 
growth  ;  and  they  keep  green  the  memory  of  one 

Bishop  Cosin. 

of  the  holiest  and  truest  sons  of  the  Church  of 
England.  Thomas  Ken  was  born  about  forty  years 
later  than  Cosin — probably  in  1637,  but  the  date 
is  uncertain — at  Berkhampstead,  in  Hertfordshire  ; 
but  his  home  was  in  London,  where  his  father  was 
an  attorney.  He  lost  his  mother  when  four  years 



old,  and  his  father  when  he  was  fourteen.  But  his 
excellent  eldest  sister,  Anne,  was  more  than  a  mother 
to  him,  and  his  boyhood,  after  he  lost  his  parents, 
was  spent  in  her  married  home,  under  the  care  of 
herself  and  her  good  husband,  Izaak  Walton,  well 
known  for  his  Compleat  Angler,  and  his  volume  of 
"  Lives  "  of  several  of  the  great  Churchmen  of  the 
time.  "  Meek  Walton,"  as  the  Christian  Year  well 
calls  him,  fished  in  the  Lea  and  sold  hosiery  in 
Fleet  Street  during  the  troubled  years  of  the 
conflict  between  King  and  Parliament,  and  his 
shop  became  a  kind  of  house  of  call  for  many  of 
the  good  Churchmen  of  the  day,  whose  acquaintance 
was  useful  in  after  life  to  the  boy  Ken.  In  due 
time  Ken  entered  at  Winchester,  where  his  name 
is  still  shown,  carved  schoolboy-fashion  in  the 
stonework  of  the  cloisters  of  the  venerable  College. 
From  Winchester  he  passed  to  Oxford — first  to 
Hart  Hall  (now  Hertford  College)  and  then  to 
New  College.  Oxford  was  at  that  time  under 
Puritan  rule  ;  but  though  Ken  always  did  justice 
to  the  religiousness  of  some  of  the  devouter 
Puritans,  he  never  fell  in  with  their  views.  By  the 
time  of  the  Restoration  he  was  already  well  known 
as  a  scholar,  and  yet  more  as  a  man  of  earnest 
piety.  For  two  happy,  peaceful  years  he  lived  as 
Rector  of  Little  Easton,  in  Essex,  and  chaplain  to 
Lord  Maynard  and  his  saintly  wife.  Then  honours 
which  he  did  not  seek  came  upon  him.  He  first 
became  Chaplain  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester, 
Prebendary  of  the  Cathedral,  and  Fellow  of  the 
College — his  own  old  school.  For  love  of  that 
school  he  published,  in  1674,  his  beautiful  Manual 


of  Prayers  for  the  use  of  Winchester  scholars.  It 
is  believed  that  he  had  already  written  the  "  Three 
Hymns,"  for  Morning,  Evening,  Midnight,  but  they 
were  not  added  to  the  Manual  till  1695.  They 
were  altered  (perhaps  more  than  once)  by  Ken 

Bishop  Ken. 

himself  before  his  death  ;  and  this  accounts  for  the 
different  readings  (such  as  "  All  praise  "  for  "Glory  ") 
which  appear  in  different  books.  For,  audaciously 
as  hymns  are  altered,  Ken's  have  been  generally 
respected,  though  of  course  much  shortened.  It 
need  scarcely  be  said  that  they  were  not  originally 


meant  for  singing  in  church,  but  to  be  learnt  and 
repeated  by  the  Winchester  boys  at  their  bedsides. 
Tallis's  well-known  tune,  which  we  sing  to  '  Glory 
to  Thee,'  is  much  older  than  Ken's  time.  Thomas 
Tallis  was  organist  to  Elizabeth's  Chapel  Royal, 
and  died  in  1585. 

There  is  no  space  to  tell  at  any  length  the  story 
of  Ken's  eventful  life.  It  was  his  lot  to  "  stand 
before  kings,"  and  to  prove  his  faithfulness  through 
evil  report  and  good  report.  He  was  chaplain  to 
Princess  Mary  at  the  Hague,  and  was  never  liked 
by  her  husband,  afterwards  William  III.,  whose 
anger  he  incurred  by  plain  speaking  about  the 
immorality  of  his  Court.  Charles  II.  he  treated  no 
less  faithfully ;  and  Charles  did  not  resent  his 
honesty,  but  made  him  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells 
in  1685.  He  did  not  long  enjoy  that  perilous 
honour.  He  was  one  of  the  famous  Seven  Bishops 
who  resisted  James  II.'s  Romanizing  schemes  in 
1688,  and  were  sent  to  the  Tower.  But  he  could 
not  take  the  oath  to  William  after  he  had  taken  it 
to  James,  and  in  April,  1691,  he  was  driven  from 
his  See.  He  was  thenceforward  homeless,  but  God 
raised  up  friends  for  him,  and  though  often  in  great 
poverty,  yet  his  needs  were  always  supplied.  He 
spent  much  of  his  time  at  Longleat,  a  splendid 
house  in  Wiltshire,  the  seat  of  Lord  Weymouth  ; 
and  here,  after  much  suffering,  he  closed  his  holy 
life,  March  19,  1711.  His  tomb,  with  its  iron 
crosier,  is  still  to  be  seen.  He  was  laid  to  rest  at 
sunrise  on  March  21,  carried  to  his  grave  by 
"twelve  poor  men." 


IT  is  curious  that  the  Puritan  tradition  of  singing 
metrical  psalms  and  nothing  else  in  public  worship 
should  have  been  first  broken  through  by  one  who 
was  himself  a  descendant,  both  in  blood  and  in 
spirit,  of  the  Puritans.  Various  hymn-writers  arose 
during  the  seventeenth  century,  some  of  whose 
hymns  have  been  lately  revived  among  us — as 
John  Mason,  Samuel  Grossman,  and,  far  greater 
than  both,  Richard  Baxter.  Others,  once  esteemed, 
are  now  forgotten.  George  Wither  had  even  ob- 
tained James  I.'s  permission  to  have  his  hymns 
printed  for  fifty  years  at  the  end  of  the  Prayer- 
book  ;  but  not  more  than  one  or  two  of  his  are 
now  found  in  any  hymn-books.  The  real  pioneer 
of  modern  English  hymn-singing  was  Isaac  Watts. 
This  good  man's  grandfather  was  a  sturdy  Inde- 
pendent of  the  Cromwellian  age.  Some  say  that 
he  had  been  one  of  Oliver's  troopers,  but  it  is 
known  that  he  sailed  with  Blake,  and  perished  at 
sea.  His  son  fell  upon  the  times  which  followed 
the  Restoration,  when  hard  measure  was  dealt  out 
to  Nonconformists.  "  He  suffered  for  Noncon- 
formity " — that  is,  he  was  more  than  once  im- 


prisoned.  In  1683  his  son  writes,  "  My  father 
persecuted  and  imprisoned  for  Nonconformity  six 
months.  After  that,  forced  to  leave  his  family  and 
live  privately  for  two  years." 

Isaac  was  the  eldest  of  nine  children.  The 
home  of  the  family  was  Southampton,  where  the 
father,  when  not  in  prison,  kept  a  private  school. 
It  is  pleasant  to  know  that  young  Isaac  was  taught 
by  the  Rector  of  All  Saints',  Southampton,  a  Mr. 
Pinhorne,  and  that  this  worthy  clergyman  took  a 
great  interest  in  the  clever  little  fellow,  and  exerted 
himself  to  raise  a  sum  of  money  for  his  maintenance 
at  one  of  the  Universities.  But  the  Church  just 
then  was  doubtless  looked  upon  as  a  "  hard  step- 
dame  "  by  the  son  of  an  often  imprisoned  Dissenter, 
and  to  none  but  Churchmen  could  Oxford  or 
Cambridge  open  its  portals.  We  may  regret,  but 
we  can  scarcely  wonder,  that  at  sixteen  young 
Isaac  "declared  his  resolution  to  cast  in  his  lot 
with  the  Dissenters."  He  was  sent  to  an  academy 
kept  by  a  Mr.  Rowe — oddly  enough,  among  his 
fellow-pupils  was  one  who  came  to  be  an  Irish 
archbishop — and  he  "joined  Mr.  Rowe's  Church," 
i.  e.  became  a  communicant  there,  two  years  later. 
He  was  only  three  years  at  the  academy — perhaps 
because  his  father  could  not  keep  him  there — and 
then  spent  two  years  at  home,  1694  to  1696. 
These  were  memorable  years  in  the  history  of 
English  hymn-singing.  We  do  not  know  what 
was  sung  at  the  Southampton  chapel — perhaps 
Sternhold's  psalms.  At  any  rate,  young  Watts 
complained  of  the  sad  doggerel  which  was  in  vogue. 
He  was  asked — or,  it  may  be,  challenged — by  his 


father,  who  was  one  of  the  deacons,  to  attempt 
something  better.  His  first  attempt  was  a  para- 
phrase of  Rev.  v., '  Behold  the  glories  of  the  Lamb  ; ' 
and  it  was  indeed  " something  better"  than  that 
congregation  had  yet  sung.  So  he  went  on,  and 

Isaac  Watts. 

hymn  after  hymn  followed.  In  1706  he  published 
a  small  volume  of  sacred  verse,  called  Horcz  Lyricce, 
and  one  year  afterwards  (July  1707)  a  volume  of 

Meanwhile,  after  being  two  years  at  Stoke  New- 
ington  as  a  private  tutor,  he  had  been  ordained  as 


the  Independent  minister  of  a  congregation  in 
Berry  Street  in  1702.  By  this  time  toleration  was 
established,  and  Dissenters  were  winning  their  way 
to  wealth  and  honour.  A  certain  Sir  Thomas 
Abney,  who  was  Lord  Mayor  in  1700,  now  occu- 
pied King  James's  old  hunting  lodge  at  Theobalds 
in  Hertfordshire.  He  opened  his  house  to  Watts, 
who  lived  under  the  Abneys'  hospitable  roof  for 
six-and-thirty  years,  in  feeble  health,  but  yet 
preaching  and  writing  diligently,  and  gradually 
growing  in  fame  and  honour.  His  personal  in- 
come never  exceeded,  it  is  said,  ioo/.  a-year,  not- 
withstanding the  great  popularity  of  his  works, 
but  a  third  of  this  was  spent  systematically  in 
charity.  His  wants  were  doubtless  well  supplied 
by  his  good  host,  and  after  Sir  Thomas's  death 
by  his  widow  and  daughters.  He  lived  to  see  his 
Logic  adopted  as  a  text-book  in  the  very  Univer- 
sity from  which  his  Nonconformity  had  once  ex- 
cluded him  ;  to  be  honoured  and  loved  by  Church- 
men like  Bishop  Wilson  of  Sodor  and  Man,  and 
to  receive  the  degree  of  D.D.  from  the  Universities 
of  Edinburgh  and  Aberdeen.  His  holy  and  useful 
life  came  to  a  peaceful  close  at  Lady  Abney's 
house  at  Stoke  Newington  at  the  age  of  seventy- 
four,  on  November  25,  1748.  His  last  resting-place 
is  in  the  memorable  graveyard  of  Bunhill  Fields, 
where  lies  John  Bunyan. 

Watts's  hymns  are  of  very  varying  merit.  But 
it  is  not  the  volume  of  Hymns  by  which  his 
influence  on  the  Church  is  so  marked,  as  that 
other  which  he  published  in  1719,  The  Psalms  of 
David  imitated  in  tJie  language  of  the  New  Testa- 


ment,  and  applied  to  the  Christian  State  and 
Worship.  The  right  of  Christians  to  adapt  the 
Psalter  thus  was  fiercely  contested  in  Watts's  own 
day  ;  and  no  doubt  his  "  adaptations  "  were  many 
of  them  forced  and  far-fetched  ;  but  the  principle 
has  been  long  established,  and  to  it  we  owe  many 
of  our  best  hymns,  notably  those  of  Henry  Lyte, 
Sir  Robert  Grant,  and  Sir  H.  W.  Baker.  Perhaps 
the  finest  of  Watts's  Psalms  are  '  Before  Jehovah's 
awful  throne '  (slightly  altered  by  John  Wesley), 
'  O  God,  our  help  in  ages  past,'  and  '  Jesus  shall 
reign  where'er  the  sun.'  Among  the  hymns, 
*  When  I  survey  the  wondrous  Cross,'  stands  higher, 
I  think,  than  any  other  of  Watts's.  Next  to  it 
comes  the  beautiful  ( There  is  a  land  of  pure  de- 
light' (said,  strangely  enough,  to  have  been  sug- 
gested by  the  view  across  Southampton  Water). 
Watts  is  remarkable  in  another  way,  as  the  first 
writer  of  children's  hymns.  But  his  "  Divine  and 
Moral  Songs  "  are  now  being  fast  forgotten.  Their 
theology  is  harsh  and  narrow,  and  their  versification 
dull  and  not  attractive  to  children. 

The  popularity  of  Watts's  hymns  as  a  whole  was 
not  only  maintained,  but  increased  till  nearly  the 
middle  of  the  present  century ;  and  even  now,  not 
the  Congregational  hymn-book  alone,  but  countless 
other  collections,  are  largely  indebted  to  him.  He 
has  had  many  imitators — few  of  them  who  copied 
his  excellences,  many  his  defects.  If  the  ancient 
hymnists  may  be  called  singers  of  the  Incarnation, 
the  Wesleyans  of  the  spiritual  life,  and  modern 
Church  poets  of  the  Kingdom  of  God,  then  Watts 
and  his  school  may  be  classified  as  especially 


singers  of  the  Atonement.  '  The  glories  of  the 
Lamb '  are  the  theme  not  only  of  his  earliest 
hymn,  but  of  hundreds  of  those  which  follow.  It 
is  impossible  to  enumerate  all  the  writers  of  this 
school,  which  in  later  times  may  be  considered  as 

Philip  Doddridge. 

continued  by  James  Montgomery,  and  Thomas 
Kelly,  who  has  been  called  a  "  fervid  Irish  Watts." 
Philip  Doddridge,  Watts' s  closest  follower  and 
personal  friend,  was  born  June  26,  1702.  Like 
Watts,  he  was  offered  the  means  of  education  at 
either  University,  and,  like  Watts,  he  declined  the 


offer  on  religious  grounds.  He  became  at  first 
an  Independent,  but  afterwards  a  Presbyterian 
minister,  and  after  some  vicissitudes  of  fortune  he 
settled  at  Northampton,  where  he  had  both  a  chapel 
and  also  an  academy  for  the  training  of  Dissenting 
ministers.  His  hymns  were  chiefly  written  to  be 
sung  after  his  sermons.  None  of  them  were  col- 
lected till  after  his  death,  on  October  26, 1751.  His 
best-known  hymns  are  '  Hark,  the  glad  sound !  the 
Saviour  comes/  '  High  let  us  swell  our  tuneful 
notes/  and  '  My  God,  and  is  Thy  table  spread  ? ' 
It  has  been  truly  said  that  none  of  them  are  so 
good  as  Watts's  best,  and  none  so  bad  as  Watts's 
worst.  He  had  better  taste  upon  the  whole  than 
Watts,  and  less  fervour.  His  Rise  and  Progress 
of  Religion  in  the  Soul  occupied  in  the  estimation 
of  the  devout  Evangelicals  of  the  early  part  of 
the  century  very  much  the  place  which  Goulburn's 
Thoughts  on  Personal  Religion  has  done  among 
devout  Anglicans  of  our  own  time.  But  it  was 
never  in  true  harmony  with  Church  doctrine,  and 
the  Dissenters  as  well  as  the  Church  have  in  great 
measure  lost  touch  with  it.  His  hold  of  funda- 
mental doctrine  was  never  very  firm,  and  many  of 
his  pupils  and  followers  drifted  into  Unitarianism. 


ON  October  14,  1735,  a  little  party  embarked  at 
Gravesend  for  the  new  colony  of  Georgia.  The 
head  and  founder  of  the  colony  was  Mr.  (afterwards 
General)  Oglethorpe,  an  excellent  man  and  devout 
Churchman,  who  earnestly  desired  to  supply  the 
new  colony  from  the  first  with  Church  privileges. 
The  clergyman  selected  and  sent  out  by  S.  P.  G. 
was  a  Fellow  of  Lincoln  College,  Oxford,  already 
known  as  the  master-spirit  of  a  new  religious 
movement  in  his  University,  now  known  to  all 
time  as  John  Wesley.  With  him,  acting  as  Mr. 
Oglethorpe's  private  secretary,  was  his  younger 
brother,  Charles,  a  Westminster  student  of  Christ 
Church,  Oxford,  and  an  ardent  sympathizer  with 
his  brother  John.  John  was  at  this  time  thirty- 
two  years  old,  having  been  born  June  17,  1703. 
Charles  was  five  years  younger,  and  not  yet  in 
Holy  Orders. 

The  voyage  then  begun  is  memorable,  not  only 
for  its  influence  on  the  career  of  the  great  founder 
of  Methodism,  and  so  upon  the  whole  subsequent 
history  of  religion  in  England  and  America,  but 
in  particular  as  a  turning-point  in  the  history  of 
English  hymnody,  which  is  our  present  subject. 


For  on  board  the  same  vessel  was  a  party  of 
twenty-six  Germans,  members  of  the  community 
called  the  "  United  Brethren,"  or  Moravians,  with 
whom  the  Wesleys  and  their  two  companions, 
Ingham  and  Delamotte,  soon  became  friendly. 
John  Wesley's  impressible  nature  was  especially 
touched  by  the  bright  faith  and  humble,  cheerful 
piety  of  these  good  people,  who  sang  their  beloved 
Lutheran  hymns  day  by  day  through  the  most 
tempestuous  weather.  It  was  the  first  time  that 
Anglicans  and  Lutherans,  singers  of  psalms  and 
singers  of  hymns,  had  worshipped  and  travelled 
together  in  familiar  intercourse  ;  and  one  of  the 
results  of  their  fellowship  undoubtedly  was  the 
large  extent  to  which  hymn-singing  entered  into 
the  devotions  of  the  future  Methodist  Societies. 

Neither  of  the  brothers  stayed  long  in  America. 
Charles  returned  to  England  in  1736,  John  two 
years  later.  Then  it  was  that  their  great  systematic 
Evangelistic  work  was  brought  into  full  action, 
and  the  "  Societies  "  were  rapidly  formed  all  over 
the  country.  Simultaneously  with  this  began  the 
long  series  of  their  hymn-books.  The  earliest 
was  a  Collection  of  Psalms  and  Hymns  by  John 
Wesley,  in  1738,  largely  taken  from  Watts  and 
George  Herbert,  but  also  containing  some  trans- 
lations of  German  hymns  by  Wesley  himself.  In 
1739  appeared  Hymns  and  Sacred  Poems,  which 
were  enlarged  in  1740  and  1742,  and  supplemented 
by  two  additional  volumes  in  1749.  It  was  in  this 
book  that  Charles  Wesley's  great  powers  as  a 
hymn-writer  first  showed  themselves.  The  1739 
edition  contains  his  five  great  festival  hymns, 


beginning  with  that  for  Christmas,  '  Hark  how  all 
the  welkin  rings ! '  afterwards  unadvisedly  altered 
by  some  one  else  to  '  Hark,  the  herald  angels  sing ! ' 
and  followed  by  those  for  Epiphany,  Easter,  and 
Ascension,  with  a  less-known  and  inferior  one  for 
Whit-sunday.  The  next  year  appeared  '  Christ, 
Whose  glory  fills  the  skies  ; '  '  Jesu,  lover  of  my 
soul ; '  *  Depth  of  mercy  ; '  with  others  less  known 
but  not  less  striking.  For  a  time  the  two  brothers 
published  their  verse  jointly,  and  it  is  not  always 
easy  to  distinguish  their  work  ;  but  all  the  trans- 
lations of  German  hymns  are  believed  to  be  by 
John  ;  and  those  mentioned  above,  with  many 
others,  have  the  unmistakable  character  of  Charles's 
acknowledged  hymns.  In  1745  appeared  the 
remarkable  volume  of  Hymns  on  the  Lord's 
Supper,  with  the  names  of  both  brothers  on  the 
title-page;  but  the  hymns  are  said  by  Mr.  Miller 
to  be  all  Charles's.  The  magnificent  '  Ye  servants 
of  God,  your  Master  proclaim  '  (unhappily  excluded 
from  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern},  was  written  in 
1774,  among  Hymns  for  a  time  of  trouble  during 
the  savage  persecution  of  the  Methodists.  The 
Hymns  of  Intercession  for  all  Mankind,  published 
in  1758,  contains  that  which  is  perhaps  the  most 
widely  known,  though  not  the  best  of  the  Wesleyan 
hymns — '  Lo  !  He  comes,  with  clouds  descending.' 
But  this  is  a  recast  by  Charles  Wesley  of  one 
published  by  John  Cennick,  one  of  the  early 
preachers,  in  a  Dublin  hymn-book,  some  years 
earlier.  Cennick's  hymn  is  poor  stuff  compared 
to  that  into  which  Wesley  recast  it,  putting  into  it 
at  once  fire  and  tunefulness. 


The  separate  hymn-books  of  the  Wesleys  are 
nearly  forty  in  number,  varying  from  four  or  five 
special  hymns,  to  the  Hymns  and  Select  Passages 
of  Scripture,  which  number  2145.  Besides  this, 
Charles  Wesley  left  behind  him  a  version  of  the 
Psalms,  nearly  complete,  and  many  MS.  hymns. 
The  edition  published  by  the  Conference  in  1869 
comprises  thirteen  large  volumes.  No  English 
hymn-writer  approaches  him  in  copiousness.  Of 
course,  in  so  vast  a  collection  there  must  be  many 
repetitions,  and  many  pieces  that  we  no  longer 
remember  or  care  for ;  but  yet  it  is  only  doing 
justice  to  these  famous  men  to  say  that  the  depth 
of  spirituality,  the  reverent  tone,  and  the  clear 
grasp  of  truth  which  as  a  whole  the  hymns  exhibit 
is  truly  marvellous. 

As  time  went  on,  the  hymn-writing  passed 
almost  entirely  from  the  hands  of  John  Wesley 
into  those  of  the  younger  brother.  In  the  selection 
which  the  brothers  left  behind  them  for  use 
throughout  the  Wesleyan  congregations,  Mr.  Kirk 
estimates  that  out  of  771  hymns  by  various  authors 
626  are  by  Charles,  and  only  33  by  John  Wesley. 
The  best  of  these  last  are  his  translations  from  the 
German,  the  two  first  being,  '  Lo  !  God  is  here,  let 
us  adore/  and  '  Thou  hidden  love  of  God,'  both  by 
the  saintly  mystic,  Gerhard  Tersteegen. 

Charles  Wesley,  after  his  marriage  in  1749,  gave 
up,  to  a  great  extent,  itinerant  preaching,  and 
ministered  chiefly  in  Bristol  and  in  London.  The 
brothers  were  closely  united  in  affection  to  the 
last ;  but  as  time  went  on,  Charles  shrunk  from 
some  of  his  brother's  ecclesiastical  irregularities, 


and  clung  more  closely  than  ever  to  the  Church  of 
England.  He  died  on  March  29,  1788,  and  it  is 
said  that  by  his  own  request  the  pall  was  borne  at 
his  funeral,  at  St.  Pancras  Church,  by  six  clergy- 
men. John  Wesley  lived  till  1791. 

As  might  be  expected,  Wesleyan  hymn-writing 
was  by  no  means  confined  to  the  two  brothers. 
Many  fine  hymns  were  written  by  their  fellow- 
labourers  and  sympathizers.  Thus,  'All  hail  the 
power  of  Jesus'  Name/  is  by  Edward  Perronet ; 
'  The  God  of  Abraham  praise,'  by  Thomas  Olivers  ; 
'  Hail,  Thou  once  despised  Jesus,'  by  Henry  Bake- 
well  ;  '  Children  of  the  Heavenly  King,'  by  John 
Cennick  ;  '  Sweet  the  moments,  rich  in  blessing,'  is 
a  recast  from  James  Allen,  by  the  Hon.  Walter 
Shirley.  Each  of  these  was  connected  more  or 
less  with  the  Wesleys,  though  Allen  was  a  follower 
of  Ingham,  who  had  seceded  from  them,  and 
Shirley  was  the  leading  spirit  of  the  Countess  of 
Huntingdon's  "  Connection,"  which  was  opposed 
to  Wesley. 

Many  of  these  good  men,  it  must  be  owned, 
were  bitter  controversialists,  and  the  Calvinist 
controversy,  as  time  went  on,  divided  those  who  in 
all  essential  matters  were  of  one  heart  and  one 
soul.  But  the  hymn  which  of  all  English  hymns  is 
perhaps  best  known  and  loved,  which  is  sung  in 
all  languages,  which  has  been  faltered  by  thousands 
of  dying  lips,  which  is  for  almost  every  one  con- 
nected with  some  dear  memory,  came  from  a  pen 
which  was  never  weary  of  pouring  contempt  and 
scorn  upon  the  Wesleys  and  all  that  they  taught. 
That  Bishop  Bonner  should  have  written  the 


Homily  on  Charity  is  scarcely  more  wonderful  than 
that  *  Rock  of  Ages '  should  have  been  the  work 
of  Augustus  Montague  Toplady. 

Yet,  happily,  Toplady's  libels  on  the  Wesleys 
have  been  long  forgotten,  and  we  need  only  think 
of  him  as  a  self-denying,  warm-hearted  Christian 
and  a  zealous  evangelist.  He  was  the  son  of  an 
officer  who  was  killed  while  his  child  was  a  baby. 
From  his  Irish  mother  he  inherited  his  warmth  of 
temperament,  and  perhaps  his  pugnacity.  Born 
in  1740,  and  first  seriously  impressed  at  fifteen,  he 
became  in  his  eighteenth  year  an  earnest  Christian, 
and  an  extreme,  uncompromising  Calvinist.  In 
1762  he  was  ordained,  and  after  being  for  a  short 
time  at  Blagdon,  in  the  Mendips,  the  scene  of 
Hannah  More's  religious  work  at  a  later  date,  he 
became  in  1768  Vicar  of  Broad  Hembury,  near 
Exeter.  But  already  the  seeds  of  consumption 
were  in  his  feeble  frame,  and  he  resigned  his 
benefice  and  went  to  London  to  die.  Yet  he 
made  a  gallant  fight  against  death,  writing  and 
preaching  almost  to  the  last.  On  his  arrival  in 
London  he  became  editor  of  the  Gospel  Magazine^ 
the  only  religious  periodical  in  England,  which,  after 
a  hundred  and  fifteen  years,  still  survives  under  its 
old  name.  In  that  magazine  for  March,  1776,  he 
inserted  '  Rock  of  Ages,  cleft  for  me,'  with  the  title 
(itself  a  glance  at  Wesleyan  notions  of  perfecti- 
bility), '  A  Living  and  Dying  Prayer  for  the  Holiest 
Believer  in  the  World.'  This  great  hymn,  by  a 
strange  irony  of  fate,  has  been  attributed  to  Charles 
Wesley,  just  as  Wesley's  '  Christ,  whose  glory  fills 
the  skies,'  has  on  the  other  hand  been  printed 



among  Toplady's  works.  Indeed,  either  hymn 
might  have  been  written  by  either  man.  Toplady 
has  written  many  other  hymns,  among  others  a 
beautiful  evening  hymn  from  which  a  selection, 
'  Inspirer  and  Hearer  of  prayer,'  is  dear  to  many 
who  use  Bishop  Bickersteth's  Hymnal  Companion. 
Almost  simultaneously  with  'Rock  of  Ages/  he 
wrote  and  gave  to  Lady  Huntingdon  another 
which,  barring  one  or  two  blemishes,  I  venture  to 
think  scarcely  surpassed  as  a  dying  man's  last 
utterance  by  '  Abide  with  me '  itself — the  wonderful 
and  heavenly-minded  *  When  languor  and  disease 
invade.'  The  light  of  God  must  have  been  already 
upon  the  face  of  one  who  could  thus  write.  He 
died  in  1778.  Charles  Wesley  and  he  both  rest 
under  the  roar  and  dust  of  the  London  streets ; 
but  both  are  together  now  "where  beyond  these 
voices  there  is  peace." 


THE  last  quarter  of  the  eighteenth  century 
brought  a  new  and  powerful  tributary  to  the  ever- 
broadening  stream  of  English  hymnody — a  tribu- 
tary remarkable  in  several  ways.  It  was  the 
unaided  work  of  two  members  of  the  Church  of 
England,  a  clergyman  and  a  layman,  living  in  a 
small  country  town,  unconnected  with  either  the 
Wesleyan  or  the  rival  Calvinist  organization ;  and 
it  brought  to  the  work  of  hymn-writing  the  cultiva- 
tion and  taste  of  an  educated  man  of  letters  on  the 
one  hand,  and  the  spiritual  fervour  on  the  other  of 
a  man  whose  religious  history  was  very  remarkable, 
and  whose  character  was  singularly  powerful.  Its 
great  success,  therefore,  is  not  wonderful.  There 
is  no  other  book  of  hymns,  the  work  of  two  men 
only,  from  which  so  large  a  proportion  of  material 
has  passed  into  the  Church's  permanent  store  of 
sacred  song.  In  the  Hundred  Best  Hymns  of 
the  Religious  Tract  Society,  the  number  selected 
from  the  347  Olney  Hymns  is  exactly  the  same 
as  that  from  the  thousands  of  hymns  of  the 
two  Wesleys  and  the  750  psalms  and  hymns  of 
Isaac  Watts. 



Each  of  the  two  writers,  as  I  have  hinted,  brought 
his  own  special  qualifications  to  his  task.  William 
Cowper's  bright,  pure,  and  genial  life  was  over- 
clouded by  the  heaviest  of  all  trials.  He  was  born 
November  26,  1731,  at  the  now-demolished  par- 
sonage of  Berkhamsted,  where  his  father,  a  son  of 
the  famous  judge,  Spencer  Cowper,  was  rector. 
At  six  years  old  he  lost  his  mother.  My  readers 
are  all  familiar  with  his  infinitely  pathetic  lines  on 
her  picture.  He  was  educated  at  Westminster, 
which  he  left  at  eighteen  to  live  with  an  uncle,  and 
read  for  the  bar.  In  1748  he  entered  the  Middle 
Temple,  and  was  called  six  years  later.  Till  1763 
he  lived  the  usual  life  of  a  literary  young  Templar, 
not  troubling  himself  much  about  briefs,  but 
writing,  like  Pendennis,  for  the  magazines,  and 
making  love  to  his  beautiful  cousin  Theodora. 
But  in  that  year  came  the  crisis  'of  his  life.  He 
had  been  promised  a  clerkship  in  the  House  of 
Lords,  which  would  have  placed  him  in  easy  cir- 
cumstances for  life.  But  the  right  of  appointment 
was  disputed,  and  Cowper  was  told  he  would  have 
to  contest  it.  The  shock  unnerved  him,  and 
brought  on  an  attack  of  insanity.  All  hope  of 
his  marriage  was  over ;  he  found  himself  poor 
for  life,  and  in  despair  he  attempted  suicide.  In 
December  1763  he  was  placed  in  a  private  asylum, 
kept  by  an  excellent  man,  a  Doctor  Cotton,  from 
whence  he  emerged  temporarily  restored  to  reason 
and  with  a  heart  subdued  and  surrendered  to  God. 
He  became  a  boarder  in  the  family  of  a  Mr.  Unwin, 
at  Huntingdon,  and  on  his  death  removed  to 
Olney,  in  Buckinghamshire,  to  be  tended  and 


watched  over  for  thirty  years  by  his  widow,  Mary 
Unwin.  At  Olney  he  fell  in  with  the  singular  man 
who  held  the  curacy  of  the  parish,  John  Newton, 
and  the  two  became  very  intimate  friends. 

John  Newton's  early  life  might  form  the  ground- 
work of  a  story  by  Defoe,  but  that  it  transcends 
all  fiction.  He  was  born  in  London  in  1725.  His 
mother  was  a  pious  Dissenter,  his  father  a  sea- 
captain,  a  stern,  silent  man,  who  had  been  educated 
in  a  Jesuit  college  in  Spain.  After  only  two  years' 
schooling,  the  captain  took  his  boy  at  eleven  years 
of  age  on  board  his  ship,  and  at  eighteen  John 
Newton  was  seized  by  a  press-gang,  and  sent  on 
board  a  man-of-war  at  the  Nore.  His  father  was 
able  to  make  interest,  and  he  was  made  a  midship- 
man. But  he  had  now  become  utterly  reckless, 
attempted  to  desert,  and  was  brought  back,  and 
once  more  sent  before  the  mast.  At  Madeira  he 
managed  to  get  himself  exchanged  into  a  merchant 
vessel,  landed  at  Sierra  Leone,  and  took  service 
with  a  planter,  who  treated  him  with  savage  cruelty. 
In  1747  he  contrived  to  escape,  and,  after  strange 
vicissitudes,  became  first  the  mate,  and  then  the 
captain  of  a  slave  ship.  Hitherto  he  had  lived  a 
life  of  profaneness  and  dissipation,  he  had  lost  all 
faith  and  all  hope  ;  but  one  good  influence  only 
remained — his  boy-love  for  his  cousin,  Mary 
Catlett.  He  had  first  met  her  in  Kent  when  he 
was  eighteen  arid  she  fourteen,  and  through  all  the 
terrible  years  which  followed  his  heart  was  true  to 
her,  and  in  his  worst  outbursts  of  vice  he  was  ever 
"  faithful  to  his  future  wife."  In  1748,  on  a  voyage 
home  from  the  Brazilian  coast,  he  was  awakened 


to  a  sense  of  sin  by  reading  the  Imitation  of  Christ, 
and  his  impressions  were  deepened  by  a  provi- 
dential deliverance  from  foundering  at  sea  almost 
immediately  afterwards.  At  last,  in  1750,  he  was 
married  to  his  early  and  only  love.  For  six  years 
longer  he  followed  his  profession,  the  long  hours  of 
the  voyages  giving  him  ample  time  to  study  the 
Bible  and  the  classics,  and  he  began  to  think 
seriously  of  giving  up  the  sea  and  seeking  ordina- 
tion. But  Georgian  Bishops  were — perhaps  par- 
donably— shy  of  a  man  with  such  strange  antece- 
dents. From  Archbishop  Gilbert  he  received  "  the 
softest  refusal  imaginable."  He  was  tempted  to 
become  a  dissenting  minister,  but  his  Mary,  always 
his  good  angel,  kept  him  steadfast  to  the  Church. 
At  last  Lord  Dartmouth  (Cowper's  "  one  who 
wears  a  coronet  and  prays  "),  in  whose  gift  was  the 
living  of  Olney,  made  the  absentee  Rector  keep  a 
curate,  and  persuaded  Bishop  Green  of  Lincoln  to 
ordain  John  Newton  and  license  him  to  Olney. 
The  strange  pair,  the  rough  and  homely  sailor  and 
the  gentle,  heart-broken  Templar,  settled  down 
together  to  work  as  clergyman  and  lay  helper  in 
the  long-neglected  town.  They  worked  hard  and 
earnestly — too  hard,  probably,  for  Cowper's  brain 
and  nerves  ;  and  one  fruit  of  their  work  was  the 
hymns,  which,  from  time  to  time,  were  written  as 
occasion  served.  Thus  Cowper  wrote  'Jesus, 
where'er  Thy  people  meet/  for  the  opening  of 
what  we  should  now  call  a  Mission  Room.  Other 
hymns  were  written  by  Newton  for  his  annual 
sermon  to  young  people  on  New-year's  Day.  At 
last  they  determined  to  collect  and  print  their 


hymns,  arranging  them  in  three  books,  the  first  on 
select  passages  of  Holy  Scripture,  the  second 
miscellaneous  and  occasional,  the  third  on  the 
spiritual  life.  The  progress  of  the  work  was  inter- 
rupted by  a  second  attack  of  Cowper's  insanity  in 
1773.  The  last  hymn  he  wrote  was  the  wonderful 
*  God  moves  in  a  mysterious  way,'  composed 
during  a  country  walk  just  as  he  felt  his  brain 
giving  way,  and  the  "  clouds "  he  "  so  much 
dreaded "  returning  over  his  spirit.  For  three 
years  he  kept  silence,  but  he  .  recovered  his 
reason  at  length,  and  his  charming  poems  were 
written  and  published  at  intervals  during  the  rest 
of  his  life,  which  was  cheered  by  the  constant 
attentions  of  Mrs.  Unwin,  and  by  the  pleasant 
society  of  friends  he  had  made  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. His  cousin,  Lady  Hesketh,  Theodora's 
sister,  sought  him  out,  and  though  his  lost  love 
never  wrote  to  him,  yet  the  two  combined  in  many 
ways  to  make  his  declining  years  easier.  He 
never,  however,  wrote  a  hymn  or  any  devotional 
verse  again,  and  after  a  third  attack  of  insanity  in 
1787,  never  spoke  on  religious  subjects.  He  died 
April  25,  1800,  still  under  the  delusion,  shadowed 
forth  in  his  last  poem,  that  he  was  a  "  Castaway." 

The  Olney  Hymns  were  published  in  1779. 
Those  written  by  Cowper  are  marked  by  the  initial 
C.  They  are,  as  might  be  expected,  more  tuneful 
and  more  tender  than  Newton's.  '  Oh  for  a  closer 
walk  with  God  ! '  '  Hark,  my  soul !  it  is  the  Lord,' 
'  There  is  a  fountain  filled  with  Blood,' '  Heal  us, 
Emmanuel,'  (  God  moves  in  a  mysterious  way/  are 
among  the  best  known  of  his ;  and  each  one  has 


its  own  spiritual  beauty  and  power  to  waken  the 
echoes  of  the  heart.  John  Newton's  have  a  strength 
and  vitality  of  their  own  ;  his  most  popular  is  per- 
haps the  lovely  '  How  sweet  the  Name  of  Jesus 
sounds ! '  a  reminiscence,  but  by  no  means,  as  it 
has  been  called,  a  version,  of  St.  Bernard's  famous 
rhythm.  Next  to  this  is  the  fine  hymn  founded  on 
Psalm  Ixxxvii.,  'Glorious  things  of  thee  are 
spoken.'  Several  others  will  occur  to  my  readers, 
probably  as  being  heard  at  home  rather  than  sung 
in  church. 

Newton  and  Cowper  saw  little  of  one  another 
after  the  hymns  were  printed.  In  1779  John 
Thornton,  the  large-hearted  philanthropist,  father 
of  a  noble  succession  of  generous,  religious  men, 
who  had  allowed  John  Newton  ioo/.  a-year  for 
chanties  during  his  tenure  of  the  Olney  curacy, 
presented  him  to  a  city  living,  St.  Mary  Woolnoth, 
the  twin  towers  of  which  are  so  conspicuous  at  the 
entrance  of  Lombard  Street.  Here  he  preached 
and  worked  till  the  close  of  his  life.  He  published 
many  books,  but  was  most  of  all  employed  as  a 
spiritual  director,  and  had  a  great  influence  in 
giving  to  the  early  Evangelical  school  its  robust 
and  practical  piety.  In  1790  his  beloved  "  Mary  " 
was  taken  from  him  ;  but,  broken-hearted  though 
he  was,  he  worked  on  cheerfully  and  bravely  till 
he  joined  her  in  1807,  seven  years  after  his  former 
colleague  had  passed  through  the  clouds  for  ever. 


THROUGHOUT  the  closing  years  of  the  last 
century,  and  for  the  first  ten  years  of  the  nine- 
teenth, the  many  hymns  which  were  written, 
whether  by  Churchmen  or  Nonconformists,  were 
entirely  disconnected  with  the  formularies  of  the 
Church  of  England.  Even  in  the  Olney  hymns 
none  of  the  great  festivals — not  even  Christmas 
and  Easter — were  provided  for ;  a  few  hymns 
by  Wesley  and  Doddridge,  with  Nahum  Tate's 
paraphrases,  appended  to  the  New  Version  of 
Psalms,  were  all  that  Churchmen  could  find  to 
sing  in  connection  with  the  most  jubilant  services 
of  the  Christian  year.  But  in  the  month  of 
October  iSn  there  appeared  the  first  four  of  a 
series  of  hymns,  intended  to  supply  this  defect, 
the  first  instalment  of  a  small  but  very  remarkable 
contribution  to  hymnody,  based  avowedly  on  the 
lines  of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer.  These 
hymns  were  sent  to  a  magazine  called  the  Christian 
Observer,  at  that  time  edited  by  Zachary  Macaulay, 
the  father  of  Lord  Macaulay,  which  had  been 
established,  and  flourished  for  many  years,  as  the 
organ  of  the  Evangelical  School  in  the  Church  of 


England,  which  it  represented  with  great  ability, 
moderation,  and  earnestness.  The  hymns,  of 
which  only  six  more  were  published  at  that  time, 
bore  the  initials  D.  R.,  being  the  final  letters  of  a 
name  which  ever  will  be  memorable  in  the  Church 
of  England,  the  name  of  Reginald  Heber. 

Reginald  Heber  represents  the  highest  Christian 
culture  in  England  of  the  beginning  of  the  century. 
He  was  of  a  good  Yorkshire  family,  and  his  father, 
a  former  fellow  and  tutor  of  Brasenose,  had  in- 
herited from  his  mother  a  good  estate  in  Shrop- 
shire, including  the  Rectory  of  Hodnet.  He  held 
this  with  the  Rectory  of  Malpas,  in  Cheshire, 
when  his  son  Reginald  was  born,  April  21,  1783. 
The  room  in  which  the  future  poet-bishop  was 
born  is  still  preserved  in  the  beautiful  old  "  Higher 
Rectory,"  and  the  font  in  which  he  was  baptized  is 
pointed  out  in  St.  Chad's  Church,  Shrewsbury,  to 
which  it  was  transferred  from  Malpas  many  years 
ago.  The  living  of  Malpas  has  the  distinction  of 
being  held  by  two  rectors,  and  of  possessing  an 
upper  and  lower  house  of  residence.  The  former 
of  these,  Heber's  home  in  childhood,  is  an  ideal 
country  rectory,  with  its  beautiful  "  Parson's  walk  " 
overlooking  the  wide  valley  of  the  Dee  and  the 
picturesque  range  of  the  Yale  of  Clwyd  mountains. 
Reginald  was  the  eldest  son  of  his  father's  second 
marriage.  His  half  brother,  Richard  Heber,  be- 
came noted  as  the  greatest  book  collector  in  the 
world,  and  is  said  to  have  left  behind  him  nearly 
500,000  volumes,  gathered  in  eight  great  collections 
in  London,  Paris,  Rome,  and  various  towns  on  the 



Reginald,  after  being  educated  at  the  neighbour- 
ing Grammar  School  of  Whitchurch,  was  sent  in 

Reginald  Heber, 
Bishop  of  Calcutta. 

1800  to  his  father's  College  of  Brasenose.  It  may 
almost  be  said  that  he  took  Oxford  by  storm. 
Never  did  a  young  man  make  distinguished 


friends  more  rapidly  ;  and  he  never  lost  a  friend 
save  by  death.  All  who  knew  him  loved  him. 
In  1803,  m  the  second  year  of  his  undergraduate- 
ship,  he  won  the  prize  for  English  verse  (not  the 
"  Newdigate ")  by  his  famous  poem  of  Palestine. 
Walter  Scott  sat  in  his  rooms  and  criticized  it ; 
but  Scott  was  a  family  friend,  and  had  dedicated  a 
canto  of  Marmion  to  Heber's  brother.  Southey, 
the  two  Hares,  J.  J.  Blunt,  Henry  Milman,  all 
were  among  his  admirers.  His  prize  poem  was 
recited  before  an  immense  audience  in  the  Theatre 
at  the  Duke  of  Wellington's  installation  as 
Chancellor.  In  1805  he  was  elected  Fellow  of 
All  Souls.  After  two  years  of  continental  travel 
with  John  Thornton  he  came  back  to  England, 
was  ordained,  and  instituted  at  once  to  the  family 
living  of  Hodnet,  on  the  edge  of  the  great  park 
at  Hawkstone.  The  same  year,  1807,  saw  his 
marriage  to  Amelia  Shipley,  daughter  of  the  Dean 
of  St.  Asaph. 

Of  his  happy  life  at  Hodnet  a  most  fascinating 
picture  has  been  drawn  in  a  well-known  book  of 
recent  times,  Memorials  of  a  Quiet  Life.  Perhaps 
the  only  "  bitter  drop  "  in  his  cup  arose  from  the 
eccentric  religionism  of  his  neighbour,  the  famous 
Rowland  Hill,  younger  son  of  the  great  baronet  of 
Hawkstone,  a  man  full  of  loving  earnestness,  but 
born  to  set  at  defiance  all  rules  and  conventions  of 
Church  order  and  discipline.  But  Heber's  heart 
was  large  enough  to  endure  what  his  judgment 

It  was  while  at  Hodnet  that  Heber  began  hymn- 
writing.  Why  he  did  not  continue  the  course  he 


began  in  1811  we  do  not  know  ;  but  the  project  of 
a  Church  hymn-book  was  never  absent  from  his 
mind  thenceforth  to  the  end.  His  great  diligence 
as  a  parish  priest  still  left  him  time  for  various 
literary  activities.  He  joined  with  Southey  and 
J.  J.  Blunt  in  writing  for  the  Quarterly  Review ; 
he  edited  the  works  of  Jeremy  Taylor,  prefacing 
them  with  a  delightful  life  ;  he  was  made  Bamp- 
ton  Lecturer  in  1815;  and  in  1822  Preacher  of 
Lincoln's  Inn.  He  had  previously  been  made 
Prebendary  of  St.  Asaph,  of  which  his  father-in- 
law  was  Dean.  Staying  with  Dean  Shipley  at  his 
vicarage  at  Wrexham,  he  wrote  for  Whit-sunday, 
1819,  the  famous  hymn,  'From  Greenland's  icy 
mountains,'  to  be  sung  before  a  sermon  for  S.  P.  G. 
Heber's  appointment  as  Preacher  of  Lincoln's 
Inn  marked  him  out  clearly  as  one  who  might  one 
day  be  appointed  to  a  bishopric.  But  the  call 
which  came  to  him  at  the  close  of  that  year  1822 
was  an  unexpected  one  to  himself  and  his  friends. 
It  was  to  succeed  Bishop  Middleton  in  the  see  of 
Calcutta.  It  was  a  tremendous  charge ;  for  at  that 
time  there  was  no  other  Bishop  of  the  English 
Church  in  the  eastern  hemisphere.  Not  only  all 
India  with  Ceylon,  but  even  Australia,  was  sup- 
posed to  be  under  his  jurisdiction.  To  some  of 
his  friends  it  seemed  like  a  call  to  martyrdom  ;  all 
felt  that  it  meant  heroic  sacrifice.  He  accepted  it 
as  what  it  was — God's  will.  Gradually  his  faith 
had  been  growing  clearer,  his  saintliness  deeper, 
though  his  bright  wit  and  keen  enjoyment  of  life 
were  unchanged.  From  the  hill  above  Hodnet  he 
gazed  upon  the  quaint,  beloved  tower  with  many 


tears,  and  then  turned  his  back  upon  it  for  ever. 
He  won  all  hearts  in  India  as  he  had  done  in 
England.  He  completed  a  long  and  laborious 
visitation  tour  in  1825.  Then  in  the  spring  of 
1826  he  began  a  second.  He  reached  Trichi- 
nopoly  on  Saturday,  April  I.  On  the  Sunday  and 
Monday  his  day  was  filled  up  with  confirmations, 
preachings,  and  all  the  exhausting  work  which  a 
colonial  Bishop  finds  ready  to  his  hands  wherever 
he  goes.  At  last  on  the  Monday  afternoon  he 
was  able  to  take  some  rest.  It  proved  to  be 
eternal  rest.  He  was  found  dead  in  a  warm  bath 
that  evening,  having  apparently  fainted. 

In  1827  his  widow  published  all  that  was  com- 
plete of  the  Hymns  adapted  to  the  weekly  Church 
Service  of  tJie  Year,  containing  various  additions 
to  the  tentative  volume  which  Heber  himself  had 
published  in  1812.  The  hymns  were  evidently 
meant  to  be  gathered  from  various  sources — Jeremy 
Taylor,  Drummond  of  Hawthornden,  Dryden, 
Addison,  Charles  Wesley,  Cowper,  are  all  laid 
under  contribution.  But  his  principal  coadjutor 
was  Henry  Hart  Milman,  the  son  of  a  London 
physician,  whose  career  had  in  some  respects  been 
a  curious  parallel  to  Heber's  own.  He  came  up 
to  Brasenose  from  Eton  about  ten  years  after 
Heber;  like  Heber,  he  rose  into  fame  by  a  striking 
prize  poem,  the  "  Apollo  Belvidere ; "  like  him,  he 
became  Bampton  Lecturer.  But  he  soon  developed 
into  the  eminent  historian  whom  we  all  remember, 
and  died,  beloved  and  honoured,  as  Dean  of  St. 
Pauls,  1868. 

Heber's   finest   hymn   is   undoubtedly  that   for 


Trinity    Sunday,   'Holy,    holy,   holy,   Lord    God 
Almighty.'     As   a   hymn   of  direct   adoration   it 

Henry  Hart  Milman, 
Dean  of  St  Pauls. 

stands  in  the  front  rank  of  English  hymns.  One 
speaks  with  more  hesitation  of  two  others,  'The 
Son  of  God  goes  forth  to  war,'  and  *  Brightest  and 


best  of  the  sons  of  the  morning/  both  of  them 
open  to  serious  criticism,  especially  the  latter,  with 
its  somewhat  sentimental  prettiness.  But  Heber 
is  so  tuneful,  that  we  too  often  overlook  his 
deficiencies.  I  cannot  help  owning  that  I  think 
some  of  his  less-known  hymns  among  his  best, 
such  as  his  very  first,  *  Hosanna  to  the  Living  Lord,' 
'  Lord  of  mercy  and  of  might,'  '  Creator  of  the 
rolling  flood/  the  two  very  beautiful  Holy  Com- 
munion hymns,  '  Forth  from  the  dark  and  stormy 
sky/  and  '  Bread  of  the  world  in  mercy  broken/ 
and  the  Miltonic  hymn  for  Michaelmas,'  O  Captain 
of  God's  host'  (except  for  its  curious  confusion 
between  our  Lord  and  St.  Michael). 

Of  Milman's  hymns  the  most  popular  are  c  Ride 
on,  ride  on  in  majesty/  and  *  When  our  heads  are 
bowed  with  woe/  the  latter  singularly  beautiful. 
(  O  help  us,  Lord,  each  hour  of  need '  is  an  ex- 
cellent hymn  on  the  Syrophenician  woman  (the 
hymns  were  originally  meant  to  explain  the  Gospel 
for  the  day),  but  the  special  verses  referring  to  her 
are  too  often  omitted. 


IT  was  the  fashion  thirty  or  forty  years  ago  to 
speak  of  James  Montgomery  as  the  Cowper  of  the 
nineteenth  century.  Each  was  a  literary  man ; 
each  published  several  volumes  of  poems ;  each 
had  a  vein  of  melancholy.  But  Montgomery's  was 
only  quiet  and  sentimental  melancholy ;  his  poems 
are  nearly  forgotten,  and  even  in  this  day  of  re- 
prints no  one  will  resuscitate  the  "Wanderer  in 
Switzerland,"  or  the  "  Pelican  Island."  Comparisons 
of  this  kind  do  injustice  to  the  weaker  man.  Good 
James  Montgomery  was  not  a  genius  ;  but  he  was 
a  hard-working  literary  man,  a  devout  and  simple- 
minded  Christian,  a  tasteful  versifier,  and  a  man 
who  did  very  great  services  to  English  hymnody. 
He  was  our  first  hymnologist ;  the  first  Englishman 
who  collected  and  criticized  hymns,  and  who  made 
people  that  had  lost  all  recollection  of  ancient 
models  understand  something  of  what  a  hymn 
meant,  and  what  it  ought  to  be. 

His  gentle,  useful  life  ought  not  to  be  forgotten. 
His  father  was  a  Moravian  minister  in  the  little 
town  of  Irvine,  in  Ayrshire,  known  to  us  of  the 
present  day  by  its  delightful  poet-preacher,  William 
Robertson.  There  James  was  born,  November  4, 
337  Y 


1771.  While  quite  a  child  he  was  sent  to  school 
at  Fulneck,  the  Moravian  settlement,  then  recently 
founded  in  Yorkshire,  on  the  high  ground  above 
the  Aire  valley,  between  Leeds  and  Bradford. 
Here,  no  doubt,  he  was  trained  in  the  "  Children's 
House,"  under  kindly  and  firm,  but  strict  discipline. 
His  father  and  mother,  meanwhile,  were  sent  by 
the  Society  as  missionaries  to  the  West  Indies ; 
there  they  both  died,  and  little  James  never  saw 
them  again.  When  the  time  came  for  him  to  leave 
Fulneck,  he  felt  no  inclination  for  the  Moravian 
ministry,  for  which  he  had  been  designed,  but 
settled  down  as  a  small  shopkeeper  in  the  Calder 
Valley,  at  Mirfield,  between  Huddersfield  and 
Dewsbury.  In  the  intervals  of  business  he  "  cul- 
tivated the  muse,"  and,  hardy  Scotchman  that  he 
was,  trudged  up  to  town  with  a  wallet  full  of 
verses,  which,  alas !  the  hard-hearted  publishers 

From  Mirfield  he  removed  to  Wath,  near  Shef- 
field, and  in  1792  to  Sheffield  itself,  his  home  till 
death.  Two  years  after  this  the  work  of  his  life 
opened  out  for  him.  He  was  assistant  in  the  shop 
of  a  Mr.  Gales,  printer,  bookseller,  and  auctioneer. 
Mr.  Gales  was  the  editor  and  proprietor  of  a  paper 
then  called  the  Sheffield  Register,  an  organ  of  very 
pronounced  opposition  politics,  on  which  the 
Government  of  the  day  looked  with  small  favour. 
Poor  Mr.  Gales  was  threatened  with  prosecution 
for  some  article  a  little  too  strong  in  its  reflections 
on  the  Ministry ;  he  went  into  hiding,  and  his 
assistant  James,  at  the  age  of  twenty-three,  took 
his  place  in  the  editorial  chair.  His  time  was 



come.  He  changed  the  name  of  the  paper  from 
the  Sheffield  Register 'to  the  Sheffield  Iris  (not  per- 
haps without  thinking  of  the  bow  of  hope  which  he 
saw  in  the  clouded  sky  of  his  party),  and  made  the 
paper  a  really  powerful  organ  of  Yorkshire  liberal- 
ism in  things  political  and  ecclesiastical.  He  was 

James  Montgomery. 

twice  prosecuted  (once  for  an  ode  on  the  Bastille 
in  his  "Poets'  Corner"),  and  each  time  condemned 
to  a  short  term  of  imprisonment.  But  his  paper 
grew  and  throve  and  became  a  power.  It  was 
always  honestly  and  well  conducted,  with  a  high 
tone  of  morality.  And,  hard-worked  as  he  was, 


Montgomery  beguiled  his  time  with  many  volumes 
of  verse,  which  found  at  last  not  only  publishers 
but  readers,  and  kindly  or  unkindly  reviewers. 
The  Whigs  of  the  Edinburgh  condescended  to 
laugh  at  him  ;  so  the  Tory  Blackwood  cried  him 
up,  Dissenter  and  Liberal  though  he  was.  Pro- 
fessor Wilson  praised  the  "  Pelican  Island  "  (which 
nobody  would  now  guess  to  mean  Australia),  and 
even  Byron  called  his  "  Missionary  "  *'  very  pretty." 

Up  to  the  mature  age  of  forty-three,  Montgomery, 
though  always  a  thoughtful  and  religiously  disposed 
man,  had  not  attached  himself  to  any  denomination. 
He  was  for  years  perplexed  by  doubts  and  diffi- 
culties in  the  way  of  believing.  But  at  length  the. 
sky  cleared  for  him.  His  father  had  been  a  disciple 
of  Cennick,  the  friend  of  the  Wesleys,  and  it  is  said 
that  a  volume  of  Cennick's  sermons  was  made  the 
means  of  a  change  in  James's  faith.  He  now 
became  a  member  of  the  Wesleyan  Society  for  a 
time,  and  began  to  take  great  interest  in  sacred 
poetry  and  hymns. 

In  1817  there  came  to  St.  Paul's  Church,  Shef- 
field, an  Evangelical  clergyman  from  Staffordshire, 
the  Rev.  Thomas  Cotterill,  who  brought  with  him 
a  hymn-book  which  he  had  compiled  for  his  former 
congregation,  and  which  he  proceeded  to  enlarge 
and  adapt  for  his  new  charge.  But  orthodox 
Sheffield  rose  in  arms,  and  dragged  Mr.  Cotterill 
and  his  book  into  the  Consistory  Court  at  York. 
Archbishop  Vernon  Harcourt  undertook  to  mediate, 
and  the  Wesleyan  editor  of  the  /ra  joined  himself 
with  Mr.  Cotterill  in  the  preparation  of  a  hymnal 
which  the  Archbishop  not  only  criticized  and 


revised  but  actually  supplemented  with  hymns  of 
his  own  selecting ;  a  curious  contrast  to  his  brother 
Primate's  discouragement  of  Heber.  Montgomery 
confessed  that  he  and  Mr.  Cotterill  "  clipped,  inter- 
lined, and  remodelled  hymns  of  all  sorts."  Mean- 
while, hymns  were  beginning  to  flow  freely  from 
Montgomery's  facile  pen.  In  1822  he  printed  a 
version  of  some  fifty-six  of  the  Psalms,  called  Songs 
of  Z ion,  and  in  1825  a  far  more  important  work, 
the  Christian  Psalmist.  This  was  the  first  really 
critical  selection  of  English  hymns,  and  the  intro- 
ductory essay  is  a  valuable  and  interesting  histori- 
cal notice  of  the  work  which  our  hymn-writers  had 
by  that  time  done.  Montgomery  showed  a  very 
clear  notion  of  what  our  hymns  should  be,  and  of 
the  leading  defects  and  vices  of  existing  hymns. 
He  added  to  the  volume  a  certain  number  of  his 
own,  written  at  various  times.  Among  these  was 
'  Angels  from  the  realms  of  glory,'  written  for 
Cotterill's  book,  and  the  remarkable  one,  *  Prayer 
is  the  soul's  sincere  desire,'  written  for  Mr.  Bicker- 
steth.  The  fine  paraphrase  of  the  /2nd  Psalm, 
'  Hail  to  the  Lord's  Anointed,'  was  written  a  little 
earlier,  at  Christmas  1821,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  repeated  by  Montgomery  at  the  close  of  a 
speech  for  the  Wesleyan  Missionary  Society  at 

From  that  time  forward,  Montgomery's  pen  was 
very  frequently  employed  upon  hymns  for  special 
occasions,  school  anniversaries,  charity  sermons, 
stone-layings,  and  openings  of  various  kinds.  He 
wrote  many  fugitive  pieces  also,  some  of  which 
were  collected  in  the  Poet's  Portfolio,  1835, 


there  appeared  a  hymn  which  of  late  years  has 
become  remarkably  popular,  'For  ever  with  the 
Lord/  not,  in  my  judgment,  one  of  his  best.  In 
1853  he  collected  all  his  own  hymns,  amounting  to 
355,  in  one  volume. 

For  many  years  before  his  death  Montgomery 
had  become  a  communicant  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land, worshipping  regularly  at  St.  George's  Church, 
Sheffield,  to  the  incumbent  of  which,  Mr.  Mercer, 
a  zealous  hymnologist  and  compiler,  like  himself, 
he  was  warmly  attached.  His  house,  the  Mount, 
at  Sheffield,  was  often  visited  by  admiring  strangers. 
He  never  married.  He  fell  asleep  at  the  age  of 
eighty-two,  April  30,  1854. 

James  Montgomery  can  scarcely  perhaps  be 
spoken  of  as  the  author  of  any  famous  hymn. 
Some  have  even  denied  him  (very  unjustly)  the 
true  hymnic  power.  His  hymns  often  disappoint 
one,  and  perhaps  no  hymn-writer  has  suffered  more 
from  being  over-praised.  But  on  the  other  hand 
he  is  always  reverent  and  sincere ;  his  rhythm 
never  jars  upon  the  ear,  and  some  of  his  more 
directly  devotional  hymns  are  really  noble.  Besides 
those  already  specified,  I  may  mention  as  instances 
of  true  and  elevating  acts  of  worship,  '  O  Spirit  of 
the  Living  God/ '  Pour  down  Thy  Spirit  from  on 
high/  and  'Lord,  teach  us  how  to  pray  aright.' 
To  have  written  but  these  three  would  be  to  have 
earned  a  true  place  among  the  singers  of  the 
Universal  Church. 

I  cannot  leave  Montgomery  without  referring  to 
his  friend  and  contemporary,  Josiah  Conder,  born 
eighteen  years  later,  and  dying  a  year  after  Mont- 


gomery.  Conder  was  a  bookseller's  son  in  the 
city  ;  like  Montgomery,  he  edited  for  many  years 
a  Liberal  and  Dissenting  newspaper ;  like  him, 
outside  of  the  political  arena,  he  was  a  gentle  and 
saintly  man.  He  was  among  those  deputed  to 
compile  the  New  Congregational  Hymn-book  when 
the  Independents  had  outgrown  Watts,  and  the 
lion's  share  of  the  work  fell  to  him.  He  has  written 
many  good  hymns,  but  to  us  Church  people  he  will 
always  be  known  by  his  lovely  hymn  for  Holy 
Communion,  *  Bread  of  Heaven,  on  Thee  we  feed,' 
a  hymn  which  might  have  been  written  by  Bona- 
ventura  ;  and  a  remarkable  instance  of  the  power 
which  deep  and  true  devotion  and  living  faith  have 
to  lift  a  man  above  the  level  of  his  traditional  or 
intellectual  belief,  and  open  to  his  inward  eye  the 
mysteries  of  the  Kingdom  of  God. 


OF  all  the  multitudinous  hymns  of  the  last  fifty 
years,  in  which  the  Church  of  England  has  been 
so  fruitful,  I  think  it  may  be  said  without  hesi- 
tation that  the  most  widely  diffused  and  most 
generally  loved  is  '  Abide  with  me.'  In  Mr.  King's 
Anglican  Hynmology\\.  stands  fifth  in  the  first  rank 
of  hymns,  immediately  next  to  '  Rock  of  Ages.' 
In  the  Hundred  Best  Hymns  of  the  Religious 
Tract  Society  (the  result  of  a  large  plebiscite  of 
subscribers  to  the  Sunday  at  Home]  it  actually 
stands  second  only  to  '  Rock  of  Ages.'  Mr.  King's 
classification  is  based  on  a  comparison  of  hymn- 
books,  a  rough  but  somewhat  misleading  test.  At 
any  rate  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  great 
hymn  has  already  taken  its  place  among  the 
choicest  devotional  treasures  of  the  Christian 

The  life  of  its  author  was  a  singularly  quiet  and 
uneventful  one.  Henry  Francis  Lyte,  the  son  of 
an  officer  of  a  good  Somersetshire  family,  was 
born  on  the  Border,  at  or  near  Kelso,  June  i, 
1793.  He  lost  his  father  while  a  mere  child,  and 
spent  his  youth  in  Ireland,  first  at  school  near 
Enniskillen,  and  then  at  Trinity  College,  Dublin, 


which  he  entered  in  1809,  winning  a  scholarship 
and  three  prize  poems.  His  contemporary  (ma- 
triculated in  the  same  year)  was  the  gifted  Charles 
Wolfe,  the  author  of  the  famous  verses  on  "The 
Burial  of  Sir  John  Moore,"  and  it  would  be  in- 
teresting to  know  if  two  men  so  much  alike  in 
their  tastes  and  sympathies  ever  became  friends. 

Lyte's  friends  wished  him  to  adopt  the  medical 
profession,  but  he  determined  upon  taking  Holy 
Orders.  He  was  appointed  in  181 5  l  to  a  curacy  in 
the  county  of  Wexford,  but  soon  resigned  it,  and 
for  a  while  took  pupils.  Then  came  the  great 
spiritual  change  of  his  life.  A  clerical  neighbour 
was  taken  ill,  and  sent  for  Henry  Lyte  to  visit 
him.  On  his  sick-bed  he  had  been  awakened  to 
a  deeper  interest  in  things  eternal,  and  a  clearer 
view  of  the  leading  truths  of  the  Gospel  than 
before.  The  two  friends  read  and  prayed  and 
communed  much  together,  and  Henry  Lyte's  own 
eyes  were  opened  to  the  realization  of  the  truths 
which  were  now  the  support  and  comfort  of  his 
dying  friend.  Soon  Lyte  was  left  with  the  care 
of  the  widow  and  family  of  his  friend,  and  the 
arrangement  of  their  concerns  upon  his  hands. 
This  trust  involved  him  in  long-continued  anxiety, 
and  probably  contributed,  with  the  mental  and 
spiritual  conflicts  through  which  he  had  passed,  to 
leave  behind  permanent  delicacy  of  health.  He 
was  unable  for  a  time  to  take  any  clerical  work, 
but  at  length  accepted  a  lectureship  at  Marazion, 
in  Cornwall,  where  he  was  happily  married  to  the 

1  If  this  is  correct,  and  Dr.  Julian  corroborates  it,  he  could 
only  have  been  twenty-two  when  ordained  Deacon. — H.  H, 


daughter  of  a  clergyman  who  had  some  property 
in  the  north  of  Ireland. 

He  lived  for  a  time  at  Lymington,  in  Hampshire, 
and  afterwards  at  Dittisham,  on  the  Dart ;  but 
finally  settled  down  about  the  year  1823  to  that 
which  became  the  work  of  his  life — the  charge  of 
a  new  church  built  specially  for  the  fisher  folk  of 
Lower  Brixham,  under  the  red  cliffs  of  Berry 
Head,  the  southern  horn  of  Torbay.  For  more 
than  twenty  years  he  led  the  life  of  a  faithful  and 
diligent  parish  priest  among  his  poor  people,  by 
whom  he  was  greatly  beloved.  But  he  was  always 
a  student,  gradually  collecting  an  excellent  library, 
both  of  Patristic  and  Anglican  theology,  never 
losing  his  hold  on  the  deep  Evangelical  convictions 
of  his  early  manhood,  but  growing  yearly  in  the 
perception  of  those  aspects  of  the  truth  which  our 
great  earlier  divines  set  before  it.  His  recreation 
was  poetry.  In  1826  he  published  a  small  volume 
of  Tales  in  Verse  on  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  in 
1835  a  collection  of  miscellaneous  poems.  But 
his  great  desire  was  to  carry  out  more  happily 
than  Watts  had  done  the  adaptation  of  the  ideas 
of  the  Psalter  to  the  services  of  the  Christian 
Church.  His  Spirit  of  the  Psalms  appeared  in 
1834.  He  did  not  know  that  this  scheme  and  his 
very  title  had  already,  about  five  years  previously, 
been  anticipated  by  a  lady,  Miss  Harriet  Auber. 
Miss  Auber's  little  book  contains  some  good 
versions  of  psalms,  but  is  known  now  only  by  her 
very  beautiful  hymn  on  the  Holy  Spirit,  'Our 
Blest  Redeemer,'  which  she  added  with  a  few 
others  to  her  Psalter,  She  was  the  daughter  of 


the  Rector  of  Tring,  and  died  unmarried,  advanced 
in  years,  but  "  full  of  good  works,"  after  a  happy 
and  useful  life,  at  Broxbourne,  in  Hertfordshire,  in 

Lyte's  Spirit  of  the  Psalms  is  a  better  book  on 
the  whole  than  its  earlier  namesake.  He  is  often 
very  happy  in  seizing  the  leading  idea  of  a  psalm, 
and  embodying  it  in  a  few  verses,  such  as  *  Far 
from  my  heavenly  home  '  (137), '  Oh  that  the  Lord's 
salvation'  (14),  and  '  God  of  mercy,  God  of  grace' 
(67).  But  his  happiest  versions  are  certainly  those 
of  the  84th  Psalm, '  Pleasant  are  Thy  courts  above,' 
and  the  iO3rd,  'Praise,  my  soul,  the  King  of 
Heaven,'  both  which  are  glorious  additions  to  our 
Church  hymnology.  The  book,  however,  is  full  of 
interest.  It  is,  unhappily,  now  very  scarce.  There 
are  some  good  experiments  in  the  emendation  of 
Tate  and  Brady,  and  there  is  one  curious  attempt 
to  turn  Ps.  xxi.  into  a  sort  of  *  God  save  the  King,' 
which  is  said  to  have  been  very  popular  with  his 
fishermen,  for  whom  he  made  the  Accession  an 
annual  parish  festival,  perhaps  mindful  of  the 
historic  associations  of  Brixham  Quay.  Among 
other  things  he  wrote  for  his  people  some  popular 

But  Lyte's  strength,  never  great,  gave  way 
gradually  under  his  manifold  exertions.  The  in- 
terference of  the  Plymouth  Brethren  in  his  parish 
caused  him  much  uneasiness,  and  made  him  regret 
his  neglect  of  more  definite  Church  teaching  among 
them.  His  schools,  too  (he  had  800  children  in  his 
Sunday  School),  were  a  great  tax  upon  him.  He 
tried  a  winter  in  Rome  and  South  Italy  in  1844-5, 


but  returned  home  no  better.  All  through  1847 
he  was  sinking  lower.  He  was  persuaded  again  to 
winter  abroad,  and  prepared  to  leave  home  with 
the  conviction  that  he  should  return  no  more.  He 
had  not  preached  for  some  time,  but  in  his  desire 
to  leave  with  his  people  one  last  testimony  to  the 
faith  in  which  he  was  to  die,  he  preached  once 
more,  September  4,  1847,  an  earnest  appeal  to 
them  on  Holy  Communion,  which  he  then  cele- 
brated for  the  last  time.  That  evening  he  put 
into  the  hands  of  a  friend  the  MS.  of  *  Abide  with 
me.'  That  week  he  left  England  and  travelled  by 
slow  stages  to  Nice,  where  he  died,  November  20, 

1847.  m 

'Abide  with  me'  was  thus  his  dying  song.  It  is 
often  abridged  in  the  hymn-books,  but  the  whole 
hymn  of  eight  verses  is  given  in  Church  Hymns 
(S.  P.  C.  K.)  with  the  correct  reading  of  the  last 
verse,  '  Hold  then  Thy  cross.'  It  is  often,  with 
curious  dulness  of  perception,  printed  among 
evening  hymns,  simply  because  of  the  words  '  fast 
falls  the  eventide.'  Some  people  feel  it  too  intense 
and  subjective  for  public  worship  ;  to  many  it  is 
associated  with  the  laying  to  rest  of  those  dear  to 
them — it  was  sung  at  the  funeral  of  Frederick 
Maurice, — and  doubtless  Mr.  Brown  Borthwick  is 
quite  right  in  speaking  of  it  as  "  not  for  congre- 
gational use,  but  for  the  quiet  and  meditative 
devotions  of  Christians  of  advanced  spiritual 
experience."  Nevertheless,  especially  as  wedded 
to  Dr.  W.  H.  Monk's  beautiful  tune,  '  Eventide,' 
it  is  so  dear  to  our  congregations  that  we  can 
scarcely  wish  its  public  use  ever  to  be  discontinued. 


And  surely  the  Nunc  Dimittis  is  a  precedent  for 
the  public  use  of  an  act  of  private  devotion  which 
may  well  be  applied  to  a  hymn  breathing  so  much 
of  its  spirit. 

I  may  close  this  paper  with  a  short  notice  of 
another  "  favourite  hymn "  and  its  author.  Sir 
Robert  Grant  was  the  son  of  an  East  India  Director. 
He  was  educated  at  Cambridge,  but  led  a  busy  life 
as  a  barrister  and  Member  of  Parliament  for  many 
years,  during  which  he  and  his  brother  Charles 
were  well-known  worshippers  every  Sunday  among 
the  congregation  assembled  in  the  once  famous 
chapel  of  St.  John's,  Bedford  Row,  under  Daniel 
Wilson  and  Baptist  Noel.  Each  brother  rose  to 
eminence.  Charles  became  Lord  Glenelg  and 
Colonial  Secretary ;  Robert,  a  Privy  Councillor  in 
1831,  was  appointed  in  1834  Governor  of  Bombay. 
He  died  in  India  in  1838.  Two  of  his  hymns, 
'When  gathering  clouds  around  I  view/  and  the 
better  known  Litany,  *  Saviour,  when  in  dust  to 
Thee,' were  published,  like  Heber's,  in  the  Christian 
Observer.  These,  with  a  few  more,  were  reprinted 
after  his  death  by  Lord  Glenelg.  Among  them  is 
the  fine  version  of  Psalm  civ., '  O  worship  the  King, 
all  glorious  above.'  This,  and  the  beautiful  "  Litany 
Hymn,"  are  sure  to  keep  their  places.  The  latter, 
I  think,  will  outlast  most  of  the  "  Metrical  Litanies  " 
which  have  followed  in  its  wake. 


IN  dealing  with  English  hymnody  we  have  now 
arrived  at  a  period  which  involved  a  wide  and 
far-reaching  change  in  its  character — a  change  by 
no  means  confined  to  the  Church  of  England,  but 
showing  itself  in  the  worship  of  every  denomin- 
ation— I  had  almost  said,  of  every  English-speaking 
congregation — throughout  the  world.  The  Oxford 
movement  has,  indeed,  brought  as  distinct  a  new 
departure  in  hymnody  as  the  Wesleyan  move- 
ment did.  The  number  of  English  hymns  has 
enormously  increased  ;  their  character  has  been 
largely  altered  ;  their  use  has  been  extended  to 
every  congregation  ;  and,  what  is  best  of  all,  there 
has  arisen  a  spirit  of  Christian  fellowship  in 
hymn-singing  which  is  a  great  help  to  Christian 
unity.  In  every  denomination  hymns  from  all 
sources — ancient  and  modern,  Catholic  and  Pro- 
testant, Church  and  Dissenting — stand  side  by 
side  in  the  hymn-book,  and  are  sung  with  delight 
and  heartiness  by  the  congregation  ;  and  nothing 
has  done  so  much  as  this  to  draw  closer  together 
the  divided  members  of  Christ's  body,  and  to 
kindle  fresh  hopes  of  a  future,  if  distant,  unity. 


This  new  development  in  hymnody  is  due,  no 
doubt,  to  various  causes,  but  it  is  mainly  due  to 
the  general  introduction  of  hymns  into  the  services 
of  the  Church  of  England.  Sixty  years  ago  it 
was  orthodox  to  sing  the  "  new  version  "  of  Psalms  : 
now  there  is  probably  not  one  church  left  in 
London,  and  few,  if  any,  in  all  England,  where 
this  version  is  exclusively  used.  The  great  Latin 
and  Greek  hymns  have  been  translated  ;  clergy 
and  congregations  who  would  never  have  used  the 
hymns  of  the  Wesleys,  Watts,  and  Cowper,  first 
accepted  these  ancient  hymns,  and  then  by  degrees 
discovered  the  beauty  and  fitness  of  English  ones 
which  they  had  formerly  overlooked,  and  thus 
"  things  new  and  old "  were  brought  out  of  the 
Church's  treasury,  and  each  found  its  appropriate 

The  earliest  translations  of  ancient  hymns,  (ex- 
cept the  Veni  Creator]  were  probably  those  of 
William  Drummond,  of  Hawthornden,  in  the 
beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  one  of 
which  Heber  included  in  his  collection.  A  few 
others  appeared  from  time  to  time,  such  as 
Dryden's  Veni  Creator ;  and  William  Hammond, 
one  of  the  early  Calvinistic  Methodists,  translated 
a  good  many  Breviary  hymns.  None  of  these, 
however,  seem  to  have  been  used  in  churches; 
but  in  1837  appeared  two  collections  of  "Ancient" 
hymns,  which  were  as  the  first  drops  of  a  new 
shower.  Richard  Mant,  Bishop  of  Down  and 
Connor,  a  former  Fellow  of  Oriel  and  Bampton 
Lecturer,  an  orthodox  Churchman  of  the  old 
school,  and  a  rather  voluminous  versifier,  published 


in  that  year  his  Ancient  Hymns  from  the  Roman 
Breviary ',  versions  not  very  literal,  and  somewhat 
verbose  and  stilted,  but  yet  the  first  introduction 
to  many  English  readers  of  the  work  of  St. 
Ambrose  and  St.  Gregory.  Some  of  his  hymns 
keep  their  place  still. 

In  that  same  year,  1837,  there  came  forward  a 
much  more  important  volume,  John  Chandler's 
Hymns  of  the  Primitive  ChurcJi.  Mr.  Chandler 
had  not  long  left  Corpus — John  Keble's  college — 
and  had  entered  upon  his  lifelong  home  in  the 
beautiful  parish  of  Witley,  near  Godalming.  His 
preface  is  a  very  interesting  revelation  of  the 
change  going  on  in  the  minds  of  Churchmen.  He 
was  afraid  of  modern  hymns  as  unchurchlike  and 
unauthorized ;  yet  he  felt  Tate  and  Brady  in- 
sufficient for  Christian  worship.  So  he  bought  a 
Parisian  Breviary  and  one  or  two  Latin  hymn- 
books,  and  set  to  work  to  translate,  avowedly  for 
congregational  use.  The  "  Parisian  Breviary  "  hymns 
were  written  in  France,  but  in  the  Latin  language, 
in  the  seventeenth  and  early  years  of  the  eighteenth 
centuries.  The  excellence  of  his  translations  is 
shown  by  the  number  which  still  keep  their  place 
in  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  and  other  Church 
books.  They  have  been  repeatedly  revised  and 
improved  since  his  time,  and,  moreover,  the  seven- 
teenth-century French  hymns  have  lost  their 
popularity  to  a  great  extent  now  that  we  have  the 
really  primitive  and  mediaeval  hymns  translated  ; 
but  Chandler's  was  a  pioneer  book,  and  it  was 
conceived  in  a  spirit  of  true  and  simple  devotion. 

Chandler's  attention  had   been  called  to  these 


French  hymns  of  the  seventeenth  century  by  some 
very  scholarly  translations  of  them  which  appeared 
from  time  to  time  in  the  British  Magazine.  These 

Isaac  Williams. 

were  collected  in  one  volume,  two  years  after  his 
own,  in  1839;  they  were  the  work  of  Isaac 
Williams,  a  man  who  impressed  his  friends  and 


companions  with  the  mark  of  sanctity  more  than 
any  of  his  contemporaries,  except  John  Keble. 
He  was  the  son  of  a  London  barrister,  educated  at 
Harrow,  and  sent  up  to  Trinity  College,  Oxford, 
where  he  won  a  Fellowship  in  1832.  For  a  time 
he  was  John  Henry  Newman's  curate  at  St.  Mary's. 
He  was  associated  with  Newman,  Pusey,  and 
Froude  in  the  Tracts  for  tJie  Times,  and  many  of 
his  verses  appear  side  by  side  with  Newman's  and 
Keble's  in  the  Lyra  Apostolica.  In  1 842  he  took 
the  living  of  Bisley,  in  Gloucestershire,  but  in- 
creasing ill-health  soon  compelled  him  to  resign  it, 
and  for  twenty  years  longer,  till  he  was  called  to 
rest  in  1865,  his  gentle  and  holy  life  was  passed  in 
almost  constant  suffering,  though  he  was  occasion- 
ally able  to  help  his  brother-in-law,  in  whose  parish 
— Stinchcombe — he  lived.  Isaac  Williams  wrote 
many  volumes  of  verse,  dear  to  devout  souls  in 
the  generation  now  passing  away.  From  one  of 
them,  The  Baptistery,  is  taken  the  solemn  peni- 
tential hymn,  *  Lord,  in  this  Thy  mercy's  day.' 
He  translated,  besides  the  Parisian  hymns,  those 
of  St.  Ambrose  and  Synesius  ;  but  none  of  them 
were  intended  for  congregational  use,  and  only 
one  or  two  are  fitted  to  be  sung  in  church.  The 
metres  are  often  artificial,  and  Williams  had  not  a 
musical  ear.  One,  indeed,  stands  out  conspicuously 
from  the  rest  as  a  singularly  happy  inspiration,  the 
noble  translation  of  Jean  Baptiste  Santeuil's  hymn 
for  Apostles'  Days — '  Disposer  Supreme  and  Judge 
of  the  earth,'  an  instance  in  which  the  version 
surpasses  the  original  in  dignity  and  beauty. 
Translations  of  Latin  hymns  now  became  ex- 


ceedingly  common.  Some  will  be  mentioned 
later ;  but  the  rest  of  the  present  article  must  be 
devoted  to  a  notice  of  the  greatest  of  all  trans- 
lators, and  one  of  the  most  remarkable  of  modern 
hymn-writers — John  Mason  Neale. 

Dr.  Neale  was  the  son  of  a  clergyman,  Cornelius 
Neale,  who  had  been  Senior  Wrangler.  He  was 
born  in  1818,  and  early  lost  his  father;  but  his 
mother,  the  daughter  of  an  accomplished  and 
literary  physician,  Dr.  Mason  Good,  was  able  to 
direct  his  great  abilities.  He  was  sent  to  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  degree  in 
1840.  He  threw  himself  early  in  life  into  the 
Church  controversies  of  the  day,  and  he  knew  how 
to  strike  hard  at  an  abuse,  and  to  uphold  with 
lightly-carried  learning  a  truth  which  he  thought 
had  been  overlooked.  But  he  was  far  more  than  a 
brilliant  pamphleteer  and  an  enthusiastic  ecclesi- 
ologist — his  reading  was  simply  enormous.  One 
winter,  when  driven  by  ill-health  to  Madeira,  he 
spent  days  in  the  library  of  the  Cathedral  at 
Funchal.  His  great  work,  the  History  of  the 
Eastern  Church,  was  left  unfinished,  but  neither 
this,  nor  his  commentaries  and  sermons,  nor  even 
perhaps  the  great  Sisterhood  which  he  founded  at 
East  Grinstead,  will  keep  his  memory  green  so 
long  as  his  hymns. 

He  was  appointed  in  1846  Warden  of  Sackville 
College,  East  Grinstead,  a  small  ancient  almshouse, 
and  this  gave  him  leisure  for  study  and  work  of 
many  kinds.  He  ransacked  all  Europe  for  hymns  ; 
he  wrote  with  equal  facility  in  Latin  or  Greek  as 
in  English,  and  sometimes  he  amused  himself  by 


mystifying  his  College  friends  by  "  ancient "  Church 
songs  of  his  own  production  !  His  earliest  im- 
portant hymnic  work  was  done  for  the  Ecclesio- 
logical  Society,  for  which  he  assisted  in  preparing 
the  Hymnal  Noted,  a  translation  of  Latin  hymns, 
chiefly  from  the  Sarum  use.  Of  this  work  Neale 
did  the  lion's  share,  and  he  soon  showed  his  ex- 
traordinary vigour  and  felicity  as  a  translator. 
His  early  versions  are  indeed  somewhat  stiff  and 
over-literal  in  places ;  but  as  time  went  on  he 
wielded  his  weapon  with  far  greater  facility  and 
power.  Only  once  was  he  surpassed  in  this 
volume,  by  William  Josiah  Irons,  the  Vicar  of 
Brompton,  whose  translation  of  the  greatest  of 
all  mediaeval  hymns,  '  Day  of  wrath,  O  day  of 
mourning,'  is  a  truly  wonderful  achievement,  for  he 
has  solved  a  difficulty  which  has  baffled  almost 
every  one  who  has  attempted  it. 

In  the  first  part  of  the  Hymnal  Noted  appeared 
among  others  Neale's  beautiful  version  of  St. 
Bernard's  hymn,  '  Jesu,  the  very  thought  is  sweet,' 
and  the  well-known  '  All  glory,  laud,  and  honour.' 
In  the  second  part,  five  years  later,  which  was 
entirely  the  work  of  Neale  and  Mr.  Benjamin 
Webb,  appeared  the  lovely  hymns,  '  Oh,  what  the 
joy  and  the  glory  must  be,'  '  Of  the  Father's  love 
begotten,'  *  Light's  abode,  celestial  Salem,'  and 
others  now  well  known.  Meanwhile  Neale  had 
gathered  his  own  translations  into  a  little  volume 
called  Mediceval  Hymns  and  Sequences,  among 
which  appeared  in  1851  the  translation  of  a 
portion  of  the  rhythm  of  Bernard  de  Morlaix, 
from  which  were  taken  '  Brief  life  is  here  our 


portion,'  'For  thee,  O  dear,  dear  country,'  and 
'Jerusalem  the  Golden.'  In  1858  he  translated 
and  published  the  rest  of  the  "  Rhythm,"  excluding 

John  Mason  Neale. 

the  satire  with  which  it  begins.  But  the  translations 
from  which  the  largest  number  of  popular  hymns 
have  been  selected  are  the  Hymns  of  the  Eastern 


Church  (1862  and  1866).  Neale  was  the  first  to 
draw  attention  to  the  vast  stores  of  Greek  hymnody, 
from  which  he  selected  such  specimens  as  '  The 
day  is  past  and  over,'  *  Art  thou  weary,'  '  The  Day 
of  Resurrection/  (  O,  happy  band  of  pilgrims  ! '  and 
many  others  now  familiar  to  us  all.  Some  of 
these  are  nearly,  if  not  quite,  original  hymns  of 
his  own,  and  contain,  it  is  said,  but  little  trace  of 
their  Greek  parentage.  Neale's  own  hymns  were 
some  of  them  very  good,  and  he  sang  on  to  the 
last,  publishing  a  little  volume  on  his  dying  bed. 
His  Hymns  for  Children  have  not  the  merit  of  his 
many  tales  and  legends  ;  for  no  one  could  tell  a 
martyr  story  like  him,  and  he  wrote  many  children's 
books.  His  learning  in  hymnology  was  unrivalled, 
and  he  may  be  said  almost  to  have  created  the 
science  of  Liturgiology.  As  life  went  on,  his 
hymns,  like  his  sermons,  advanced  in  beauty  and 
spirituality,  and  the  old  polemic,  who  had  made 
many  foes  in  his  time,  but  had  won  much  love  and 
had  done  great  work  for  the  Church,  departed  on 
August  6,  1866,  in  childlike  faith  and  humility. 



A  STORY  is  told  of  William  Wilberforce  that  one 
day  in  his  old  age  he  and  his  four  gifted  sons  were 
planning  a  holiday  together.  It  was  agreed  that 
each  of  the  five  should  bring  to  the  meeting-place 
fixed  upon  some  new  book  which  might  be  read 
aloud  to  the  rest  of  the  party.  When  they  met 
together  it  was  found  that  each  of  the  five  had 
brought  the  same  book.  It  was  the  Christian  Year. 

This  is  a  slight  illustration  of  the  deep  impression 
which  the  book  produced,  almost  at  its  first  pub- 
lication, upon  the  religious  mind  of  England.  It 
appeared  in  June  1827,  having  been  for  some  years 
in  preparation.  It  was  rather  a  sleepy  age  for 
English  religion.  The  first  group  of  evangelical 
leaders  had  most  of  them  passed  away,  or  were 
rapidly  passing ;  there  was  no  great  controversy 
pending.  The  separation,  too,  between  Church 
and  Dissent  was  growing  wider,  and  the  apprecia- 
tion of  the  Prayer-book  and  of  Church  order  was 
growing  keen  and  strong  among  many  clergy,  who, 
had  they  lived  earlier,  would  have  made  light  of 
the  irregularities  of  Wesleyan  and  Calvinistic 
Methodism.  A  book  of  lofty  and  beautiful  verse, 


which  glowed  with  love  for  the  Church  and  her 
services,  and  which  penetrated  so  deeply  into  the 
spiritual  life  and  power  of  our  Prayer-book,  was, 
therefore,  a  gift  from  God  which  fell  upon  soil 
ready  to  receive  it ;  and  it  is  no  wonder  that  its 
influence  in  the  Church  of  England  was  vast  and 
abiding.  Ten  years  before  the  author's  death  more 
than  a  hundred  thousand  copies  had  been  sold,  and 
in  the  nine  months  after  his  death  alone  more  than 
eleven  thousand  copies. 

John  Keble  was  born  on  St.  Mark's  Day,  April 
25,  1792,  at  Fairford,  in  Gloucestershire.  His 
father,  himself  a  John  Keble,  was  Vicar  of  Coin  St. 
Alwins,  a  small  parish  about  three  miles  from 
Fairford  ;  a  devout  old  scholar,  one  of  those  who 
kept  up  the  tradition,  well-nigh  lost  at  that  time, 
of  the  Ken  type  of  Churchmen.  He  had  himself 
been  Fellow  of  Corpus  College,  Oxford ;  he 
educated  his  two  sons  at  home,  never  sending 
them  to  school,  and  took  his  eldest  son,  John,  up 
to  Oxford  in  his  fifteenth  year  to  try  for  a  scholar- 
ship in  his  own  old  College.  The  home-bred  youth 
carried  all  before  him,  took  a  double  first  in  1811 
(which,  it  is  said,  no  one  but  Sir  Robert  Peel  had 
yet  done),  and  that  same  year,  while  only  eighteen, 
was  elected  Fellow  of  Oriel,  at  that  moment  the 
most  distinguished  College,  intellectually,  in  Oxford. 
Next  year  he  won  both  the  University  Essay 
Prizes,  and  while  only  just  twenty-one  was  made 
one  of  the  University  Examiners.  None  of  these 
honours,  however,  impaired  the  simplicity  of  his 
meek  and  humble  piety.  His  humility  and  his 
sanctity  deepened  year  by  year. 

JOHN   KEBLE  361 

His  first  curacy  was  in  the  parish  which  will 
ever  be  associated  with  his  memory,  Hursley,  in 
Hants ;  but  on  the  death  of  a  beloved  sister  he 
moved  to  Fairford  to  cheer  the  declining  years  of 
his  aged  father,  whose  parish  he  served  as  Curate. 
In  1831  he  was  made  Professor  of  Poetry  in 
Oxford,  and  four  years  afterwards  the  death  of  his 
father  set  him  free  to  accept  the  living  of  Hursley, 
which  was  now  offered  him  for  the  second  time. 
In  1835  he  married,  and  settled  there.  He  was 
already  known  half  over  the  world  as  the  Christian 
poet  of  his  time.  The  holy  and  beautiful  life 
which  he  and  his  wife  lived  together  has  been  well 
drawn  for  us  by  loving  hands  in  Sir  J.  T. 
Coleridge's  memoir  and  in  Miss  Yonge's  Musings 
on  the  Christian  Year.  My  space  will  only  suffice 
for  the  mention  of  his  poetical  work.  In  1839  he 
published  a  metrical  version  of  the  Psalms,  a  book 
which  has  never  been  used  for  public  worship,  and 
which  was  very  unduly  depreciated  on  its  appear- 
ance, for,  as  a  guide  to  the  true  understanding  of 
the  Psalter,  it  is,  as  might  be  expected,  of  the 
greatest  value.  His  contributions  to  the  Lyra 
Apostolica  will  be  noticed  presently. 

In  1846  appeared  the  exquisite  Lyra  Innocentium, 
a  lovely  study  of  child  life  from  the  pen  of  a  child- 
less man,  coloured  by  the  developed  teaching  of 
the  movement  of  which  he  was  so  important  a 
part,  but  now  and  again  attaining  to  heights  of 
spiritual  insight  even  beyond  those  of  the  Christian 
Year.  It  need  scarcely  be  said  that  neither  of  these 
books  was  ever  designed  for  congregational  use  ; 
but  many  of  the  Christian  Year  verses  had  found 


their  way  into  our  hymn-books  by  this  time,  and 
in  1856  Keble  gave  assistance  to  his  friend  Earl 
Nelson  in  the  compilation  of  a  hymnal  for  the 
Diocese  of  Salisbury,  of  which  the  first  edition, 
called  the  Salisbury  Hymn-book,  appeared  in  1857. 
The  new  and  larger  edition  has  the  somewhat  mis- 
leading title  of  the  Sarum  Hymnal.  For  this  book 
Keble  wrote  four  original  hymns,  of  which  the 
best-known  is  his  marriage-hymn,  '  The  voice  that 
breathed  o'er  Eden.'  He  also  translated  a  con- 
siderable number  of  Latin  hymns,  and  recast  some 
older  English  ones.  As  a  translator,  however,  he 
does  not  attain  the  vigour  and  spirit  of  Neale, 
though  it  need  hardly  be  said  that  he  is  most 
accurate  and  scholarly.  He  also  made  his  own 
selections  from  the  "Morning"  and  "Evening" 
verses  in  the  Christian  Year,  known  to  all  the 
world  as  'New  every  morning  is  the  love/  and 
'  Sun  of  my  soul,  Thou  Saviour  dear.'  But  he 
selected  for  the  former  the  verse,  '  Oh,  timely 
happy,  timely  wise,'  and  made  the  latter  begin 
with  '  When  the  soft  dews  of  kindly  sleep.'  The 
beautiful  Septuagesima  poem,  '  There  is  a  book 
who  runs  may  read,'  was  also  inserted  in  the  Salis- 
bury book,  as  well  as  one  or  two  others.  At  an 
earlier  period  he  had  written  the  little-known  but 
charming  Hymns  for  Emigrants  (1854),  and  four 
hymns  for  the  Child's  Christian  Year.  Before  his 
death  he  had  corrected  for  the  press  the  ninety- 
sixth  edition  of  the  Christian  Year.  He  fell 
asleep  at  Bournemouth,  early  in  the  morning  of 
March  29,  1866,  followed  in  six  weeks'  time  by  the 
companion  of  all  his  joys  and  sorrows  and  labours. 


In  the  days  of  controversy  and  reproach  through 
which  he  passed,  John  Keble  was  ever  loyal  and 
faithful  to  the  Church  of  his  baptism.  It  was 
otherwise  with  that  great  man  whose  name  will 
ever  be  associated  with  his  and  Dr.  Pusey's  in  con- 
nection with  the  Oxford  movement.  But  the  loss 

John  Henry  Newman. 

to  the  world  of  Cardinal  Newman  is  too  recent  for 
me  to  speak  much  of  his  life.  My  concern  here  is 
with  John  Henry  Newman  as  a  writer  of  hymns. 
As  I  have  not  dwelt  on  Keble's  other  literary 
and  theological  work,  so  I  must  be  silent  about 


John  Henry  Newman,  the  son  of  a  London 
banker,  was  born  in  London,  February  21,  1801. 
From  school  at  Baling  he  went  up  to  Trinity  Col- 
lege, Oxford.  He  has  told  us  himself  with  what 
awe  he  looked  at  Keble  when  he  was  pointed  out 
to  him  in  the  streets  of  Oxford  shortly  after  his 
entrance.  In  1822  he  became  Fellow  of  Oriel,  and 
in  1828  Incumbent  of  St.  Mary's,  Oxford,  which  is 
in  the  gift  of  his  College.  There  it  was  that  he 
began  those  marvellous  sermons  which  produced 
so  profound  an  effect  on  the  younger  men  of  his 
University,  as  they  have  since  on  many  others. 
After  writing  the  Arians  of  the  Fourth  Century  he 
took  a  voyage  in  the  winter  of  1832,  accompanied 
by  Richard  Hurrell  Froude,  a  pupil  of  Keble's. 
By  this  time  the  foundations  of  the  "  Movement  of 
1833,"  as  it'is  sometimes  called,  had  been  laid.  Its 
history  has  now  come  to  us  from  various  sources — 
from  Newman's  own  pen,  and  last,  though  not 
least,  from  the  interesting  volume  of  him  whom  we 
have  recently  lost,  Dean  Church.  I  am  only  con- 
cerned here  with  its  bearing  on  hymnody.  All 
through  his  foreign  tour  Newman  was  writing 
verses,  pouring  out  his  thoughts  upon  the  Church 
and  its  faith,  and  the  "  work  "  before  him.  He  was 
becalmed  off  Sardinia  for  some  days  on  his  way 
home  from  Sicily  in  June,  1833,  and  many  of  his 
finest  poems  are  the  fruit  of  those  days  ;  among 
them,  'Lead,  kindly  Light/  written  June  16,  1833. 
This  was  included  with  many  others,  beginning 
with  1829,  in  a  volume  called  Lyra  Apostolica. 
Most  of  them,  if  not  all,  appeared  in  the  British 
Magazine,  but  they  were  collected  in  1836.  The 


writers  were  designated  by  letters  of  the  Greek 
alphabet.  They  were  John  Bowden,  Hurrell 
Froude,  Keble,  Newman,  Robert  Wilberforce,  and 
Isaac  Williams.  Williams's  are  the  most  numerous, 
Keble's,  and  above  all  Newman's,  the  most  import- 
ant. It  seems  almost  accidental  that  '  Lead,  kindly 
Light,'  beautiful  and  significant  as  it  is,  should  have 
been  the  one  which  has  found  its  way  into  all 
hymn-books.  Two  or  three  others  of  Newman's 
are,  in  my  judgment,  quite  equal  to  it,  especially 
'  Lord,  in  this  dust  Thy  sovereign  voice,'  written  in 
1829.  Only  one  of  Keble's  poems  in  the  volume 
has  reached  our  hymn-books,  his  fine  translation 
of  the  old  Alexandrian  'Candlelight  hymn/  *  Hail, 
gladdening  Light ! '  It  is  Keble's  best  translation. 
Newman  in  after  years  translated  several  ancient 
hymns,  especially  those  for  the  Hours,  some  of 
which  (with  alterations)  appear  in  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern.  Newman  was  received  into  the 
Church  of  Rome  in  1845.  His  wonderful  poem 
on  the  Intermediate  State,  the  "  Dream  of  Geron- 
tius,"  was  written  in  January  1865.  From  it  has 
been  taken  one  of  the  choruses,  'Praise  to  the 
Holiest  in  the  height,'  a  truly  magnificent  hymn 
on  the  Fall  and  Redemption  of  Man.  The  great 
Cardinal  passed  away  August  n,  i; 


THE  ten  years  which  followed  1840  were  especially 
the  years  of  secession  to  the  Church  of  Rome,  on 
the  part  chiefly  of  the  extreme  wing  of  the  Oxford 
movement.  The  seceders  were  mostly  young  and 
ardent  men,  some  of  them,  like  Ward  and  Oakeley, 
of  brilliant  attainments.  But,  with  the  exception 
of  John  Henry  Newman  (and  one  living  name, 
which  will  occur  to  all,  but  which  belongs  to  a 
secession  of  somewhat  later  date),  it  can  scarcely 
be  said  that  they  contributed  much  to  the  strength 
of  the  Church  of  their  adoption.  On  the  other 
hand,  those  who  remained  faithful  to  the  Church 
of  their  baptism  have  lived  to  see  her  all  the  stronger 
and  richer  for  the  loss  of  some  who  were  not  in 


true  harmony  with  her.  Still,  it  is  undeniable  that 
those  who  joined  the  Church  of  Rome  brought 
with  them  an  energy  of  service  and  a  fervour  of 
devotion  which  showed  itself  in  art  and  letters  as 
well  as  in  theology.  It  was  to  be  expected,  then, 
that  the  innovators  would  influence,  among  other 
things,  hymnology.  Following  the  precedents  set 
in  France,  Italy,  and  Germany,  they  broke  through 
the  circle  of  Latin  Breviary  hymns,  and  appealed 


boldly  to  popular  taste  in  a  new  Anglo-Roman 
hymnody.  The  characteristic  names  of  this 
movement  were  Edward  Caswall,  and,  above  all, 
Frederick  William  Faber. 

Edward  Caswall  was  one  of  the  younger  sons  of 

Edward  Caswall. 

a  Hampshire  vicar.  He  was  born  at  his  father's 
parsonage,  at  Yateley,  Hants,  in  July  1814.  He 
went  up  to  Brasenose  in  1832,  and  took  his  degree 
in  1836.  He  held  for  a  time  a  small  incumbency 
near  Salisbury,  married,  resigned  his  living  in  1846, 
and  was  received  into  the  Church  of  Rome  in  1850. 


He  had  lost  his  wife  the  previous  year,  and  now 
(1850)  he  became  an  Oratorian  at  Birmingham, 
under  Dr.  Newman,  with  whom  he  remained  in 
close  alliance  and  friendship  till  his  death  in 

The  best  of  Caswall's  hymns  are  his  translations ; 
and  these  were  chiefly  made  just  before  his 
secession.  Most  of  them  appeared  in  his  Lyra 
Catholica  in  1849.  They  are  less  careful  and 
accurate  than  Neale's,  but  there  is  great  spirit  and 
facility  in  many  of  them,  and  they  go  well  to 
modern  tunes.  Thus  his  translation  of  St.  Bernard's 
famous  hymn,  'Jesu,  the  very  thought  of  Thee/ 
though  really  inferior  to  Neale's  (who,  however, 
only  translated  a  few  verses),  is  sung  five  or  six 
times  as  often.  'The  sun  is  sinking  fast'  and 
'  Glory  be  to  Jesus  '  are  later  translations.  The 
best  known  probably  of  his  original  hymns,  '  Days 
and  moments  quickly  flying,'  has,  I  think,  become 
popular  mainly  through  Dr.  Dykes'  fine  tune. 
The  strange  Calvinist  refrain,  'As  the  tree  falls,' 
added  from  another  hymn  of  Caswall's,  has  in  the 
later  edition  of  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern  been 
wisely  superseded.  His  translation  of  St.  Francis 
Xavier's  hymn,  '  My  God,  I  love  Thee,'  does  not 
do  justice  to  the  original ;  but  as  the  only  form  in 
which  this  most  striking  hymn  is  known  to  most 
English  readers,  it  has  gained  a  wide  popularity. 

Henry  Collins,  whose  faith  failed  him  during  the 
troubles  which  marked  the  early  days  of  his  work 
in  Charles  Lowder's  mission  to  the  East  End,  has 
left  behind  him  two  striking  hymns,  '  Jesus,  meek 
and  lowly,'  and  '  Jesu,  my  Lord,  my  God,  my  all.' 


To  Frederick  Oakeley  we  owe  the  popular  version  of 
Adeste  fideles,  (  O  come,  all  ye  faithful/  inserted  in 
Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern. 

But  the  most  interesting  figure,  and  the  most 
influential  as  a  hymn-writer  of  all  the  converts  to 
Rome,  is  undoubtedly  Frederick  William  Faber. 
He  was  born  at  Calverley  Vicarage,  in  the  Aire 
Valley,  between  Leeds  and  Bradford,  being  the 
grandson  of  the  vicar.  In  his  infancy  his  family  re- 
moved to  Bishop  Auckland,  on  his  father,  a  layman, 
being  made  secretary  to  Bishop  Barrington,  of 
Durham.  His  first  school  was  at  Auckland  ;  he  was 
afterwards  sent  successively  to  Kirkby  Stephen, 
Shrewsbury,  and  Harrow.  From  Harrow  he  went 
up  to  Balliol,  matriculating  in  1832.  He  soon  made 
his  mark,  being  made  scholar  of  University  College 
in  1834,  and  winning  the  Newdigate  in  1836  for 
a  poem  on  the  "  Knights  of  St.  John."  In  1837  ne 
was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college,  and  won  the 
Johnson  Theological  Scholarship.  The  long  vaca- 
tion of  that  year  was  memorable  to  him.  He  spent 
it  with  pupils  at  Ambleside,  and  there  made  the 
acquaintance  of  Wordsworth.  The  exquisite  poem, 
"  To  a  Lake  Party,"  was  his  farewell  to  his  pupils 
when  term  time  came.  In  the  August  of  this  year 
he  was  ordained  deacon  at  Ripon,  and  came  back 
to  help  the  Vicar  of  Ambleside.  He  was  much 
there  during  the  next  two  years,  living  as  private 
tutor  at  Green  Bank,  Ambleside,  taking  long  walks 
with  Wordsworth,  writing  much  poetry,  and  preach- 
ing occasionally  sermons  which  deeply  impressed 
those  who  heard  them,  and  copies  of  which  are  still 
tenderly  cherished  by  the  few  who  possess  them. 

A  A 


In  1839  Wordsworth  came  up  to  Oxford  to  receive 
an  honorary  degree  at  Commemoration,  and  was 
the  guest  of  Faber,  who  introduced  him  to  John 
Keble.  Keble's  Latin  oration  in  the  theatre  con- 
tained a  noble  eulogy  of  the  great  poet,  who  was 
deeply  gratified  by  his  reception. 

In  1841  Faber  was  for  some  months  in  France 
and  Italy,  and  published  the  following  year  his 
Sights  and  Thoughts  in  Foreign  Countries,  a  suf- 
ficiently startling  book  in  its  undisguised  sympathy 
with  the  Church  of  Rome.  He  soon  left  Ambleside, 
and  accepted  in  1843  tne  Rectory  of  Elton,  in 
Huntingdonshire ;  and  three  years  afterwards, 
November  16,  1845,  he  was  received  into  the 
Church  of  Rome.  He  had  previously  written  a 
life  of  St.  Wilfrid  of  York,  for  Newman's  series  of 
Lives  of  the  English  Saints,  and,  on  his  change  of 
religion,  he  at  first  attempted  to  found  a  new  com- 
munity of  "  Brothers  of  the  will  of  God,"  of  which 
St.  Wilfrid  was  supposed  to  be  the  Patron  Saint. 
But  in  1848  he  joined  the  Oratorians  at  Oscott 
under  Newman,  and  the  next  year  removed  to  the 
London  branch  of  the  community,  with  whom  he 
continued,  at  the  now  well-known  "  Brompton 
Oratory,"  till  his  death  on  September  26,  1863. 

Faber  published  many  devotional  works  after  his 
secession,  with  which  we  are  not  here  concerned.  But 
they  have  the  same  characteristics  as  his  hymns. 
They  are  full  of  noble  passages,  and  often  show 
deep  insight  into  the  secrets  of  the  human  heart ; 
but  they,  are  curiously  wanting  in  the  sense  of 
proportion,  their  emotionalism  is  at  times  all  but 
hysterical.  The  extravagances  of  popular  Con- 



tinental  Romanism,  which  are  generally  kept  in  the 
background  by  sober  English  Roman  Catholics,  are 
just  what  Faber  delights  to  display  and  to  insist 
upon.  Those  who  know  Faber's  hymns  only 
through  a  carefully  prepared  selection,  and  have 

Fredei'ick  William  Faber. 

learned  to  admire  and  delight  in  the  series  on 
prayer,  those  on  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  the  Spiritual 
Life,  and  a  few  more,  had  better  not  desire  to  see 
the  complete  collection.  His  first  hymns  were  a 
few  written  for  the  Oratory  in  1848,  added  to  in 
1849  and  1852  with  the  title,  "Jesus  and  Mary/' 


followed  by  the  Oratory  Hymn-book  in  1854.  They 
were  avowedly  written  to  compete  with  Dissenting 
and  other  Protestant  hymns  ;  and  many  of  them 
(such  as  '  O  Paradise  '  and  '  Hark,  hark,  my  soul ') 
introduced  the  "  refrain  "  which  modern  Revivalist 
hymnody  has  since  made  popular.  In  1862  he 
published  a  complete  collection  of  his  hymns 
divided  into  seven  parts.  He  limited  their  number 
to  150,  as  being  the  number  of  the  Psalms. 

Roman  as  they  are,  nearly  all  English-speaking 
congregations  have  accepted  Faber's  hymns,  of 
course  with  prudent  omissions  and  alterations. 
Grave  critics  have  rebelled  against  them,  but  all  in 
vain.  It  is  useless  to  say  that  '  O  Paradise '  con- 
tains weak  and  effeminate  lines  ;  the  people  assent 
and  sing  on,  and  after  all  one  is  glad  that  some  of 
them  learn  for  the  first  time  that  there  is  such  a 
place  as  Paradise.  We  inquire  in  vain  into  the 
meaning  of  the  '  Pilgrims  of  the  Night ; '  congrega- 
tions are  carried  away  by  the  rhythm  and  the 
musical  ring  of  the  lines.  Happily  there  are  better 
things  than  these  in  Faber.  '  I  was  wandering  and 
weary  ; '  '  O  come  to  the  merciful  Saviour  ; '  '  Souls 
of  men  ;'  '  We  came  to  Thee,  sweet  Saviour  ; '  and 
others,  are  most  telling  in  mission  services.  '  Sweet 
Saviour,  bless  us  ere  we  go '  (duly  altered)  ranks 
among  our  favourite  evening  hymns  ;  while  as  to  the 
spiritual  value  of  some  of  the  more  chastened  and 
sober  hymns  on  God  the  Father  and  the  Spiritual 
Life,  the  '  Gifts  of  God,'  the  '  Eternal  Years/  the 
'  Shore  of  Eternity,'  the  series  on  prayer,  and  most 
of  those  on  Death,  these  are  treasures  of  Christian 
thought  and  spiritual  comfort  which  can  never  die. 


In  reading  them  one  can  understand  the  attraction 
which  the  warm-hearted,  lofty-minded,  emotional 
young  poet  must  have  had  for  his  mighty  master 
at  Rydal  ;  and  one  can  but  regret  all  the  more 
deeply  the  alloy  of  foolishness  and  superstition 
which  in  after  time  mingled  with  the  gold  of  his 
devout  and  elevated  thoughts. 


As  these  papers  draw  to  a  close,  the  press  of 
names  worthy  of  note  in  modern  English  hymnody 
becomes  embarrassing.  I  feel  almost  sure  that  at 
every  turn  some  reader  will  think  me  strangely  blind 
to  the  merits  of  some  favourite  hymn  or  author, 
simply  because  I  am  obliged  here  to  select  repre- 
sentative names.  I  ought  not  to  pass  unnoticed 
such  men  as  John  Samuel  Monsell,  whose  warm 
and  loving  devoutness  so  often  is  counter-balanced 
by  his  incorrectness ;  Henry  Alford,  Dean  of 
Canterbury,  whose  harvest  hymn,  '  Come,  ye 
thankful  people,  come,'  is  the  best  of  our  "  In- 
gathering "  songs  ;  or  one  yet  more  recently  lost, 
but  whom  English  hymn-singers  will  never  forget 
— Henry  Williams  Baker.  But  I  must  confine 
myself  to  two  names,  one  from  the  heart  of  our 
English  Church,  one  from  among  our  Presbyterian 
brothers  across  the  Tweed. 

Christopher  Wordsworth,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  is 
one  of  whom  we  certainly  do  not  first  think  as  a 
writer  of  hymns,  but  as  a  great  scholar,  a  diligent 
and  careful  expositor,  an  accurate  theologian  and 
controversialist,  a  great  and  wise  ruler  in  the 



Church,  and  a  most  holy,  humble,  loving,  self- 
denying  man.  And  the  man  is  reflected  in  his 
verse.  To  read  one  of  his  best  hymns  is  like 

Christopher  Wordsworth. 

looking  into  a  plain  face,  without  one  striking 
feature,  but  with  an  irresistible  charm  of  honesty, 
intelligence,  and  affection.  Take,  for  instance,  his 
Offertory  Hymn,  'O  Lord  of  heaven,  and  earth, 


and  sea.'  It  is  not  in  the  least  poetical ;  it  is  full 
of  halting  verses  and  prosaic  lines.  And  yet  it  is 
such  true  praise,  so  genuine,  so  comprehensive,  so 
heartfelt,  that  we  forget  its  homeliness. 

The  good  Bishop  was  the  son  of  another  Chris- 
topher Wordsworth,  Master  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  and  brother  of  the  great  poet.  He 
was  born  October  30,  1807,  was  trained  at  Win- 
chester, took  a  brilliant  degree  at  Cambridge  in 
1830,  and  was  made  Fellow  of  Trinity  almost 
immediately.  From  1836  to  1844  he  was  Head 
Master  of  Harrow.  In  that  year  he  was  appointed 
Canon  of  Westminster,  and  while  holding  that 
office  he  began  to  write  his  Holy  Year,  which  was 
published  as  a  collection  for  Church  use  in  Lent, 
1862.  Of  its  200  hymns  the  first  117  were  his 
own.  He  prefaced  it  with  a  really  remarkable 
critical  essay  on  hymns,  full  of  learning  and 
wisdom,  but  with  scarcely  one  single  note  of 
sympathy  with  existing  English  hymnody.  He 
added  a  few  more  hymns  subsequently,  but,  having 
laid  down  his  canons  and  made  his  protest,  he  left 
the  book  to  become  a  literary  curiosity.  He  was 
cheered,  however,  by  the  warmth  with  which  the 
few  tuneful  hymns  it  contained  soon  began  to  be 
received  ;  and  these  few  have  been  stored  up  in 
the  permanent  treasury  of  the  Church  of  England. 
Dr.  Wordsworth  was  appointed  to  the  see  of 
Lincoln  in  November  1868,  and  administered  it 
in  a  way  which  won  the  reverence  and  love  of  all 
good  men  till  he  entered  into  rest  in  1885.  We 
pass  into  a  very  different  atmosphere. 

Horatius  Bonar  was  one  of  a  group  of  men  who 



were  called  in  God's  Providence  to  carry  out  a 
remarkable  revival  of  spiritual  life  in  the  heart 
of  Scottish  Presbyterianism.  His  father,  James 

Iloratius  Bonar. 

Bonar,  was  an  Edinburgh  solicitor,  and  a  great 
philologist.  A  "  holy  ancestry  "  and  "  godly  parent- 
age "  were  among  the  gifts  for  which'  he  blessed 


God  in  his  memorial  hymn.  He  was  "  a  child  of 
the  city,"  born  in  Edinburgh  December  19,  1808. 
His  father  was  a  strict  religious  man,  but  "  it  was 
at  their  mother's  knee  that  he  and  his  brothers 
learnt  their  first  and  perhaps  most  abiding  lessons 
in  the  faith."  He  was  educated  at  the  University 
o'f  Edinburgh,  and  in  due  time  licensed  as  a 
preacher.  He  and  his  friends  early  began  mission 
work  in  the  courts  and  alleys  of  Edinburgh  and 
Leith.  Leith  was  the  special  scene  of  "  Horace's  " 
work.  He  preached  in  a  mission  hall  there,  and 
began  writing  hymns  for  those  whom  he  gathered 
in.  His  first  was,  '  I  was  a  wandering  sheep  ; '  his 
second,  *  I  lay  my  sins  on  Jesus  ; '  his  third,  *  A 
few  more  years  shall  roll.' 

In  November  1837  ne  was  called  to  be  minister 
of  the  "  North  Parish,"  in  the  beautiful  old  border- 
town  of  Kelso,  and  there,  by  the  swift-rushing 
Tweed,  and  amidst  the  green  woods  of  Floors,  he 
poured  out  his  gift  of  song  from  a  full  heart,  while 
for  nearly  thirty  years  he  worked  and  prayed  with 
loving  energy.  He  and  his  two  brothers  organized 
a  kind  of  order  of  "  Border  Evangelists  "  to  carry 
on  mission  work  among  the  dales.  He  was  in 
touch  with  all  that  was  most  living  and  earnest  in 
the  Church  of  his  fathers.  He  took  a  keen  interest 
in  the  controversies  which  ended  in  1843  in  the 
memorable  Disruption.  He  and  his  brothers,  and 
most  of  their  personal  friends,  followed  Chalmers 
and  Candlish  in  the  great  exodus  from  St.  Andrew's 
Church,  which  Jeffrey  watched  with  amazement. 
They  became  the  founders  of  the  "  Free  Church  of 
Scotland."  Most  of  them  had  to  give  up  home 


and  parish.  Horatius  Bonar,  however,  was  enabled 
to  retain  possession  of  his  church  in  Kelso,  where, 
as  he  himself  said,  he  had  found  "  plenty  of  work, 
plenty  of  workmen,  and  plenty  of  sympathy."  At 
length,  in  1866,  he  returned  to  his  native  Edinburgh 
to  become  the  minister  of  a  new  church,  built  as  a 
memorial  to  Dr.  Chalmers,  in  Grange,  one  of  the 
suburbs  of  the  city.  He  often  visited  London, 
taking  part  in  the  annual  conference  at  Mildmay 
Park.  He  died  July  31,  1889,  at  the  good  old  age 
of  eighty-one. 

His  own  favourites  among  his  hymns  were  the 
beautiful  one  for  the  dedication  of  a  church,  *  When 
the  weary  seeking  rest ;'  and  that  pearl  of  hymns, 
'  I  heard  the  voice  of  Jesus  say,'  which  Bishop 
Fraser  of  Manchester  ranked  above  every  other 
in  the  language.  But  Bonar's  seven  volumes 
contain  many  a  less  known  gem  of  Christian 
"  faith  and  hope,"  and  there  is  no  more  striking 
testimony  to  his  power  as  a  "  sweet  singer,"  than 
the  very  remarkable  change  which,  during  his 
lifetime,  passed  over  the  whole  of  Scotland  in  the 
matter  of  hymnody.  Forty  years  ago,  every 
Presbyterian  congregation,  of  whatever  denomin- 
ation, clung  to  the  old  Scottish  national  Psalms 
and  Paraphrases  with  a  tenacity  which  seemed  as 
if  it  could  never  be  shaken.  The  Psalms  were 
endeared  to  high  and  low,  rich  and  poor,  through- 
out the  land.  No  doubt  they  are  still  sung  in  all 
their  quaintness  and  force  in  many  a  country 
congregation  ;  but  from  the  towns  they  have 
almost  wholly  disappeared.  Each  of  the  great 
Presbyterian  bodies,  the  Established  Church,  the 


Free,  the  United  Presbyterians,  and  the  English 
Presbyterians,  has  its  own  authorized  hymn-book, 
compiled  by  its  own  members  ;  and  the  use  of 
hymns  in  congregations  has  become  practically 
universal.  Many  regret  the  old  ;  some,  like  the 
gifted  Robertson  of  Irvine,  thought  the  new 
comparatively  weak  and  poor,  though  he  himself 
largely  contributed  to  swell  the  tide  of  change, 
but  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  Scottish  devotion 
has  gained  much  in  breadth,  colour,  and  heartiness  ; 
and  it  is  scarcely  too  much  to  say  that  this  great 
change  is,  in  large  measure,  due  to  the  silent 
leavening  of  the  taste  of  religious  Scotland  by  the 
hymns  of  Horatius  Bonar.  I  do  not  know,  indeed, 
whether  he  took  any  part  at  all  in  compiling  any 
of  the  new  hymn-books  ;  I  do  not  know  whether 
he  personally  approved  of  the  beautiful  and  spiritual 
volume  which  his  own  denomination  has  compiled  ; 
but  I  do  say  that  the  "  new  wine  "  of  the  Hymns 
of  Faith  and  Hope  has  enriched  the  blood  of  all 
religious  Scotland,  and  made  it  impossible  for  her 
to  rest  content  with  the  merely  veiled  and  indirect 
praise  of  her  Risen  and  Ascended  Lord  which  was 
all  that  her  old  Psalmody  allowed  her.  Her  heart 
grew  hot  within  her,  and  at  last  she  spake  with  her 
tongue,  in  new  and  freer  accents  of  praise.  The 
change  is  significant  of  much  which  is  beyond  the 
province  of  these  articles  ;  much  which  may  need 
anxious  watching  and  prayer.  But  may  it  not  be 
significant,  too,  of  a  growing  unity  among  some 
hearts  long  saddened  ?  may  it  not  be  one  of  the  faint 
and  far  "  preludings  "  of  that  "  burst  of  song  "  which 
shall  usher  in  the  day  for  which  we  wait  and  hope  ? 


WE  must  not  close  these  notices  of  our  hymn 
writers  without  a  reference  to  the  share  of  Christian 
women  in  the  work  of  supplying  the  materials  for 
sacred  song. 

We  need  not  dwell  upon  the  hymns  written  by 
Christian  women  in  the  last  century  and  the  earlier 
years  of  this.  But  Anne  Steele,  Anna  Barbauld, 
Sarah  Adams,  and  Alice  Flowerdew  (surely  pre- 
destined by  her  very  name  to  write  a  harvest 
hymn  ! )  are  still  represented  in  our  best  collections. 
Of  Harriet  Auber  we  have  already  spoken.  Anne 
and  Jane  Taylor  of  Ongar  will  always  rank  among 
the  pioneers  of  children's  hymnody.  Their  hymns 
have  been  too  much  overlooked  of  late  years. 
Jemima  Luke  will  be  remembered  by  the  '  Sweet 
Story  of  Old.'  Anne  Mozley,  the  gifted  sister  of 
Cardinal  Newman,  has  left  us  a  lovely  children's 
litany,  '  By  Thy  birth,  O  Lord  of  all.' 

But  of  all  the  "  daughters  of  the  Magnificat" 
those  who  have  made  the  most  profound  impres- 
sion on  our  own  time  are  the  two  whose  names 
appear  at  the  head  of  this  article. 

Charlotte  Elliott  was  the  sister  of  two  well-known 


clergymen,  Henry  Venn  Elliott,  of  St.  Mary's, 
Brighton,  and  Edward  B.  Elliott,  whose  book  on 
the  Revelation,  Horce  Apocalypticce,  was  once  ex- 
ceedingly popular,  though,  like  many  commentaries 
which  looked  into  futurity,  it  has  been  in  great 
measure  obliterated  now  by  the  stern  logic  of 
events.  Charlotte  was  born  in  1789.  A  severe 
illness  in  1821  left  her  a  confirmed  invalid.  The 
following  year  she  formed  a  friendship  which  was 
to  leave  a  permanent  influence  both  on  her  writings 
and  her  life  ;  she  was  introduced  to  Cesar  Malan, 
of  Geneva,  one  of  the  leaders  of  what  was  then  the 
new  Evangelical  movement  among  the  Reformed 
Churches  of  France  and  Switzerland,  and  one  of 
the  most  prolific  of  modern  French  hymn-writers. 

This  excellent  man  had  many  English  friends 
and  much  sympathy  with  our  Church  ;  he  trans- 
lated into  French  more  than  one  of  our  best-known 
hymns.  A  small  volume  was  printed  privately  in 
1834  (afterwards  published),  called  the  Invalid's 
Hymn-book.  To  this  Miss  Elliott  contributed  an 
appendix  containing  twenty-three  hymns  of  her 
own,  among  them  the  first  draft  of  one  by  which 
she  has  since  become  known  to  hundreds  of  thou- 
sands, '  My  God,  my  Father,  while  I  stray.'  This 
hymn  she  recast  two  or  three  times,  altering  among 
other  lines  the  first.  Two  years  later,  1836,  she 
published  Hours  of  Sorroiv  Cheered  and  Comforted, 
containing  the  greatest  of  all  her  hymns,  'Just  as  I 
am.'  This  hymn  is  said  to  have  been  translated 
into  more  languages  than  any  other ;  it  is  perhaps 
even  more  popular  on  the  Continent  of  Europe 
than  with  ourselves  ;  but  it  certainly  takes  rank 


with  '  Rock  of  Ages '  and  '  Abide  with  me/  as 
among  the  hymns  which  have  left  the  deepest 
impression  upon  the  English  religious  mind,  in  its 
earnest  and  true  expression,  without  any  qualifying 

Charlotte  Elliott. 

or  compromising  phrases,  of  entire  consecration  to 
our  Lord,  and  absolute  trust  in  Him.  Another 
admirable  hymn  of  Miss  Elliott's,  '  Christian,  seek 
not  yet  repose/  appears  as  the  Wednesday  morn- 
ing hymn  in  a  beautiful  little  volume  of  hers, 


Hymns  for  a  Week.  To  have  written  three  such 
hymns  as  these  entitles  her  indeed  to  take  a  front 
rank  among  the  Christian  singers  of  the  world. 
Miss  Elliott  died  at  Brighton,  September  22,  1871. 
The  gift  of  sacred  song,  it  may  be  mentioned,  has 
not  departed  from  a  younger  generation  of  the 
family  to  which  she  belonged. 

Frances  Ridley  Havergal  virtually  belongs  to 
our  own  generation,  for  she  was  only  forty-two 
when  she  was  called  home  in  1879.  She  was,  as  it 
were,  born  in  an  atmosphere  of  hymns.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  one  hymn-writer,  William  Henry 
Havergal,  and  was  baptized  by  another,  John 
Cawood,  of  Bewdley.  Her  father  held  a  country 
rectory  in  Worcestershire,  and  removed  thence  in 
1845  to  the  city  of  Worcester,  where  he  became 
incumbent  of  St.  Nicholas,  and  became  known  both 
as  a  composer  of  hymn-tunes  and  as  a  critic  with  a 
special  knowledge  of  the  history  of  our  Metrical 
Psalmody.  Frances  was  his  youngest  child  ;  her 
second  name,  Ridley,  was  derived  from  her  saintly 
godfather,  W.  H.  Ridley,  vicar  of  Hambleden, 
Berks,  whose  well-known  little  books  on  Confirm- 
ation and  Holy  Communion  are  probably  the 
very  best  ever  written  on  these  subjects  for  the 
country  poor.  The  >ecord  of  Frances  Havergal's 
holy  life  has  been  compiled,  largely  from  her  own 
reminiscences  and  letters,  by  her  sister  Maria,  who 
has  since  followed  her.  There  are,  so  to  speak,  no 
events  in  it.  She  lost  her  mother  in  childhood. 
She  published  two  volumes  of  verse — Under  the 
Surface,  and  The  Ministry  of  Song — and  many 
other  booklets  and  leaflets.  She  was  constantly 


writing  hymns.  She  was  joint  editor  of  a  collection 
called  Songs  of  Grace  and  Glory,  but  it  took  no 
permanent  hold  on  the  Church.  But  her  real  life 
was  a  life  of  personal,  spiritual  influence  upon 
others.  She  lived  habitually  in  an  atmosphere  of 

Frances  Ridley  Havergal. 

perfect  love  and  entire  consecration  to  God,  of 
which  one  reads  with  awe ;  but  her  high  ideal  was 
consistent  with  the  warmest  human  affection  for  a 
large  circle  of  friends,  and  with  the  most  perfect, 
unaffected,  child-like  simplicity  and  sincerity.  It  is 

B  B 


too  soon  to  estimate  which  of  her  numerous  hymns 
will  live  on  to  another  generation,  yet  there  are 
some  which  we  are  sure  must  be  remembered. 
Many  of  them  cover  the  same  ground  ;  consecra- 
tion of  the  life  to  God  is  their  most  frequent  sub- 
ject, as  in  the  most  solemn  '  Take  my  life/ 
Another,  of  peculiar  power  and  reality  written  as 
a  motto  beneath  a  German  print  of  the  Crucifixion, 
begins  in  its  original  form, '  I  gave  My  life  for  thee.' 
So  little  did  she  esteem  it  that  she  threw  it  into 
the  fire  in  turning  out  an  old  desk.  She  consented, 
however,  to  recast  it  for  the  S.  P.  C.  K.,  and  in  its 
present  form,  '  Thy  life  was  given  for  me,'  it  has 
already  become  dear  to  thousands  who  know  per- 
haps little  of  her  other  hymns.  Her  hymns  for 
workers,  too,  such  as,  '  Lord,  speak  to  me  that  I 
may  speak,'  and  'Jesus,  Master,  Whom  I  serve,' 
are  the  reflection  of  a  life  which  to  the  last  was 
spent  in  "  service."  Her  beautiful  Ascension  hymn 
for  children,  *  Golden  harps  are  sounding/  written 
for  one  of  her  father's  tunes,  embodies  the  leading 
thought  which  dominated  her  life.  Christ  was  her 
King,  she  loved  to  call  Him  so ;  loving,  loyal 
service  for  Him  in  every  way  was  the  law  of  her 


CHRISTIAN  congregations,  wherever  the  English 
tongue  is  spoken,  felt,  on  receiving  the  announce- 
ment that  Horatius  Bonar  had  entered  into  rest, 
at  the  ripe  age  of  eighty-one,  that  the  Church 
militant  had  been  bereaved  of  one  of  her  sweetest 
singers.  With  how  many  of  the  most  sacred  times 
of  our  lives  have  his  words  been  associated  !  As  I 
write,  a  scene  in  a  village  churchyard  many  years 
ago  rises  before  my  eyes.  It  was  the  funeral  of  a 
poor  lad,  one  of  my  own  flock,  who  had  been 
drowned  while  bathing  on  his  way  to  work  on  an 
autumn  morning.  His  remains  had  been  reverently 
and  lovingly  tended  by  the  members  of  a  little 
community  whose  house  was  on  the  bank  of  the 
river  half-a-mile  off.  He  was  laid  to  rest  just  at 
sunset,  with,  of  course,  a  large  gathering  of  his 
mates  and  neighbours.  And  as  the  words  of  the 
Burial  Office  died  away,  and  the  last  gleam  of 
parting  day  tinged  with  pale  gold  the  line  of  low 
wooded*  hills  behind  the  church  tower,  the  brothers 
and  their  choir  began  the  hymn,  'A  few  more 
years  shall  roll.'  How  the  words  came  home  to 
every  heart  in  their  solemn  reality — 

"  A  few  more  suns  shall  set 

O'er  these  dark  hills  of  time, 
And  we  shall  be  where  suns  are  not — 
A  far  serener  clime." 


How  often  since  has  that  solemn  hymn  closed  our 
services  on  New  Year's  Eve,  each  time  with  a  fresh 
impression  of  its  deep  reality!  And  this  is  the 
quality  of  all  Bonar's  verse.  It  is  sometimes  trite 
and  commonplace.  It  is  sometimes  unpoetical. 
He  often  repeats  himself.  His  range  of  vision  is 
limited.  His  views  are  those  of  a  plain  Scotch 
Calvinistic  Evangelical  and  a  Millenarian.  But  he 
is  a  believer.  He  speaks  of  that  which  he  knows ; 
of  Him  whom  he  loves,  and  whom,  God  be  praised, 
he  now  sees  at  last,  for  whose  coming  he  looked 
and  waited.  And,  therefore,  his  hymns  have  in 
them  the  power  which  belongs  to  one  to  whom  to 
live  was  Christ.  They  are,  indeed,  what  he  called 
them,  '  Hymns  of  Faith  and  Hope.' 

Bonar  was  one  of  a  remarkable  group  of 
young  Scotchmen  to  whom  it  was  given  fifty  years 
ago  to  rekindle  the  dying  fire  of  spiritual  life  in 
the  respectable  but  dull  and  lifeless  Established 
Church.  Foremost  among  them  was  the  saintly 
and  eloquent  Robert  Murray  McCheyne,  also  a 
hymn-writer,  whose  words  I  have  found  this  week, 
as  I  have  often  done  before,  to  give  peace  and 
comfort  by  a  sick  bed  ;  the  two  brothers  Burns, 
Andrew  and  Islay,  the  former  a  mission-preacher 
to  be  compared  in  power  only  to  Whitefield 
himself;  the  latter,  the  scholar  of  the  group, 
McCheyne's  successor,  afterwards  for  many  years 
Professor  of  Ecclesiastical  History  at  Glasgow, 
a  man  of  rare  learning,  deep  piety,  and  most 
large-hearted  charity;  John  Milne  of  Perth,  and 
"  Horace's "  brother,  Andrew  Bonar  of  Collace, 
whose  commentary  on  Leviticus  is  still  a  most 
valuable  and  interesting  exposition  of  the  symbol- 


ism  of  the  Mosaic  ritual,  and  whose  Life  of 
McCheyne  has  inspired  the  zeal  of  many  a  young 
minister  to  tread  in  his  steps.  Every  one  of  these 
was  a  remarkable  man.  Every  one  had  to  endure 
the  ridicule,  opposition,  and  misinterpretation 
which  is  the  lot  of  all  reformers,  and  which  doubt- 
less, like  all  reformers,  they  did  something  to 
provoke.  Every  one,  except  McCheyne  (who  did 
not  live  to  see  it),  "  went  out "  from  St.  Andrew's 
Church  with  Chalmers  and  Candlish  on  the  memor- 
able "Disruption  Day"  in  1843;  and  every  one,  I 
believe,  took  part  in  the  formation  of  the  Free 
Church  of  Scotland.  Horatius  Bonar,  who  had 
been  minister  of  what  is  oddly  called  in  Scotland  a 
"  quoad  sacra "  Church  (that  is,  an  ecclesiastical 
district)  in  Kelso,  soon  found  himself  the  minister 
of  a  new  church  there,  formed  doubtless  in  great 
measure  of  the  members  of  his  old  congregation. 
There,  amid  the  green  braes  and  haughs,  by  the 
side  of  the  swift-rushing  Tweed,  or  in  the  woods  of 
Floors,  or  under  the  shadow  of  the  grey  Abbey  tower, 
many  of  his  most  touching  verses  were  written,  and 
many  of  his  happiest  years  passed.  But,  as  he  said  of 
himself,  in  one  of  his  most  striking  poems,  he  knew 
and  loved  and  clung  to  the  City.  And  his  latter 
years  were  spent  in  Edinburgh.  Nor  was  he  un- 
known in  London,  where  his  venerable  form  might 
often  be  seen — sometimes  presiding  at  the  meetings 
of  the  "  Mildmay  Conference  "  in  June,  especially 
when  some  subject  connected  with  prophecy  or 
eschatology  was  discussed. 

I  have  always  thought  his  first  volume  of  hymns 
contained  the  choicest — the  first  crush  of  the  grape. 
The  very  earliest,  'Divine  Order,' — John  Keble's 


great  favourite — is  perhaps  his  most  perfect  poem. 
But  among  others  in  this  volume  are  the  great 
Advent  hymns,  '  Come,  Lord,  and  tarry  not,'  ' A 
few  more  years  shall  roll/  '  The  Church  has  waited 
long,'  and  'Far  down  the  ages  now.'  It  contains 
also — *  I  was  a  wandering  sheep/  '  I  lay  my  sins 
on  Jesus/  '  Calm  me,  my  God,  and  keep  me  calm/ 
'  Thy  way,  not  mine,  O  Lord/  '  Go,  labour  on/  and, 
loveliest  of  all,  'I  heard  the  voice  of  Jesus  say/ 
The  second  series  contains  that  very  noble,  but 
less  known  hymn,  { O  love  of  God,  how  strong  and 
true/  also  '  O  Everlasting  Light/  and  the  rapturous 
'  Heaven  at  last/  often  attributed  to  Faber.  The 
third  contains  the  lovely  hymn  for  the  dedication 
of  a  church, '  When  the  weary,  seeking  rest/  which 
Sir  John  Stainer  has  recently  wedded  to  music  not 
unworthy  of  it. 

These  titles  alone  will  show  both  the  range  and 
the  limitations  of  Bonar's  gift  of  song.  As  he  grew 
in  years,  he  drew  more  inspiration  from  the  Church 
songs  of  the  past,  some  of  which  he  has  successfully 
translated  ;  and  yet  more  from  his  knowledge  of 
Bible  lands,  their  scenery  and  their  associations. 
But  from  first  to  last  there  is  a  unity  about  his 
work.  He  never  imitated,  never  affected  to  be 
what  he  was  not.  He  is  always  the  Presbyterian, 
Bible  loving,  uncompromising,  unmistakable  in  his 
principles,  his  views,  his  very  prejudices.  But  he 
is,  more  and  more,  the  holy  singer,  inspired  by  the 
Spirit  of  Christ,  steeped  in  love  to  Christ,  at  one 
with  all,  of  all  Churches,  who  love  and  own  the 
same  Lord,  "  both  theirs  and  ours."  Let  us  bless 
God  for  one  more  departed  in  His  faith  and  fear. 



As  the  greatest  and  oldest  of  Christian  festivals, 
Easter  has,  as  might  have  been  expected,  wakened 
the  voice  of  Christian  song  in  many  lands  and  in 
every  age  of  the  Church.  Hence  it  is  that  there 
have  been  an  unusual  number  of  Easter  hymns 
which  from  time  to  time  have  acquired  popularity, 
and  that  although  some  of  these  are  now  forgotten, 
there  are  not  a  few  which,  in  the  hymnals  compiled 
of  late  years  in  England  (such  as  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern,  Church  Hymns,  and  the  Hymnal 
Companion  of  Bishop  Bickersteth),  have  recovered 
their  ancient  place  in  the  affections  of  Church 
people,  and  bid  fair  to  be  welcomed  for  generations 
to  come.  It  may  interest  my  readers  to  hear  of  a 
few  of  these  more  famous  Easter  hymns  of  the 

The  vast  collections  of  hymns  of  the  Greek- 
speaking  Churches,  of  which  all  but  a  few  are 
unknown  to  English  readers,  have  yielded  two 
Easter  hymns  to  our  modern  collections,  viz.  c  The 
Day  of  Resurrection'  (H.  A.  M.;  C.  H. ;  H.  Q, 
and  '  Come,  ye  faithful,  raise  the  strain '  (H.  A.  M.  ; 


C.  //.).  Both  these  are  translated  by  Dr.  Neale 
(in  his  Hymns  of  the  Eastern  Church),  and  both 
are  by  the  same  author,  St.  John  of  Damascus, 
a  Christian  poet  and  philosopher  of  the  eighth 
century,  who  ended  his  days  in  the  monastery  of 
Mar  Saba,  near  the  Dead  Sea  ;  and  who  is,  as  all 
have  agreed,  the  greatest  of  Greek  hymn-writers. 
Of  St.  John's  two  hymns  it  is  especially  the  first 
which  may  claim  notice  as  one  of  the  famous 
hymns  of  the  world,  the  series  (for  Easter  morning) 
to  which  it  belongs  being  called  the  "  Golden 
Canon,"  and  sung  throughout  the  Greek  Churches 
as  the  opening  hymn  for  Easter-day.  A  "  Canon  " 
in  the  Greek  service-books  is  the  name  applied  to 
a  series  of  hymns,  sung  in  a  certain  invariable 
order,  and  governed  by  fixed  rules,  during  Matins 
on  certain  days.  The  second  of  our  Greek  hymns, 
also  by  St.  John  of  Damascus,  is  part  of  a 
"  Canon  "  for  Low  Sunday,  or,  as  the  Greeks  call 
it,  St.  Thomas's  Sunday. 

It  need  hardly  be  said  that  these  Greek  hymns 
were  quite  unknown  to  our  own  fathers  ;  nor  is  it 
likely  that  more  than  a  few  versions,  turned  into 
metre,  or  fragments  from  among  them,  will  find 
their  way  into  our  hymn-books.  We  are  far  more 
at  home  in  the  West  with  the  hymns  of  the  Latin- 
speaking  Churches,  the  true  progenitors  of  our 
own,  as  the  Latin  services  are  (on  the  whole)  of 
our  Book  of  Common  Prayer.  The  old  English 
rule  for  some  centuries  was  that  no  hymns  were 
sung  in  the  Offices  for  the  Hours  on  Easter-day 
itself.  But  the  great  service  for  the  day  opened 
(after  the  singing  of  '  Christ  being  raised  from  the 


dead,'  etc.)  with  the  splendid  processional  of 
Fortunatus,  '  Salve  Festa  dies/  probably  for  many 
centuries  the  most  popular  Easter  hymn  in  the 
world.  It  was  translated  by  Cranmer,  and  his 
design  was  to  print  it  after  the  Litany,  as  a  special 
hymn  for  Easter ;  but  his  translation  is  now  lost. 
It  has  become  known  in  late  years  through  more 
than  one  translation,  '  Welcome,  happy  morning ' 
(H.  A.  M.,  C.  H.,  and  H.  Q,  and  has  recently 
acquired  new  popularity,  in  London  especially, 
through  Mr.  Baden  Powell's  fine  tune  to  a  version 
(I  believe  by  Mr.  Chambers  *),  *  Hail,  festal  day,  for 
evermore  adored.'  The  original  is  probably  the 
finest  processional  hymn  in  the  world.  There  are 
in  the  York  Processional  imitations  of  it  for 
Ascension,  and  for  a  Church  Dedication.  Each 
day  in  Easter  week  had  its  own  "  sequence  "  hymn 
in  the  Sarum  Missal ;  the  best  known  of  these  is 
the  '  Victimae  Paschali,'  of  which  a  free  version  is 
in  H.  A.  M.  131.  This  was  long  sung  by  the 
Lutherans,  and  in  some  German  hymn-books  is 
still  printed  in  the  original  Latin.  Of  the  other 
Latin  Easter  hymns,  the  most  famous  were  the 
following  : — 'Ad  ccenam  Agni,'  of  which  H.  A.  M. 
has  two  versions,  127  and  128  ;  the  former  a  fine 
one,  by  Mr.  Campbell,  also  in  C.  H.,  translated 
from  the  modern  Roman  version  of  this  hymn  ; 
the  latter  reproducing  nearly  all  its  original  quaint- 
ness.  It  was  originally  a  hymn  to  be  sung  by  the 
newly  baptized  in  their  white  dresses,  on  the  first 
Sunday  after  Easter.  'Aurora  lucis  rutilat/  a 
very  fine  hymn  in  three  parts,  is  in  H.  A.  M.  126, 
1  Signed  "  W.  A."  in  Lyra  Eucharistica  (Julian). 


and  a  version  of  the  first  part,  by  Dr.  Hort,  in 
C.  H.  130.  Both  these  hymns  are,  at  latest,  of 
the  sixth  century;  they  are  sometimes  called  St. 
Ambrose's,  and,  at  any  rate,  belong  to  his  school. 
The  hymn  for  the  eves  of  Sundays  in  Easter,  '  Ye 
choirs  of  new  Jerusalem'  (H.  A.  M.  125),  is  attri- 
buted to  a  French  bishop,  St.  Fulbert  of  Chartres, 
of  the  eleventh  century.  '  The  strife  is  o'er '  ('  Finita 
jam  sunt  praelia')  is  referred  by  Dr.  Neale  to  the 
thirteenth  century.  It  is  in  H.  A.  M.,  C.  H.,  and 
H.  C. 

The  Reformation,  as  every  one  knows,  divided 
the  Reformed  Communions  into  psalm-singing  and 
hymn-singing  bodies.  Till  early  in  the  present 
century  no  hymns  were  sung  in  our  churches,  and 
at  Easter  it  was  the  fashion  to  use  the  very  tame 
and  prosaic  paraphrases  of  the  Easter  Anthems, 
which  had  found  their  way  to  the  end  of  the  New 
Version  of  Psalms.  There  was,  however,  one 
singular  and  important  exception,  the  familiar 
'  Jesus  Christ  is  risen  to-day — Alleluia  ! '  Its 
origin  was  for  a  long  time  unknown  ;  and  it  is  still 
impossible  to  discover  under  what  circumstances  it 
attained  its  unique  position.  The  original  is  an 
Easter  carol  of  the  fourteenth  century  still  ex- 
isting at  Munich,  apparently  written  in  imitation 
of  the  famous  Christmas  carol  '  Puer  natus  in 
Bethlehem/ l  A  translation  of  a  portion  of  this  in 
three  verses  appeared  in  English  in  a  book  of 
sacred  melodies  called  Lyra  Davidica,  in  1708. 
From  this  translation  our  present  first  verse  is 
1  See,  however,  Diet,  of  Hymnology,  p.  596  ii.,  where  the 
original  is  given  as  Surrexit  Christus  hodie. — H.  H. 


taken.  The  second  and  third  verses,  however, 
were  replaced  in  1749  (in  Arnold's  Compleat 
Psalmodisf]  by  the  two  with  which  we  are  all 
familiar,  which,  though  in  no  sense  a  translation  of 
the  old  carol,  breathe  the  same  spirit,  and  have 
made  the  whole  into  a  good  hymn.  The  tune, 
commonly  attributed  to  Dr.  Worgan  (but  published 
before  his  birth),  was  thought  by  Sir  John  Goss  to 
be  by  the  celebrated  Henry  Carey;  possibly  he 
also  translated  the  words. 

Germany,  the  land  of  vernacular  hymns,  pro- 
duced many  Easter  hymns.  The  grandest  of  all 
these  was  Luther's  own,  far  less  known  in  England 
than  it  deserves ;  it  was  the  first  German  hymn 
ever  translated  into  English  (by  Myles  Coverdale, 
the  reforming  Bishop  of  Exeter,  under  Henry 
VIII.).  About  thirty  years  ago  a  fine  version  by 
the  late  Mr.  Massie  was  inserted  in  Mercer's 
Hymn-book,  with  the  chorale  to  which  it  is  usually 
sung ;  an  abbreviated  version  of  the  hymn  ('  Christ 
Jesus  lay  in  death's  strong  bonds')  is  in  Church 
Hymns,  129.  There  is  a  still  earlier  hymn,  a  recast 
of  an  old  Bohemian  hymn  ('Christus  ist  erstan- 
den '),  which,  through  Miss  Winkworth's  version, 
'  Christ  the  Lord  is  risen  again '  (H.  A.  M.  and 
C.  H.)  is  happily  now  well  known  and  loved.  One 
other  German  Easter  hymn  may  be  mentioned, 
the  lovely  'Jesus  lives '  (H.  A.  M.  ;  C.  H.  ;  H.  £), 
of  Christian  Gellert,  the  saintly  old  Professor  at 
Leipsic  (d.  1769),  the  teacher  of  Lessing  and 

The  most  famous  Easter  hymn  of  purely  English 
origin  is  probably  Charles  Wesley's  '  Christ  the 


Lord  is  risen  to-day'  (C.  H.  and  H.  C.  210),  one 
of  the  same  set  with  his  better-known  Christmas 
and  Ascension  hymns.  It  is  a  pity  it  has  not 
found  a  place  beside  these  in  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern,  as  well  as  the  little-known  but  very 
striking  Epiphany  hymn  in  the  same  series.  They 
appeared  in  1739.  It  is  too  soon  to  say  whether 
any  later  hymns  will  grow  to  be  famous.  But 
there  are  one  or  two,  such  as  Bishop  Wordsworth's 
florid  but  stately  '  Alleluia !  Alleluia !  hearts  to 
heaven  and  voices  raise'  (H.  A.  M.  and  C.  //".), 
and  Mr.  Chatterton  Dix's  'Alleluia  !  sing  to  Jesus' 
(H.  A.  M.  and  C.  H.),  which  bid  fair  to  take  root 
among  us  ;  to  which  I  feel  strongly  disposed  to 
add  one  by  Mrs.  Cousin  in  a  Scotch  book,  *  To 
Thee,  and  to  Thy  Christ,  O  God,'  Mr.  Baring 
Gould's  touching  '  On  the  Resurrection  morning ' 
(//.  A.  M.  and  C.  //.),  and  '  O  Voice  of  the  Beloved ' 
(for  Easter  Monday),  by  the  late  Vicar  of  Settle, 
Mr.  Jackson  Mason,  a  "sweet  singer"  too  early 
lost  to  the  Church,  all  of  them  likely  to  become 
better  known  and  loved  ere  long. 

The  list  ought  not  to  close  without  the  mention 
of  One  hymn,  which  though  not  formally  an  Easter 
hymn,  is  so  full  of  Easter  teaching  and  spirit  as  to 
form  a  noble  close  to  the  services  of  the  "  Day 
of  Days/'  namely,  'Jerusalem  luminosa,'  'Light's 
abode,  celestial  Salem'  (H.  A.M.  232),  a  selection 
by  Dr.  Neale  from  a  long  hymn  for  the  dedication 
or  restoration  of  a  church.  It  is  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  and  is  found  in  a  hymn-book  at  Carlsriihe. 
How  wonderfully  these  unknown  singers  of  the 
past  live  on  in  their  inspiring  strains  ! 


ADVENT  is  not  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  Church 
Seasons.  Although  in  many  Churches,  especially 
those  in  France,  a  penitential  season,  of  length 
variously  prescribed,  was  observed  as  a  preparation 
for  Christmas  early  in  the  sixth  century,  it  was 
not  until  the  close  of  that  century,  that  the  four 
Sundays  in  Advent  became,  with  their  due  collects 
and  gospels,  a  part  of  the  recognized  order  of  the 
Roman  Church  under  St.  Gregory  the  Great ;  nor 
did  their  use  become  general  for  nearly  a  century 
and  a  half  longer.  But  hymns  on  the  subject  of 
our  Lord's  Advent  are  found  earlier  than  the 
formal  observance  of  the  season  ;  though,  as  might 
be  expected,  they  are  mainly  hymns  of  preparation 
for  Christmas,  and  celebrate  the  first  coming  of 
our  Lord. 

The   typical    primitive   Advent    Hymn    is    St. 

Ambrose's  '  Veni  Redemptor  gentium,'  one  of  the 

most   stately  and  solemn  of  his  hymns.     A  fine 

translation  of  it,  by   the    late    Mr.    Morgan,   was 

inserted   in    the   enlarged    edition    of   PL   A.   M., 

where  it  is  No.  55.1     The  allusions  to  the  manger 

show  that  it  was   intended  for  use  on   Christmas 

Eve  or   Day,  and   it   was   doubtless  originally   a 

1  '  O  come,  Redeemer  of  mankind,  appear.' 



hymn  for  vespers  at  Christmas  ;  but  it  is  essentially 
an  Advent  hymn,. and  was  thus  used  more  com- 
monly in  the  middle  ages,  celebrating  our  Lord's 
two-fold  coming  and  the  Church's  expectation  of 
both.  This  hymn  was  very  widely  used  ;  it  was 
translated  by  Luther,  and  a  version  of  it  in 
German,  by  Franke,  has  become  popular  in  the 
Lutheran  Churches.  Franke's  is  a  fine  translation, 
and  as  its  language  is  better  adapted  for  modern 
use  than  the  plain-spoken  phraseology  of  the 
Latin,  it  was  made  the  basis  of  Professor  Hort's 
admirable  version  of  the  hymn  in  C.  H.  70.  A 
little  later,  probably,  comes  another  hymn  from 
Milan,  'Conditor  alme  siderum '  (H.  A.  M.  45, 
C.  H.  65).  This,  too,  was  universally  employed 
through  the  middle  ages,  and  has  found  its  way 
through  more  than  one  translation  into  German 
books.  Its  popularity  in  England  has  been, 
unfortunately  I  think,  overshadowed  by  that  of 
another  hymn  of  the  same  date,  '  Vox  clara  ecce 
intonat,'  known  to  us  chiefly  through  Mr.  Caswall's 
very  spirited  and  melodious  version  of  it,  *  Hark !  a 
thrilling  voice  is  sounding '  (H.  A.  M.  47,  C*  H. 
67).  A  third  hymn,  equally  popular  in  the  middle 
ages,  'Verbum  Supernum  prodiens,'  also  of  the 
Ambrosian  school,  is  less  known  to  us,  but  it 
appears  as  No.  46  in  H.  A.  M.  It  was  the  Morn- 
ing Hymn  for  every  day  in  Advent.  All  three 
hymns  were  revised  (and  as  usual  nearly  spoiled) 
by  the  compilers  of  the  Roman  breviary  in  the 
sixteenth  century.  The  seventeenth  and  eighteenth 
centuries  brought  a  large  crop  of  Latin  Advent 
hymns,  of  the  same  type,  into  the  various  French 


breviaries,  from  which  thirty  or  forty  years  ago 
several  passed  into  our  English  hymn-books.  The 
best  of  them  is  Charles  Coffin's  '  On  Jordan's 
bank'  (H.  A.  M.  50,  C.  H.  71),  both  translations 
being  revisions  of  Mr.  Chandler's.  Of  our  English 
hymns  on  the  First  Advent,  the  one  to  which  I 
would  give  the  palm  is  undoubtedly  Doddridge's 
noble  '  Hark,  the  glad  sound  !  the  Saviour  comes,' 
written  December  28,  1735,  probably  (as  was  his 
custom)  to  be  sung  after  a  sermon  on  St.  Luke  iv. 
17-19.  This  is  in  nearly  all  English  hymn-books. 
The  Bishop  of  Exeter  has  rescued  from  oblivion, 
for  the  Hymnal  Companion,  another  good  hymn  of 
a  similar  type,  by  Dr.  Watts  :  '  Joy  to  the  world  ! 
the  Lord  is  come ' ;  but  it  is,  in  my  judgment, 
inferior  to  Doddridge's. 

Bishop  Jeremy  Taylor's  Golden  Grove  (written 
about  1654)  contained  a  series  of  irregular  odes, 
which  he  called  "Festival  Hymns."  They  were 
meant  for  private  use.  From  one  of  these,  for 
Advent,  '  Lord,  come  away,'  Earl  Nelson  con- 
structed a  really  fine  hymn  for  the  Salisbury 
Hymn  Book,  which  was  inserted  in  C.  H.  66.  It 
has,  however,  failed  to  attain  the  popularity  which 
I  think  it  deserves.  Bishop  Heber  had  previously 
failed  in  another  attempt  at  adapting  the  same 
hymn.  It  is  on  the  Gospel  for  the  First  Sunday 
in  Advent.  Lord  Nelson's  hymn  begins,  '  Draw 
nigh  to  Thy  Jerusalem,  O  Lord.' 

I  must  not  leave  this  part  of  my  subject  without 
a  reference  to  an  interesting  early  usage  in  Advent, 
which  has  left  its  mark  on  our  hymns,  I  mean  the 
practice  of  singing  a  special  short  anthem  or 


antiphon  at  Evensong  on  each  of  the  eight  days 
before  Christmas  Eve,  beginning  with  December 
1 6.  The  words  in  the  calendar  against  that  day, 
"O  Sapientia,"  may  have  puzzled  some  readers. 
They  are  meant  to  indicate  the  use  of  the  first  of 
these  short  hymns,  "  O  Wisdom  that  earnest  forth 
out  of  the  mouth  of  the  Most  High,  mightily  and 
sweetly  ordering  all  things,  come  and  teach  us  the 
way  of  understanding."  It  is  founded  on  a  passage 
(viii.  i)  in  the  apocryphal  Book  of  Wisdom.  The 
other  six  antiphons  are  all  of  them  invocations  to 
our  Lord  under  some  one  of  His  Old  Testament 
names,  attributes,  or  symbols,  and  were  supposed 
to  represent  the  longing  of  the  faithful  in  old  days 
for  His  appearing.  In  the  twelfth  century  (ac- 
cording to  Dr.  Neale)  they  were  collected  into  a 
metrical  hymn  :  'Veni,  veni,  Emmanuel' ;  and  five 
of  them  now  form  an  admirable  hymn  for  the  last 
fortnight  of  Advent  (//.  A.  M.  49),  and  all  seven 
in  C.  H.  74,  so  arranged  that  one  verse  may,  if 
desired,  be  sung  on  each  of  the  appropriate  days. 
But  the  H.  A.  M.  form,  with  its  lovely  mediaeval 
melody,  is  the  most  popular. 

In  the  middle  ages,  especially  in  the  sorrows 
and  troubles  of  Europe  in  the  eleventh  century, 
the  thought  of  our  Lord's  second  coming  to  judg- 
ment came  more  and  more  prominently  before  the 
minds  of  believers.  A  notion  had  sprung  up  that 
the  end  of  the  thousandth  year  of  the  Christian 
era  would  witness  the  consummation  of  all  things  ; 
and  the  awe  and  terror  of  coming  judgment  lasted 
on  for  a  long  time  afterwards.  Peter  Damiani's 
awful  hymn,  *  Gravi  me  terrore  pulsas,'  which  its 


translator,  Dr.  Neale,  calls  the  "  Dies  Iroe  of  the 
individual  life"  (Neale,  Med.  H.y  p.  52),  was  a 
symptom  of  the  feeling  of  his  day  (1002-72).  A 
century  later  we  have  the  '  Hora  novissima '  of 
Bernard  of  Cluny  ('  The  world  is  very  evil,'  H.  A. 
M.  226),  though  the  later  stanzas,  '  Jerusalem  the 
Golden,'  have  taken  a  far  greater  hold  upon  our 
own  less  serious  century.  And  then,  standing  out 
in  unparalleled  grandeur  above  every  other  "Judg- 
ment "  hymn,  old  and  new,  there  appears  before  us 
the  unapproachable  'Dies  Irae,'  probably  written 
by  Thomas  of  Celano,  the  friend  and  biographer 
of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  about  the  middle  of  the 
thirteenth  century.  There  is  no  need  to  quote 
here  the  judgment  of  critics,  who  all  agree  in 
doing  homage  to  the  majesty  of  the  '  Dies  Irae.' 
The  best  proof  of  its  power  lies  in  the  fact  that  it 
has  more  or  less  influenced  almost  everything  that 
has  since  been  written  on  the  subject  of  the  last 
judgment.  The  hymn  has  been  many  times 
translated  into  various  European  languages.  Of 
late  years  Dean  Alford  and  Archbishop  Trench 
have  been  among  its  translators  into  English  ;  but 
the  best  version  for  singing  is  the  very  remark- 
able one  by  the  late  Dr.  Irons,  which  appears  in 
H.  A.  M.,  in  C.  H.,  and  in  the  Hymnal  Companion^ 
and  which  Dr.  Dykes's  noble  setting  has  made  still 
more  impressive.  The  fine  paraphrase  of  a  part 
of  the  hymn  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  in  the  Lay  of 
the  Last  Minstrel, — 'That  day  of  wrath,  that 
dreadful  day,' — is  also  to  be  found  in  H.  A.  M. 
and  in  Bishop  Bickersteth's  book. 

Numberless   have  been  the  hymns  either  sug- 

c  c 


gested  by  the  'Dies  Irae,'  or  at  least  influenced 
by  its  train  of  thought.  Among  the  best  known 
is  '  Great  God,  what  do  I  see  and  hear  ? '  a 
hymn  universally,  but  quite  erroneously,  known  as 
Luther's,  since  he  had  nothing  to  do  with  either 
the  words  or  the  music.  The  tune  was  a  chorale 
by  Klug,  written  after  Luther's  death.  The  hymn, 
all  but  the  first  verse,  is  by  the  late  Dr.  Collyer, 
a  Congregationalist  minister.  It  may  be  fairly 
said  that  the  hymn  is  one  which  has  been  popu- 
larized by  its  tune,  and  I  own  I  should  much  like 
to  see  it  some  day  superseded  by  Mrs.  Leeson's  far 
more  hopeful  and  beautiful  hymn  in  the  same 
metre,  '  Stand  we  prepared  to  see  and  hear'  (C.  H. 
505),  which  strikes  the  true  keynote  of  preparation 
for  the  coming  of  the  Lord.  But  I  fear  I  shall 
not  carry  my  readers  with  me. 

The  Wesleyan  hymnody,  as  might  be  expected, 
dealt  largely  with  the  expectations  of  the  Second 
Advent,  and  to  it  we  owe  the  most  famous  of 
English  "Judgment"  hymns — that  which  most 
readers  would  recognize  as  the  Advent  hymn  if 
none  other  were  named  ;  I  mean,  of  course,  '  Lo  ! 
He  comes.'  This  hymn,  as  we  know  it,  is  a  curious 
refutation  of  the  popular  theory  that  a  hymn 
ought  always  to  appear  exactly  as  its  author  wrote 
it.  The  original  writer,  John  Cennick,  one  of 
Wesley's  best  preachers  (though  he  afterwards  left 
the  Wesleyans),  is  well  known  as  the  author  of 
'  Children  of  the  heavenly  King.'  Cennick's 
Judgment  hymn  appeared  in  1752,  and  six  years 
afterwards  it  was  recast  by  a  man  of  genius, 
Charles  Wesley,  and  became  what  it  is  now.  My 


readers  may  like  to  see  what  they  would  have  had 
to  sing  if  Charles  Wesley  had  left  the  hymn  as  its 
author  wrote  it.  Happily  he  saw  its  capabilities — 

"  Lo  !  He  cometh,  countless  trumpets 

Bow  before  the  bloody  sign  ; 
Midst  the  thousand  saints  and  angels 
See  the  glorified  shine  ! 

Hallelujah  ! 
Welcome,  welcome,  bleeding  Lamb  ! 

Now  His  merit,  by  the  harpers 
Through  the  eternal  deep  resounds  ; 

Now  resplendent  shines  [sic]  His  nail-prints, 
Every  eye  shall  see  His  wounds  ; 

They  who  pierced  Him 
Shall  at  His  appearance  wail." 

There  are  four  more  stanzas,  which  it  is  needless 
to  give ;  one  of  them,  *  Now  redemption,  long 
expected/  is  still  found  in  some  versions  of  the 
hymn.  But  it  is  to  Wesley,  not  to  Cennick,  that 
we  really  owe  the  words  which  touch  so  many 
hearts  in  the  dusk  of  the  solemn  Advent  afternoon. 

We  must  not  forget,  among  English  Advent 
hymns,  Wesley's  striking  "  Watch-night "  hymn, 
*  Thou  Judge  of  quick  and  dead/  nor  Doddridge's 
'  Ye  servants  of  the  Lord '  ;  John  Newton's  '  Day 
of  Judgment '  seems  to  me  only  a  weaker  '  Lo ! 
He  comes.'  These  three  are  all  in  the  Hymnal 
Companion^  and  the  first  two  in  H.  A.  M. 

The  "  Second  Advent "  hymns  hitherto  men- 
tioned all  bring  into  prominence  the  '  Dies  Irae ' 
side  of  the  Last  Day,  and,  except  Mrs.  Leeson's, 
scarcely  touch  upon  that  aspect  of  it  presented  by 
our  Master's  exhortation  to  His  faithful  disciples  : 


"  Look  up,  and  lift  up  your  heads,  for  your  re- 
demption draweth  nigh."  Of  late  years,  however, 
this  element  of  believing  and  hopeful  expectation 
has  been  largely  awakened  in  the  Christian  Church, 
and  has  found  its  expression  already  in  her  songs. 
Such  hymns  as  Mr.  Hensley's  '  Thy  kingdom 
come,'  Mr.  Tuttiett's  noble  '  O  quickly  come,'  and 
Miss  Havergal's  beautiful  and  jubilant  'Thou  art 
coming,  O  my  Saviour'  (all  in  H.  A.  M.},  are 
indeed  treasures  for  which  we  must  be  thankful  to 
the  Divine  Spirit  who  is  breathing  new  life  into  the 
waiting  Church.  But  the  great  singer  of  Advent 
expectations  is  he  who  so  recently  has  passed 
within  the  veil,  Horatius  Bonar.  Such  hymns  as 
'Come,  Lord/ and  tarry  not/  'The  Church  has 
waited  long,'  '  Far  down  the  ages  now '  (all  in 
C.  //.,  and  the  last  also  in  the  new  appendix  to 
H.  A.  M.),  may  well  help  to  rekindle  in  many 
hearts  that  "  looking  for  the  blessed  hope  and 
glorious  appearing  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus 
Christ,"  which  was  the  especial  characteristic  of 
the  Church  of  the  first  days,  and  for  lack  of  which 
she  has  been,  till  of  late,  shorn  of  so  much  of  her 
strength,  and  chilled  in  the  energy  of  her  love. 


THE  present  century  has  done  much  for  the 
religious  life  of  children  within  the  Church.  In 
nothing  is  this  more  manifest  than  in  the  provision 
made  for  their  devotions.  Hymns  for  children  as 
children  were  all  but  unknown  before  the  Reform- 
ation. The  famous  "  Shepherd  "  hymn  of  Clement 
of  Alexandria  is  not  really  a  hymn  at  all,  nor  is 
it  fitted  or  intended  for  use  by  a  child.  The  yet 
more  famous  'All  glory,  laud,  and  honour'  (at- 
tributed, on  doubtful  authority,  to  Theodulf  of 
Orleans)  was  written,  no  doubt,  to  be  sung  by 
chorister  boys,  but  merely  as  an  adjunct  to  the 
Palm  Sunday  Offices  ;  and  the  hymns  which 
Savonarola  taught  the  boys  at  Florence  were  the 
product  of  a  noble  but  merely  local  and  temporary 
revival.  A  "children's  hymn-book"  in  the  middle 
ages  meant  a  collection  of  the  usual  Office  Hymns 
and  Sequences,  with  notes  and  helps  to  construing 
• — a  school-book  for  the  choristers'  schools.  One 
such  is  preserved  in  a  Cheshire  church,  with  a 
grim  frontispiece  representing  three  little  boys 
seated  on  a  low  bench  before  a  stern  ecclesiastic, 
who  wields  a  formidable  birch-rod ; — a  curious 


illustration  of  the  method  then  accepted  of  "  teach- 
ing a  child  to  be  good."  The  Reformation  brought 
at  least  the  possibility  of  a  change,  though  it  was 
long  before  the  change  came.  There  is,  indeed, 
no  manual  of  Christian  teaching  in  any  country  to 
be  compared  to  our  Church  Catechism  ;  but  how 
much  "  accommodation  "  and  exposition  it  needs 
to  make  it  a  child's  book !  Luther,  indeed,  under- 
stood children's  religion,  as  his  Christmas  hymn 
for  his  boy  Hans  shows  us ;  and  we  have  occasional 
glimpses,  from  time  to  time,  of  light  upon  children's 
spiritual  needs  ;  Herrick's  lovely  *  Grace '  is  one 
such  ;  but  still  there  was  wanting  a  real  sympathy 
with  the  beginnings  of  child-like  religion.  Ken's 
'  Good  Philotheus '  is  no  child,  but  a  sixth-form 

We  come  to  Isaac  Watts  as  the  pioneer  in  the 
attempt  to  provide  children  with  hymns  and 
prayers  of  their  own.  Watts,  though  a  valetu- 
dinarian old  bachelor,  was  a  kindly  little  man, 
really  fond  of  children,  and  his  Divine  and  Moral 
Songs  were  a  labour  of  love.  There  is  much  to 
commend  in  his  work.  With  all  the  quaintness, 
there  is  in  his  Moral  Songs  a  "  sanctified  common- 
sense  "  which  is  excellent ;  and  he  now  and  then 
rises  into  real  poetry,  as  in  the  '  Cradle  Hymn,' 
which  Tennyson  has  singled  out  for  praise.  In 
the  Divine  Songs  there  are  fine  thoughts  here  and 
there — thoughts  of  a  devout  and  God-fearing  mind. 
But  Watts  never  rose  beyond  the  theology  of  his 
environment  ;  and  that  theology  was  singularly 
ill-adapted  to  call  out  the  elements  of  a  child's 
religion.  He  never,  to  begin  with,  grasped  the 


idea  of  a  child's  covenant  relation  with  its  Father 
in  heaven.  His  children  were  not  even  prodigal 
sons ;  they  had  never  yet  been  in  the  Father's 
House  at  all.  He  writes  a  hymn  for  believers 
who  practise  infant  baptism,  and  gives  those  who 
don't  a  hint  to  leave  out  certain  verses.  For 
Infant  Baptism  was  to  him  a  devout  and  graceful, 
but  purely  optional  form— just  as  one  might  pre- 
pare a  book  for  "  believers  who  practise  "  chanting 
the  Psalms.  He  is,  of  course,  like  all  his  school, 
happily  inconsistent ;  he  loves  children  so  much 
that  he  believes  in  his  Master's  love  for  them  ;  but 
he  does  not  believe  that  a  Christian  child  belongs 
to  Christ  in  any  special  sense  at  all.  Contrast  St, 
Matthew  xviii.  10,  with  such  words  as — 

"  Can  such  a  wretch  as  I 
Escape  this  cursed  end  ? 

*  *         *         * 
Then  will  I  read  and  pray, 

*  *         *         * 

Lest  I  should  be  cut  off  to-day, 
And  sent  to  eternal  death." 

Or  consider  the  difference  of  the  conception  of  the 
character  of  God  as  revealed  by  Christ  in  the 
words,  "  It  is  not  the  will  of  your  Father  which  is 
in  heaven  that  one  of  these  little  ones  should 
perish,"  with  that  embodied  in  the  monstrous 
lines — 

"  What  if  the  Lord  grow  wroth,  and  swear, 
While  I  refuse  to  read  and  pray, 
That  He'll  refuse  to  lend  an  ear 
To  all  my  groans  another  day  ? 


What  if  His  dreadful  anger  burn 

While  I  refuse  His  offered  grace, 

And  all  His  love  to  anger  turn, 

And  strike  me  dead  upon  the  place  ? 

3Tis  dangerous  to  provoke  a  God  ! 

His  power  and  vengeance  none  can  tell : 

One  stroke  of  His  Almighty  rod 

Shall  send  youag  sinners  quick  to  hell  " 

and  so  forth.  The  contrast  between  this  and  the 
'  Cradle  Song '  shows  the  difference  between  a 
good  man  writing  from  his  own  heart  and  from 
the  necessity  of  being  consistent  with  the  traditional 
theology  of  his  school. 

Charles  Wesley,  who  thought  that  Watts  had 
"  succeeded  admirably  well "  in  letting  himself 
down  to  children,  himself  wrote,  he  tells  us,  on  the 
other  plan  of  lifting  them  up  to  us.  But  except 
the  fine  '  Captain  of  our  Salvation/  for  the  Kings-* 
wood  pupils,  there  is  nothing  worth  noting  in  the 
first  part  of  his  hymns  for  children,  certainly 
nothing  so  good  as  Watts's  best.  His  Hymns  for 
the  Youngest  contain,  however,  some  really  beauti- 
ful little  hymns,  the  first  being  '  Gentle  Jesus, 
meek  and  mild/  It  is  true  he  sometimes  "lets 
himself  down "  so  much,  that  some  of  his  lines 
are  absolutely  silly ;  and  sometimes,  in  trying  to 
lift  up  the  children,  loses  hold  of  the  little  hands. 
Nor  does  his  theology,  on  the  whole,  differ  much 
from  Watts's.  The  repentance,  faith,  hopes,  and 
terrors  of  the  little  ones  are  still  cast  in  the  mould 
of  their  elders.  The  foundation  text  of  a  child's 
religion  is  still  read  backwards — "  Except  the  little 
children  be  converted,  and  become  like  you." 
The  establishment  of  Sunday  Schools  doubtless 


brought  a  new  demand  for  children's  hymns ;  and 
soon  a  far  truer  note  was  struck  by  the  Taylors  of 
Ongar.  The  authoresses  of  the  Hymns  for  Infant 
Minds  and  Hymns  for  Sunday  Schools  found  out 
at  last  how  to  put  into  really  childlike  words 
the  root-truths  of  every  child's  faith.  Dissenters 
though  they  were,  and  (I  believe)  Baptists,  the 
groundwork  of  all  true  Church  teaching  is  in  such 
hymns  as  '  Great  God,  and  wilt  Thou  condescend/ 
'  Lord,  I  would  own  Thy  tender  care,' '  Lo,  at  noon 
'tis  sudden  night '  (a  really  sublime  hymn  on  the 
Passion),  '  Jesus  Christ,  my  Lord  and  Saviour.' 
*  Jesus,  Who  dwelt  above  the  sky,'  though  the  most 
popular  of  all,  has  grave  defects  of  taste  and 
doctrine.  And  more  might  be  enumerated.  But 
now  "  all  can  grow  the  flower "  from  the  seed 
which  the  Taylors  sowed ;  and  the  luxuriance  of 
Nonconformist  child-hymnody  is  such  that  it 
would  be  invidious  to  select  names.  But  it  is  to 
be  noted  that  the  best  of  these  are  those  that  have 
shaken  themselves  most  free  from  the  dominant 
theology  of  Watts's  day,  and  dwell  mainly  upon 
the  Fatherhood  of  God,  the  love  of  the  Good 
Shepherd,  and  the  personal  relation  of  the  child 
to  Him.  Such  are  those  of  Mr.  Midlane  ('  There's 
a  Friend  for  little  children '),  Mrs.  Luke  ('  I  think 
when  I  read  that  sweet  story  of  old '),  and  Mrs. 
Duncan  ('  Jesus,  tender  Shepherd,  hear  me '). 

And  now  as  the  spirit  of  hymnody  began  to 
awake  within  the  English  Church,  and  one  singer 
after  another  arose  to  translate  the  words  of  the 
past,  or  to  add  new  treasures  to  the  ever-growing 
store  of  Church  hymns,  there  arose  a  new  demand 


for  definite  Church  teaching  in  the  songs  put  into 
the  lips  of  our  little  ones,  and  the  Church  of 
England  began  to  produce  children's  hymns  of  her 
own,  conceived  in  the  spirit  of  her  Prayer  Book 
and  Catechism.  Isaac  Williams's  Hymns  on  the 
Catechism,  though  rather  hard  and  formal,  were  a 
step  in  the  right  direction ;  then  came  the  suc- 
cessive parts  of  Neale's  Hymns  for  Children^  many 
of  them  devout  and  instructive,  but  not  inspired ; 
Mrs.  Leeson's  Hymns  and  Scenes  of  Childhood ; 
and  a  most  excellent  and  useful,  though  rather 
unchildlike  book,  The  Child's  Christian  Year,  to 
which  Keble  contributed,  and  in  which  appeared 
many  of  Anstice's  hymns,  and  some  by  Cardinal 
Newman's  sister,  Mrs.  Mozley.  But  none  of  these 
were  all  we  wanted  for  our  little  ones.  At  last,  in 
1848,  amidst  the  storms  of  political  revolution  and 
social  agitation,  when  a  new  tide  of  thought  was 
flowing  full  and  strong  into  English  religious  life, 
in  the  year  which  saw  Tennyson's  splendid 
maturity  in  the  '  Princess/  and  Charles  Kingsley's 
brilliant  dawning  in  the  'Saint's  Tragedy,'  there 
came  quietly  and  unnoticed  into  the  Church,  from 
the  far  north  of  Ireland,  a  little  book  signed  by  no 
name  but  the  three  modest  initials,  "  C.  F.  H." ;  a 
book  which  will  live  upon  the  lips  of  generations 
of  children  yet  unborn,  even  of  many  who  will 
perhaps  never  care  to  read  the  two  other  great 
poems ;  and  will  put  into  the  mouth  of  thousands 
of  "  babes  and  sucklings  "  the  first  notes  of  that 
praise  which  God  will  perfect  on  high. 

Miss  Humphreys,  as  she  then  was,  had  already 
published  one  or  two  graceful  volumes  of  verse  for 


young  people,  and  two  years  before  had  brought 
out,  with  a  Preface  by  Dr.  Hook,  a  little  book  of 
Verses  for  Holy  Seasons,  dedicated  to  John  Keble. 
These  are  arranged  according  to  the  Sundays  and 
Holy  Days  of  the  Christian  Year.  They  scarcely 
give  promise  of  what  was  to  come;  but  there  is 
much  beauty  in  them  here  and  there.  One 
specially  lovely  poem  on  the  healing  of  the  deaf 
stammerer  has,  I  believe,  been  reprinted  in  her 
Moral  Songs.  But  the  "  Verses  "  were  not  hymns. 

It  is  superfluous  to  praise  the  Hymns  for 
Little  Children,  which  must  have  sold  by  the 
million.  Its  true  praise  is  in  the  thousands  of 
little  lips  which  daily  utter  such  strains  as,  '  Now 
the  dreary  night  is  done,'  '  All  things  bright  and 
beautiful,'  '  Once  in  royal  David's  city,'  *  Do  no 
sinful  action,'  *  There  is  a  green  hill  far  away,' 
and  many  another.  It  was  an  excellent  plan  to 
make  the  hymns  follow  the  order  of  the  Church 
Catechism,  upon  which  they  are  so  good  a 

The  Hymns  for  Little  Children  were  followed 
by  the  scarcely  less  beautiful,  but  less  known 
Narrative  Hymns  on  the  Gospels  ;  and  these  again 
by  the  Verses  on  Subjects  in  the  Old  Testament, 
containing,  among  others,  the  noble  poem  on  the 
'  Burial  of  Moses,'  which  the  late  Lord  Houghton 
— no  mean  critic — pronounced  to  be  the  finest 
sacred  lyric  in  the  language.  Before  these  were 
given  to  the  world,  Miss  Humphreys  had  married 
Mr.  Alexander,  one  of  the  two  Irish  deans  who 
took  the  Church  of  England  by  storm  at  the  York 
Church  Congress,  and  who  have  now  been  long 


recognized  as  the  two  most  eloquent  preachers  on 
the  bench  of  Bishops.1  Mrs.  Alexander's  hymns, 
however,  as  is  well  known,  are  by  no  means  all 
written  for  the  little  ones.  Some  of  these  best 
known  .and  loved  first  appeared  in  the  S.P.C.K. 
Psalms  and  Hymns,  1850,  edited  by  the  late  Mr. 
Fosbery  of  Reading.  Among  these  were  '  Jesus 
calls  us  ;  o'er  the  tumult,'  *  The  roseate  hues  of 
early  dawn/  '  The  golden  gates  are  lifted  up.' 
The  beautiful  'When  wounded  sore  the  stricken 
soul '  is  a  little  later.  This  hymn  is  understood  to 
be  her  husband's  favourite. 

Mrs.  Alexander  edited  for  Messrs.  Macmillan 
a  charming  little  Sunday  Book  of  Poetry  for  the 
Yoiing>  one  of  the  "  Golden  Treasury  "  series  ;  less 
known  than  it  deserves.  She  is  frequently  asked 
to  write  hymns  for  special  occasions.  Some  of 
the  Hymns  for  Saints'  Days  in  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern  are  hers,  including  a  beautiful  one  for 
St.  Peter's  Day,  *  Forsaken  once,  and  thrice  denied.' 
Some  of  these,  however,  are  less  adapted  for 
singing  than  her  earlier  hymns.  She  has  also 
written  a  pretty  collection  of  Moral  Songs,  and 
one  or  two  allegories  and  tales  ;  among  them  a 
rendering  into  verse  of  the  lovely  legend  of  Saint 
Francesca  of  Rome,  called  '  The  Legend  of  the 
Golden  Prayers.' 

Many  years  ago  two  ladies  in  a  country  house 
were  watching  all  night  in  terrible  anxiety  by  the 
bedside  of  the  child  of  one  of  them,  who  had  been 
struck  down  by  a  dread  accident.  As  night  slowly 
passed  into  dawn  hope  seemed  to  die  out  of  their 
1  She  died  after  this  paper  was  written. 


hearts.  Suddenly  from  the  adjoining  nursery  rose 
the  clear,  fresh  voice  of  the  sufferer's  little  brother, 
saying,  as  he  sat  up  in  bed — 

"  Now  the  dreary  night  is  done, 
Comes  again  the  glorious  sun." 

The  tones  came  like  a  message  of  hope  to  the  two 
weary  watchers  ;  and  the  hope  new  kindled  found 
fulfilment  ere  long. 


ADAMS,  Sarah,  381 

Advent,  and  Advent  Hymns,  397 

Alexander,  Mrs.,  410 

Alford,  Dean,  374 

Allen,  James,  320 

American    Hymn-Book,    169,   222, 

231,  286 

Attwell,  Professor,  102,  117,  167 
Auber,  Harriet,  346,  381 
Augustine's  definition  of  a  Hymn, 

161,  225 
Authorized  Hymnal,  206,  260,  284 

Baker,  Sir  Henry  W.,  47,  280,  374 

*  Baldur,  death  of,'  25 

Barbauld,  Anna,  381 

Barnes,  66 

Baxter,  Richard,  309 

Bickersteth,  Bishop  E.  H.,  70,  123, 

139,  399 

Bird,  F.  M.,  letter  from,  171 
Blunt,  Rev.  Gerald,  23,  69 
Bonar,  Horatius,  376,  387 
Bonar,  Andrew,  388 
'  Bondage  of  Creeds,'  40 
'Book  of  Praise,'  238 
Brock,  Mrs.  Carey,  87 
'  Burial  of  Moses,'  411 
Burns,  the  brothers,  388 

1  Canon  '  in  Greek  service  books, 


Caswall,  Rev.  Edward,  367 
Cennick,  John,  318,  340,  402 
Centuries,      l6th,     I7th,    poor     in 

hymnody,  199 

Chandler,  Rev.  John,  352 
Child's  Christian  Year,  The,  410 
'  Children's  Almanac,'  156 
Children's  Hymns,  405 
'  Children's  Hymn-Book,'  The,  64, 

87,  95,  98 
'  Children's    Hymns    and    School 

Prayers,'  64 
Chillon,  100 

Choral  Associations,  value  of,  256 
'  Christian  Observer,'  The,  329 
'Christian  Year,'  The,  240,  359 
'Church  of  England  Hymn-Book,' 

The,  92 
Church    of    England    Temperance 

Hymn-Book,  70 
'  Church  Hymns,'  72,  95,  98 
Collins,  Henry,  368 
Compton,  Rev.  Berdmore,  74,  82 
Conder,  Josiah,  342 
Copyright  of  hymns,  123 
Cosin,  Bishop,  303 
Cotterill,  Rev.  Thomas,  340 
Coverdale's    collection    of   hymns, 


Cowper,  William,  237,  324 
Cradle  Hymn,  Watts's,  406 
Cranmer,  Archbishop,  187 
Creeds  are  hymns,  232 
Crewe  Green,  36 
Critical  estimate  of  Canon  Ellerton's 

hymns,  161 
Grossman,  Samuel,  309 

Denmark,  hymns  of,  78 

'  Dictionary  of  Hymnology,'  156 



Doddridge,  Philip,  200,  314 
'  Dream  of  Gerontius,'  365 
Drummond,  William,  351 

Elizabeth,  Injunction  of,  196 
Ellerton,  John,  birth  and  baptism, 
1 6  ;  his  descent  and  parents,  1 6  ; 
at  Norham-on-Tweed,  18  ;  death 
of  his  father  and  mother,  18; 
early  boyhood  in  London,  1 8  ; 
unfulfilled  prophecy,  19 ;  at 
Ulverston,  20 ;  goes  to  King 
William's  College,  20  ;  at  Bra- 
thay,  21  ;  matriculates  at  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  21  ;  Cam- 
bridge Society,  Henry  Bradshaw, 
Dr.  Hort,  21  ;  influence  of  Mau- 
rice's works  on  his  mind,  21  ;  tone 
of  his  Churchmanship,  22  ;  Col- 
lege life,  Rev.  G.  Blunt's  recol- 
lections of  him,  23  ;  competes  for 
the  Chancellor's  medal,  24  ;  or- 
dained Deacon,  24 ;  curate  life 
at  Easebourne,  32 ;  ordained 
Priest,  and  appointed  Senior 
Curate  of  Brighton,  and  evening 
Lecturer  at  St.  Peter's,  33  ;  Fred- 
erick Robertson,  34  ;  appointed 
Vicar  of  Crewe  Green,  36  ;  mar- 
ries, 36  ;  activity  as  a  Parish 
Priest,  37  ;  '  Bondage  of  Creeds,' 
40;  the  Endless  Alleluia,  explan- 
ation of  the  term  "endless"  by 
Sir  H.  Baker,  46  ;  hymns  written 
at  Crewe  Green,  46 — 60;  ap- 
pointed Diocesan  Inspector,  63  ; 
presented  to  the  Rectory  of 
Barnes,  65  ;  disabled  by  illness, 
98 ;  resigns  Barnes,  98  ;  retires 
to  Switzerland,  98 ;  Chaplain  at 
Pegli,  102 ;  appointed  Rector  of 
White  Roding,  115  ;  publishes 
'  Hymns  Original  and  Trans- 
lated,' 127  ;  stricken  with  pa- 
ralysis, 156;  withdraws  to  Tor- 
quay, 157  ;  resigns  White  Roding, 
157  ;  nominated  Canon  of  St. 
Albans,  157  ;  death,  158;  funeral, 
Elliott,  Charlotte,  381 

English  hymnody,  recent  growth  of, 
192  ;  begins  in  l8th  century,  199  ; 
its  subjective  character,  202  ;  past 
history  of,  185 

Faber,  Rev.  F.  W.,  369 
Faioum  fragment,  The,  119 
Florence,  112 
Flowerdew,  Alice,  381 
Free     Church     of     Scotland,     its 
founders,  378,  389 

Gales,  Mr.,  338 

German  hymns,  the  older,  78,  278 ; 

the  later,  204 

Grant,  Charles  Lord  Glenelg,  349 
Grant,  Sir  Robert,  349 
Greek  hymns,  392 

Hammond,  William,  351 

Havergal,  Frances  Ridley,  276,  384 

Heber,  Bishop  Reginald,  230,  330 

Heber,  Richard,  330 

Henry  VIII.  Primer,  193 

I  linstock,  6 1 

<  Holy  Year,'  The,  376 

Hort,  Dr.,  119 

How,  Bishop  Walsham,  64,  70, 
82,  87,  116 

Hymn,  Augustine's  definition  of  a, 
161,  225 

Hymn,  original  form  of,  not  neces- 
sarily the  best,  208 

'  Hymnal  Companion,'  98,  124,  270 

Hymn-book,  principles  on  which  it 
should  be  constructed,  223  ;  how 
to  use,  245 

'Hymnologia  Christiana,'  Dr.  Ken- 
nedy's, 72,  94,  198 

'  Hymns  and  Scenes  of  Childhood,' 

'  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,'  74, 
98,  130,  224,  280 

'  Hymns  of  Faith  and  Hope,'  380 

'  Hymns  for  Children,' Dr.  Neale's, 
358,  4io 

'  Hymns  for  Little  Children,'  411 

'  Hymns  for  Schools  and  Bible 
Classes,'  34,  72 

'  Hymns  on  the  Catechism,'  410 



'  Hymns  Original  and  Translated,' 

'  Hymns,'  Art.  in  'Diet,  of  Christian 
Antiquities,'  62 

Hymns  for  Saints'  Days,  229  n.  ; 
care  in  selecting  for  singing,  251  ; 
giving  out  in  church,  285  ;  'Jeru- 
salem,' 235;  'Judgment,'  402; 
limits  to  length  of,  242 ;  modern 
compared  with  ancient,  204  ;  of 
the  Oxford  Movement,  350 ; 
private  use  of,  257  ;  sentimental 
and  sensuous,  238,  239  n.,  264  ; 
speed  in  singing,  255  5  when  un- 
fitted for  congregational  use,  204 

Hymn-singing  of  former  days,  73 

'Indwelling,  The  Great,'  121 
Irons,  Dr.  W.  J.,  356 
Irvine,  Edward,  19 

Jackson,  Bishop,  105 
Jewel,  Bishop,  letter  to  Peter  Mar- 
tyr, 196 

Keble,  Rev.  John,  360 
Kemble,  Rev.  Charles,  231 
Ken,  Bishop,  305 
Kennedy,  Dr.,  72,  198 

Leeds,  singing  in  the  parish  church, 


Litanies,  metrical,  95 
'  London  Mission  Hymn-Book,'  70 
Luke,  Jemima,  381 
'  Lyra  Catholica,'  368 
'  Lyra  Eucharistica, '  96 
Lyte,  Rev.  H.  F.,  344 

Macaulay,  Zachary,  329 

McCheyne,  Rev.  R.  M.,  388 

Maian,  Cesar,  382 

Mant,  Bishop,  351 

'  Manual  of  Parochial  Work,'  68 

Martin,  St.,  143  n. 

Mason,  Jackson,  396 

Mason,  John,  309 

Matthewson,   Rev.   Thomas,  letter 

from,  174 
'  Mediaeval  Hymns  and  Sequences,' 


'  Memorials  of  a  Quiet  Life,'  332 
Mercer,  Rev.  W.,  342 
Milman,  Dean,  334 
Monsell,  Rev.  J.  S.,  374 
Montgomery,  James.  337 
Moorson,  W.  M.,  37 
Mozarabic  Liturgy,  51 
Mozley,  Anne,  381 

'Narrative  Hymns  on  the  Gospels,' 


Neale,  Dr.  J.  M.,  355 
Nelson,  Earl,  362,  399 
Newman,  Cardinal,  363 
Newton,  John,  201,  325 
'  Notes  and  Illustrations  to  Church 

Hymns,'  62,  68,  81 
Novalis,  89 

Oakeley,  Frederick,  369 
Olney  Hymns,  323,  327,  329 
Ouseley,  Rev.  Sir  Frederick,  190 
Oxenden,  Bishop,  88 

Parisian  Breviary,  352 
'Poor-House,  an  Italian,'  109 
Pope's  Ode,  231 
'Prayers    for   School-masters   and 

Teachers,'  34 
Psalms,  Book  of,  226  ;  Metrical,  a 

mistake,  80 

Rhys  Prichard,  Welsh  Hymns,  279 
Robertson,  Rev.  F.  W.,  34 
Robertson  of  Irvine,  380 

S.  P.  C.  K.,  67,  77 

Salisbury  Hymn-book,  362 

Sedgwick,  Daniel,  211,  276 

Shirley,  Hon.  W.,  320 

Steele,  Anne,  381 

Sternhold,  Thomas,  his  Version  of 

the  Psalms,  196 
Stubbs,  Thomas,  funeral  of,  52 
Synesius,  Bishop,  278 

Taine,  M.,  190 

Tate  and  Brady,  197 

Taylor,    Bishop   Jeremy,    '  Golden 

Grove,'  399 

Taylor,  the  Sisters,  381,  409 


Thomas  of  Celano,  401 
Thornton,  Archdeacon,  67 
Thring,  Prebendary  Godfrey,  92 
Toplady,  Augustus  M.,  202,  321 
Tracts  for  S.  P.  C.  K.,68 
'Twilight  of  Life,'  121 

'  Verses  for  Holy  Seasons,'  411 

'  Verses  on    Subjects   in  the   Old 

Testament,'  411 
Veytaux,  99 

Walton,  Izaak,  306 

Watts,  Dr.,  200,  234,  309,  406 

Webb,  Benjamin,  356 

'  Welshman's  Candle,'  The,  279 

Wesleys,  Thej  201,  316 

White  Roding,  116 

Wilberforce,  W. ,  anecdote  of,  359 

Williams,  Rev.  Isaac,  353 

Williams,  William,  279 

Winkworth,  Miss  Catherine,  278 

Wordsworth,  Bishop  Christopher, 
56,  230  ».,  231,  374;  on  the 
doctrinal  teaching  of  hymns, 



A  CHILD  is  born  in  Bethlehem        148 

Again  the  morn  of  gladness  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...       64 

Again  Thou  meetest  in  Thy  way      ...         ...         ...         ...     129 

All  my  heart  to  Thee  I  give 65 

Another  day  begun 55 

Ascended  Lord,  Thy  Church's  Head          138,140 

Before  the  day  draws  near  its  ending          69 

Behold  us,  Lord,  a  little  space         54,  83 

Break  Thou  to  us,  O  Lord   ...         ...         ...         ...          69,  125 

Bride  of  Christ,  whose  glorious  warfare      ...         ...          84,  1 34 

Church  of  Christ,  &c.     See  Bride  of  Christ,  &c. 

Come  forth,  O  Christian  brothers 53 

Day  by  day  we  magnify  Thee  34 

Down  the  lane  at  evening  time        121 

English  children,  lift  your  voices      128 

Father,  in  Thy  glorious  dwelling     48,166 

Father!  Name  of  love  and  fear  ! 55 

"  Follow  Me  !"  the  Master  spake 140,145 

From  east  to  west,  from  shore  to  shore      ...         ...          85,  134 

Giver  of  the  perfect  gift !       58,85 

Glory  in  the  highest  !  let  our  Church  bells  ring  (dated  \^>^) 
God,  Creator  and  Preserver  !  ...         ...         ...         ...       54 

God  of  the  living,  in  Whose  eyes 35 

God  the  Almighty,  in  wisdom  ordaining 53 

Hail  to  the  Lord  Who  comes  ...         ...         ...         ...       69 

Here  in  this  peaceful  time  and  place  of  rest          107 


In  gladness  to  Thy  House,  O  Lord  153 

I  would  not  linger  idly  by  the  strand          121 

In  the  Name  which  earth  and  Heaven        57,  83 

In  the  Name  which  holy  angels        68 

It  was  early  in  the  morning 146 

Jesu  most  pitiful         49 

Jesu,  Who  alone  defendest 51 

Joy  !  because  the  circling  year         85 

King  Messiah,  long  expected  55583 

King  of  Saints,  to  Whom  the  number        56,83 

Lift  the  strain  of  high  thanksgiving  51 

Lo,  the  angel  squadrons  muster  ;  lo,  the  armies  of  the  sky     148 

Mary  at  the  Master's  feet      56,83 

Morn  of  morns,  the  best  and  first 85 

Now  the  labourer's  task  is  o'er         56 

Now  returns  the  awful  morning  35,  83 

O  Father,  all  creating  ...         63 

O  Father,  bless  the  children  128 

O  friends,  from  under  skies  of  ashen  grey  ...         ...         ...      122 

Oh  come,  all  ye  faithful,  joyful  and  triumphant     ...  57,  86 

Oh  how  fair  that  morning  broke      69 

O  Holy  Spirit,  Whom  our  Master  sent       139,  144 

O  Jerusalem  the  blissful,  Home  of  gladness  yet  untold  128,  134 

O  Lord  of  life  and  death,  we  come 55?  84 

O  Meat  for  travellers  on  their  road  ...         ...         ...         ...     149 

Once  more  Thy  Cross  before  our  view        ...         ...         ...       63 

On  this  the  day  when  days  began    ...         ...         ...  48,86 

Onward,  brothers,  onward  !  march  with  one  accord        ...       71 

O  Sacred  Head,  beneath  Thy  veil  of  shame          150 

O  shining  city  of  our  God     52 

O  Son  of  God,  our  Captain  of  salvation      55,  84 

O  Strength  and  Stay,  upholding  all  creation          ...          85,  160 
O  Thou  in  Whom  Thy  saints  repose  ...         ...         ...       53 

O  Thou  Who  givest  food  to  all        70 

O  Thou  Whose  bounty  fills  the  earth          69 

Our  day  of  praise  is  done      48 

Praise  our  God  for  all  the  wonders 33,  7° 

Praise  our  God,  Whose  open  Hand  69 

Praise  to  our  God,  Whose  bounteous  Hand  57 

Praise  to  the  Heavenly  Wisdom      128 

Saviour,  again  to  Thy  dear  Name  we  raise  ...          47,  159 

Say,  watchman,  what  of  the  night  ?  140,147 

Shine  Thou  upon    us,  Lord.     (See   Break  Thou  to  us, 

O  Lord) 125  n. 


Sing  Alleluia  forth  in  duteous  praise          46 

Sing,  ye  faithful,  sing  with  gladness            54 

Speak  Thou  to  me,  O  Lord 63 

Spirit  of  God,  Whose  glory 129 

Take,  dearest,  this,  thy  Lenten  thoughts  to  guide  ...     122 

The  day  Thou  gavest,  Lord,  is  ended         ...         ...         ...       53 

The  hours  of  school  are  over  34 

The  Lord  be  with  us  as  we  bend 53 

The  years  pass  on.    We  name  them  good  or  bad 151 

This  day  the  Lord's  disciples  met    ...         ...         ...         ...       68 

This  is  the  day  of  Light         48 

This  is  the  hour  when  in  full  brightness  glowing 129 

Thou  in  Whose  Name  the  two  or  three      84 

Thou  Who  once  for  us  uplifted         ...         ...         ...         ...       62 

T!K>U  Who  sentest  Thine  Apostles 63 

Thou  Who,  wearied  by  the  well      70 

Thrice  Holy,  Thrice  Almighty  Lord          1 28 

Throned  upon  the  awful  Tree  ...         ...         ...         ...       63 

Thy  Voice  it  is  that  calls  us,  bounteous  Lord        68 

'Tis  come,  the  day  of  exultation       139,142 

To-day  we  sing  to  Christ  our  King 139,143 

To  the  Name  that  speaks  salvation 59,  86 

"  Welcome,  happy  morning !  "  age  to  age  shall  say        ...       49 

We  sing  of  Christ's  eternal  gifts       59 

We  sing  the  glorious  conquest          55 ,  84 

What  were  Thy  Forty  Days  ?          139,141 

Wlien  the  day  of  toil  is  done  52 

When  to  the  far-off  country 155 

Within  Thy  Temple,  Lord,  of  old 70 



ABIDE  with  me          65  «.,  89,  348 

Ad  coenam  Agni         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         191,  393 

Adeste  fideles 2315369 

Adoro  Te  devote        79,188^,278 

yEterna  Christi  munera          230  n. 

A  few  more  years        378,  390 

Alleluia  dulce  carmen 96 

Alleluia!  fairest  morning      94 

Alleluia  !  hearts  to  heaven 396 

Alleluia!  sing  to  Jesus          ...          396 

All  glory,  laud,  and  honour  ...         ...         ...         ...        356,  405 

All  hail  the  power  of  Jesus' Name 320 

All  people  that  on  earth  do  dwell 227 

All  things  bright  and  beautiful         411 

Angels,  from  the  realms  of  glory 341 

Art  thou  weary  358 

As  for  Thy  gifts          198 

At  the  Lamb's  High  Feast 96,191 

Auroralucis 191 

Awake,  my  soul         252 

Before  Jehovah's  awful  throne         313 

Bread  of  heaven,  on  Thee  we  feed 343 

Bread  of  the  world,  in  mercy  broken          336 

Brief  life  is  here  our  portion 356 

Brightest  and  best       335 

By  Thy  birth,  O  Lord  of  all  381 

Calm  me,  my  God     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     39° 

Captain  of  our  salvation        408 

Children  of  the  Heavenly  King        320,402 

Christ  lag  in  Todesbanden  (Christ Jesus  lay)        ...  96,  191,  395 

Christ  the  Lord  is  risen  again  395 

Christ  the  Lord  is  risen  to-day         191,  395 

Christ,  Whose  glory  fills  the  skies 203,318 



Christus  ist  erstanden  191,  395 

Christian  !  seek  not  yet  repose        383 

Come,  Lord,  and  tarry  not 390,404 

Come,  see  the  place  where  Jesus  lay          191 

Come,  ye  faithful,  raise  the  strain 391 

Come,  ye  thankful  people,  come      374 

Conditor  alme  siderum          398 

Creator  of  the  rolling  flood 336 

Dayof  Judgment        403 

Days  and  moments  quickly  flying 368 

Depth  of  Mercy          318 

Dies  Irae  240,  356,  401 

Disposer  Supreme       354 

Draw  nigh  to  Thy  Jerusalem  399 

Em  feste  Burg  228,240 

Exultet  orbis  gaudiis 230  n. 

Far  down  the  ages  now        390,404 

Far  from  my  heavenly  home             347 

Far  from  the  world,  O  Lord,  I  flee             236 

Finita  jam  sunt  prselia           394 

For  ever  with  the  Lord          342 

Forsaken  once,  and  thrice  denied 412 

For  thee,  O  dear,  dear  country        ...         ...         ...         ...  357 

Forth  from  the  dark  and  stormy  sky           336 

Forth  in  Thy  Name 93 

From  Greenland's  icy  mountains      333 

Gentle  Jesus 408 

Gird  thee  at  the  martyr's  shrine       95 

Glorious  things  of  Thee  are  spoken            328 

Glory  be  to  Jesus       368 

Glory  to  Thee,  my  God,  this  night             307 

God  of  mercy,  God  of  grace 347 

God  moves  in  a  mysterious  way       327 

Go,  labour  on             39° 

Golden  harps  are  sounding    ...         ...         ...         ...         •••  386 

Gravi  me  terrore  pulsas          4°° 

Great  God,  and  wilt  Thou  condescend         4°9 

Great  God,  what  do  I  see  and  hear 4°2 

Guide  me,  O  Thou  Great  Jehovah 279 

Hail,  festal  day          393 

Hail,  gladdening  Light          ...         ...         ...         •••         •••  3^5 

Hail,  Thou  once  despised  Jesus       32° 

Hail  to  the  Lord's  Anointed  34* 

Hark  !  a  thrilling  (vox  dara  ecce  intonat} 398 

Hark!  hark,  my  soul  ...          ...         ...         •••        ••••  372 



Hark,  my  soul  !  it  is  the  Lord         327 

Hark,  the  glad  sound  315,  399 

Hark!  the  herald-angels  sing  190,318 

Heal  us,  Emmanuel  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     327 

Heaven  at  last  390 

High  let  us  swell  our  tuneful  notes 315 

Holy,  Holy,  Holy      236,  335 

Hora  novissima  401 

Hosanna  to  the  Living  Lord  336 

Hosanna  to  the  Prince  of  Light        ... 191 

How  sweet  the  Name  of  Jesus  sounds         328 

I  heard  the  voice  of  Jesus  say  379,  390 

I  lay  my  sins  on  Jesus  378,390 

I  think  when  I  read 409 

I  was  a  wandering  sheep       378,390 

I  was  wandering  and  weary 372 

Inspirer  and  Hearer  of  prayer          322 

Jam  lucis          203 

Jerusalem,  my  happy  home 235 

Jerusalem  the  golden  235  «.,  357,  401 

Jesu,  Lover  of  my  soul          ...         ...         ...         ...        236,  318 

Jesu,  meek  and  lowly  ...         ...         ...         ...        224,  368 

~esu,  my  Lord  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     368 

esu,  the  very  thought  of  Thee         368 

esu,  the  very  thought  is  sweet         356 

esus  calls  us 412 

_  esus  Christ  is  risen  to-day 191,241,394 

Jesus  Christ,  my  Lord  and  Saviour 409 

Jesus  lives  (Jesus  lebf)  395 

"esus,  Master,  Whom  I  serve 386 

esus,  tender  Shepherd         409 

esus  shall  reign          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     313 

esus,  Who  dwelt  above  the  sky      409 

oy  to  the  world          399 

Lead,  kindly  Light 89,364 

Light's  abode,  celestial  Salem          356,396 

Lo,  at  noon 'tis  sudden  night  409 

Lo  !  God  is  here        319 

Lo!  He  comes  240,318,402 

Lord,  come  away        399 

Lord,  I  would  own  Thy  tender  care  409 

Lord,  in  this  dust  Thy  sovereign  voice        365 

Lord,  in  this  Thy  mercy's  day          354 

Lord  Jesus,  think  on  me        278 

Lord  of  mercy  and  of  might 336 

Lord  of  our  life  89 

Lord,  speak  to  me  that  I  may  speak  386 



Lord,  teach  us  how  to  pray  aright   ...         ...         ...         ...     342 

Media  vita  in  morte  sumus 302 

Mistaken  souls  !  that  dream  of  heaven        ...         232 

My  God,  and  is  Thy  table  spread 190,  315 

My  God,  how  endless  is  Thy  love 203 

My  God,  I  love  Thee  368 

My  God,  my  Father,  while  I  stray 382 

Nearer,  my  God,  to  Thee 224 

New  every  morning  is  the  love        362 

Now  the  dreary  night  is  done  ...        411,413 

O  Beata  Hierusalem 134 

O  Captain  of  God's  host        336 

O  come,  all  ye  faithful  (Adeste fideles)         231,  369 

O  come,  Redeemer  (  Veni  Redemptor  gentium)      397 

O  come  to  the  merciful  Saviour       ...         ...         ...         ...     372 

O  Everlasting  Light 390 

O  God,  I  love  Thee 126  n. 

O  God  of  our  salvation,  Lord  233 

O  God,  our  help  in  ages  past  ...         ...         ...         ...     313 

O  happy  band  of  pilgrims 358 

O  help  us,  Lord,  each  hour  of  need  336 

O  Lord  of  heaven,  and  earth,  and  sea        375 

O  love  of  God,  how  strong  and  true  ...         ...         ...     390 

O  Paradise       372 

O  quanta  qualia  (Ok,  -what  the  joy) 126,  235,  241,  356 

O  quickly  come  404 

O  Sapientia     400 

O  Spirit  of  the  Living  God 342 

O  voice  of  the  Beloved  396 

O  worship  the  King 349 

Oh,  come  and  mourn  with  me  awhile         ...         ...         ...     224 

Oh  for  a  closer  walk  with  God        79,  237,  327 

Once  in  royal  David's  city     ... 411 

On  Jordan's  bank 399 

On  the  Resurrection  morning  396 

Pange  lingua 76,83 

Peace,  perfect  peace  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  126 

Pilgrims  of  the  night 372 

Pleasant  are  Thy  courts  above          347 

Pour  down  Thy  Spirit  from  on  high           ...         ...         ...  342 

Praise,  my  soul,  the  King  of  heaven           347 

Praise  to  the  Holiest  in  the  height 365 

Prayer  is  the  soul's  sincere  desire     ...         ...         ...         ...  341 

Preserve  us,  Lord,  by  Thy  dear  Word        197 

Ride  on,  ride  on  in  majesty 336 



Rock  of  ages     79,  209,  237,  240,  273,  281,  321,  344 

Salve  festa  dies  49,  187  n.,  393 

Saviour,  when  in  dust  to  Thee         ...         ...         ...         ...     349 

Soldiers  of  Christ,  arise         242 

Songs  of  praise  the  angels  sang        ...         ...         ...         ...     191 

Souls  of  men 372 

Sous  ton  voile  d'ignominie 127 

Stabat  mater 240 

Stand  we  prepared 402 

Sun  of  my  soul  79,281,362 

Sweet  Saviour,  bless  us        372 

Sweet  the  moments 320 

Take  my  life 386 

Te  Deum         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...        240,  273 

That  day  of  wrath       401 

The  Church  has  waited  long 390,404 

The  day  is  past  and  over      358 

The  day  of  Resurrection       358,391 

The  God  of  Abraham  praise 320 

The  golden  gates  are  lifted  up          412 

The  roseate  hues  of  early  dawn        412 

The  Son  of  God  goes  forth  to  war 335 

The  strife  is  o'er  (Finitajani)          394 

The  sun  is  sinking  fast    "      368 

The  voice  that  breathed  o'er  Eden 362 

There  is  a  book  who  runs  may  read             362 

There  is  a  fountain  filled  with  Blood          327 

There's  a  Friend  for  little  children 409 

There  is  a  green  hill  far  away          ...         ...         ...         ...  411 

There  is  a  land  of  pure  delight         313 

Thou  art  coming,  O  my  Saviour      404 

Thou  Judge  of  quick  and  dead         403 

Thou  hidden  love  of  God      319 

Thy  kingdom  come 404 

Thy  way,  not  mine,  O  Lord            390 

To  Thee,  and  to  Thy  Christ,  O  God          396 

Through  the  night  of  doubt  and  sorrow      78  n. 

Thy  life  was  given  for  me     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  3^6 

'Tis  the  day  of  Resurrection 191 

Towards  the  eve         94 

Veni  Creator 194,304,351 

Veni  Redemptor  gentium      397 

Veni,  veni,  Emmanuel          4°° 

Verbum  Supermini  prodiens  39$ 

Vexilla  Regis  prodeunt         76,  i88w.,2io 

Victimse  Paschali        i9J>  393 

Vox  clara  ecce  intonat  39^ 



We  came  to  Thee,  sweet  Saviour 372 

Welcome,  happy  morning      393 

What  had  I  been  if  Thou  wert  not 89 

When  gathering  clouds          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  349 

When  I  survey  the  wondrous  Cross             313 

When  languor  and  disease  invade 322 

When  our  heads  are  bowed  with  woe          336 

When  the  weary,  seeking  rest          ...         ...         ...         ...  379 

When  wounded  sore  the  stricken  soul         412 

Ye  choirs  of  new  Jerusalem 394 

Ye  servants  of  God    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  318 

Ye  servants  of  the  Lord        403 


MAY  2  IMS 


Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge. 

(Cfturd?  ^istorg  (Cartoons, 

From  Pictures  drawn  by  W.  J.  MORGAN.  Each  picture  illustrates  an 
important  event  in  the  History  of  the  Church  of  England.  The 
Cartoons  are  bold  and  effectively  coloured.  Size,  45  in.  Uy  35  in. 

No.  1.     Gregory  and  the  English  Slaves,  A.D.  589. 

2.  St.  Augustine  and  King  Ethelbert,  A.D.  597. 

3.  Manumission  of  Slaves  by  an  English  Bishop. 

4.  The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Alban. 

5.  St.  Columba  at  Oronsay,  A.D.  563. 

6.  St.  Aidan  preaching  to  the  Northumbrians. 

7.  The    Venerable    Bede    translating    St.    John's 

Gospel,  A.D.  735. 

8.  Stonehenge. 

9.  lona  at  the  Present  Day.     Founded  A.D.  565. 

10.  Murder  of    Monks    by   the  Danes,    Crowland 

Abbey,  about  87O  A.D. 

11.  The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Edmund,  A.D.  870. 

12.  St.  Dunstan  reproving  King  Edwy,  A.D.  955. 

13.  Norman     Thanksgiving    after    the    Battle    of 

Hastings,  A.D.  1066. 

14.  The  Murder  of  Thomas  A'Beckett,  A.D.  1170. 

15.  The  Crusaders  starting  for  the  East. 

16.  Archbishop     Langton    producing    before     the 

Barons  the  Charter  of  Henry  I.,  A.D.  1213. 

17.  Preaching  at  St.  Paul's  Cross,  A.D.  1547. 

18.  The  Seven  Bishops  sent  to  the  Tower,  A.D.  1688 

19.  The  Consecration  of  Matthew  Parker  as  Arch- 

bishop of  Canterbury,  Dec.  17th,  1559. 

Is.  4d.  each  on  thick  paper.     |    3s.  mounted  and  varnished. 

2s.   mounted  on  canvas.  j    4s.      ditto          ditto,       on  roller 

Publications  of  the  Society  for 


A  Handy  Book  of  the  Church  of  England.  By  the  Rev.  E.  L.  CUTTS. 
New  Edition.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  53.  [A  work  which 
aims  at  meeting  inquiries  upon  the  main  points  of  the  Church's 
History  and  present  position.  It  covers  a  large  area,  and  ought  to 
be  in  the  hands  of  all  Church  Workers  as  well  as  in  those  of  General 

Ancient  British  Church,  A  Popular  Account  of  the.  With  special 
reference  to  the  Church  in  Wales.  By  the  Rev.  E.  J.  NEWELL, 
M.A.  With  Map.  Fcap.  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  2s.  6d.  [A  lucid 
book  on  a  department  of  history  hitherto  much  neglected.] 

A  Story  of  the  Church  of  England.  By  Mrs.  C.  D.  FRANCIS.  Post 
8vo.  Illustrated.  Cloth  boards,  is.  6d.  [A  very  simple  narrative 
history  of  the  English  Church.] 

By-Paths  of  English  Church  History.  Home  Missions  in  the  Early 
Mediaeval  Period.  By  the  Rev.  CHARLES  HOLE,  B.  A.  Post  8vo. 
Cloth  boards,  is.  6d.  [Gives  a  clear  view  of  some  of  the  roots 
of  English  Christianity.] 

Celtic  Church  in  Scotland,  The.  Being  an  Introduction  to  the  History 
of  the  Christian  Church  in  Scotland  down  to  the  death  of  St. 
Margaret.  By  the  Right  Rev.  JOHN  DOWDEN,  D.D.,  Bishop  of 
Edinburgh.  Fcap.  8vo.  Buckram  boards.  35.  6d.  [The  writer 
brings  a  wide  knowledge  to  bear  upon  his  subject,  and  deals  with 
it  in  a  bright  and  interesting  manner  :  for  General  Readers.] 

Church  in  England  and  its  Endowments,  A  Brief  Sketch  of  the 
History  of  the.  With  a  List  of  the  Archbishops,  tracing  their 
succession  from  the  present  time  up  to  the  Apostles,  and  through 
them  to  Christ.  By  the  Rev.  GEORGE  MILLER.  Post  8vo. 
Paper  cover.  4d.  [A  clear  and  simple  statement  of  the  history 
of  Church  endowments.  For  General  Readers.] 

Church  History  in  England.  By  the  Rev.  A.  MARTINEAU.  From 
the  Earliest  Times  to  the  Period  of  the  Reformation.  I2mo.  Cloth 
boards.  35.  [For  reference  and  general  use.] 

Church  History  (A  Chapter  of  English) :  being  the  Minutes  of  the 
S.P.C.K.  for  the  years  1698-1703,  together  with  Abstracts  of  Corre- 
spondents' Letters  during  part  of  the  same  period.  Edited  by  the 
Rev.  EDMUND  McCLURE,  M.A.  Demy  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  $s. 

Promoting  Christian  Knowledge. 

WORKS  ON  CHURCH  HISTORY,    dc.— Continued. 

Church  History,  Illustrated  Notes  on  English.  By  the  Rev.  C.  A. 
LANE.  Vol.  I. — From  the  Earliest  Times  to  the  Dawn  of  the 
Reformation.  Vol.  II. — Its  Reformation  and  Modern  Work. 
Crown  8vo.  Cloth,  is.  each.  [Deals  with  the  chief  events 
during  the  period.  The  illustrations,  amounting  to  over  100  in 
each  Volume,  add  to  its  popular  character.] 

Church  History,  Sketches  of.  From  the  First  Century  to  the  Refor- 
mation. By  the  late  Rev.  Canon  ROBERTSON,  M.A.  Post  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.  2s.  [A  simple  and  attractive  account  of  the  leading 
events  in  Church  History,  from  A.D.  33  to  the  Reformation :  for 
general  readers  ;  suitable  also  for  use  in  Sunday  and  day  schools.] 

Church  History  in  Scotland,  Sketches  of.  By  the  late  Rev.  JULIUS 
LLOYD.  Post  8vo.  Cloth  boards,  is.  6d.  [An  account  of 
Church  affairs  in  Scotland  from  St.  Columba's  Mission  to  lona 
until  the  present  time.] 

Church  History,  Turning  Points  of  English.  By  the  Rev.  E.  L. 
CUTTS,  D.D.  A  new  and  revised  edition.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth 
'boards.  35.  6d.  [The  leading  events  in  the  Church  of  England 
from  the  earliest  period  of  British  history  to  the  present  day, 
showing  the  Church  questions  that  have  arisen,  and  yet  remain 
as  our  inheritance;  for  Churchmen  in  general.] 

Church  History,  Turning  Points  of  General.  By  the  Rev.  E.  L. 
CUTTS,  D.D.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  45.  [The  leading 
events  in  General  Church  History  from  the  time  of  the  Apostles 
to  the  present  day;  useful  for  a  text-book  in  schools,  &c.,  and  for 
general  readers.] 

Churchman's  Life  of  Wesley  (The).  By  R.  DENNY  URLIN,  Esq. 
Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  33.  6d. 

Dictionary  (A),  of  the  Church  of  England.  By  the  Rev.  E.  L.  CUTTS, 
D.D.  With  Numerous  Woodcuts.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards. 
53.  [A  manual  for  the  use  of  clergymen  and  schools.] 

Great  English  Churchmen;  or,  Famous  Names  in  English  Church 
History  and  Literature.  By  the  late  W.  H.  DAVENPORT  ADAMS. 
Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  35.  6d. 

Publications  of  the  Society  for 

WORKS  ON  CHURCH  HISTORY,   do,— Continued. 

Grosseteste,  Robert,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  The  Life  and  Times  of.  By 
the  Rev.  G.  G.  PERRY.  Post  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  2s.  6cl. 
["Grosseteste  chiefly  as  a  reformer  in  a  corrupt  period  of  the 
Church,  and  his  quarrel  with  the  Pope  "  :  for  general  reading.] 

History  of  the  English  Church,  in  Short  Biographical  Sketches.  By 
the  late  Rev.  JULIUS  LLOYD.  Post  8vo.  Cloth  boards,  is.  6d. 
[Leads  the  reader,  by  a  series  of  selected  lives,  to  a  general  idea 
of  the  Church  History  of  England.] 

John  Wicliff,  His  Life,  Times,  and  Teaching.  By  the  Rev.  A.  R. 
PENNINGTON,  M.A.  Fcap.  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  33.  [This  work 
embraces  the  result  of  recent  researches  :  for  general  reading.] 

Lectures  on  the  Historical  and  Dogmatical  Position  of  the  Church  of 
England.  By  the  Rev.  W.  BAKER,  D.D.  Post  8vo.  Cloth 
boards,  is.  6d.  [Supplies  in  short  compass  a  clear  account  of  the 
historical  position  of  the  Church  of  England  :  for  General  Readers.] 

Lessons  from  Early  English  Church  History.  By  the  Right  Rev. 
G.  F.  BROWNE,  B.D.  Post  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  is.  6d. 
[These  lectures  are  true  lessons,  and  have  much  to  teach  the  ordinary 

The  Christian  Church  in  these  Islands  hefore  the  Coming  of  Augustine. 
By  the  Right  Rev.  G.  F.  BROWNE,  B.D.  Post  8vo.  Cloth 
boards,  is.  6d.  [A  lucid  and  scholarly  account  of  this  obscure 
period  of  English  Church  History  :  for  General  Readers.] 

The  Church  of  England :  its  Planting,  its  Settlement,  its  Reformation, 
and  its  Renewed  Life.  Four  addresses  by  the  late  Rev.  E.  VEN- 
ABLES,  M.A.  Post  8vo.  Cloth  boards,  is.  [A  useful  summary.] 

The  Story  in  Outline  of  the  Church  of  England.  By  the  Rev.  Canon 
GARNIER,  M.A.  Sm.  post  8vo.  Paper  covers.  3d.  [Gives  a 
short  and  simple  historical  account  of  the  Church  of  England.] 

The  Title  Deeds  of  the  Church  of  England :  an  Historic  Vindication  of 
her  Position  and  Claims.  By  the  Rev.  Canon  GARNIER.  Post 
8vo.  Cloth  boards.  35.  6d.  [The  sub-title  explains  the  aim  of 
this  book,  which  is  written  in  a  lucid  and  interesting  manner.] 

Promoting  Christian  Knowledge. 


Attila  and  his  Conquerors.  A  Story  of  the  Days  of  St.  Patrick  and 
St.  Leo  the  Great.  By  the  late  Mrs.  RUNDLE  CHARLES.  Crown 
8vo.  Cloth  boards.  33.  6d. 

Champions  of  the  Eight.     By  the  Rev.  E.   GILLIAT,  M.A.     Crown 

8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s. 
[A  series  of  selected  Biographies,  illustrating  English  History.] 

Conquering  and  to  Conquer.     A  Story  of  Rome  in  the  Days  of  St. 
Jerome.     By  the  late  Mrs.  RUNDLE  CHARLES,  author  of  "  The 
Schonberg-Cotta  Family."     Crown  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 
[Presents  a  fair  Picture  of  Society  in  Jerome's  time  :  for  General  Readers.] 

Gaudentius.  A  Story  of  the  Colosseum.  By  the  Rev.  G.  S.  DAVIES. 
Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  2s.  6d. 

[A  Picture  of   Roman  Morals    yielding  to  the   Pressure  of   Christianity :    for 
Educated  Readers.] 

Jack  Dane's  Inheritance.     A  Tale  of  Church  Defence.     By  FRANCES 
BEAUMONT  MILNE.    With  one  page  Woodcut.    Post  8vo.     Limp 
cloth.     6d. 
[A  story  upon  the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  Church  of  England.] 

Lapsed,  not  Lost.     A  Story  of  Roman  Carthage.     By  the  late  Mrs. 

RUNDLE  CHARLES.     Crown  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 
[A  Story  of  the  time  ef  St.  Cyprian  :  for  General  Readers.] 

Mitslav :  or,  The  Conversion  of  Pomerania.  By  the  late  Right  Rev. 
R.  MILMAN,  D.D.  Crown  8vo.  With  Map.  Cloth  boards. 
33.  6d. 

Narcissus.  A  Tale  of  Early  Christian  times.  By  the  Right  Rev.  W. 
BOYD  CARPENTER.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  33.  6d. 

Stories  for  the  Saints'  Days.     By  S.  W.,  author  of  "Stories  for  every 
Sunday  in  the   Christian   Year."      Fcap.    8vo.      Cloth    boards. 
is.  6d. 
[An  Epitome  of  the  Lives  of  certain  Saints  and  Fathers  :  for  Ordinary  Readers.] 

The  Church  in  the  Valley.  By  ELIZABETH  HARCOURT  MITCHELL. 
With  four  page  Woodcuts.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth.  2s.  6d. 

[A  story  which  introduces  much  Church  History,  and  is  well  calculated  to  spread 
useful  information  upon  the  Disestablishment  question.] 

The  Villa  of  Claudius.  A  Tale  of  the  Roman-British  Church.  By 
the  Rev.  E.  L.  CUTTS,  D.D.  New  Edition.  With  four  page 
illustrations.  Crown  8vo.  Cloth  boards.  Is.  6d. 

E  E 

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Bath  and  Wells.     By  the  Rev.  W.  HUNT.    With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Canterbury.     By  the  Rev.  R.  C.  JENKINS.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     33.  6d. 

Carlisle.     By  RICHARD  S.  FERGUSON,  Esq.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Chester.    By  the  Rev.    RUPERT   H.    MORRIS,   D.D.     With    Map. 
Fcap.  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     35. 

Chichester.     By  the  Rev.   W.  R.  W.    STEPHENS.     With   Map  and 
Plan  of  the  Cathedral.     Fcap.  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Durham.     By  the  Rev.  J.  L.   Low.     With  Map  and  Plan.     Fcap. 
8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Hereford.     By  the  Rev.  Canon  PHILLOTT.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     33. 

Lichfield.     By  the  Rev.  W.  BERESFORD.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Norwich.     By  the  Rev.  A.  JESSOPP,  D.D.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Oxford.     By  the  Rev.  E.  MARSHALL,  M.A.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Peterborough.     By  the  Rev.  G.  A.  POOLE,  M.A.     With  Map.     Fcap. 
8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Salisbury.     By  the  Rev.  W.  H.  JONES.     With  Map  and  Plan.     Fcap. 
8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Sodor  and  Man.     By  A.  W.  MOORE,  M.A.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     35. 

St.    Asaph.     By   the   Venerable   Archdeacon   THOMAS.     With  Map. 
Fcap.  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s. 

St.  David's.     By  the  Rev.  Canon  BEVAN.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d. 

Winchester.     By  the  Rev.  W.  BENHAM,  B.D.     With  Map.     Fcap. 
8vo.     Cloth  boards.     33. 

Worcester.     By  the  Rev.  I.  GREGORY  SMITH,  and  the  Rev.  PHIPPS 
ONSLOW.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     35.  6d. 

York.     By  the  Rev.  Canon  ORNSBY,  M.A.     With  Map.     Fcap.  8vo. 
Cloth  boards.     33.  6d. 

Promoting  Christian  Knowledge. 


Fcap.  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  6d.  each. 

Buddhism.     Being  a  Sketch  of  the  Life  and  Teachings  of  Gautama,  the 

Buddha.     By  T.  W.  RHYS  DAVIDS.     With  Map. 
Buddhism  in  China.     By  the  Rev.  S.  BEAL.     With  Map. 
Christianity  and  Buddhism :  a  Comparison  and  a  Contrast.     By  the 


Confucianism  and  Taouism.     By  Professor  R.  K.  DOUGLAS. 
Hinduism.     By  Sir  M.  MONIER  WILLIAMS.     With  Map. 
Islam  as  a  Missionary  Religion.     By  CHARLES  R.  HAINES.     as. 
Islam  and  its  Founder.     By  J.  W.  H.  STOBART.     With  Map. 
The  Coran :  its  Composition  and  Teaching  and  the  Testimony  it  bears 

to  the  Holy  Scriptures.     By  Sir  W.  MUIR,  K.C.S.I. 
The  Religion  of  the  Crescent  or  Islam;  its  Strength,  its  Weakness, 

its  Origin,  its  Influence.     By  the  Rev.  W.  ST.  CLAIR-TISDALL, 

M.A.     43. 


Fcap.  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     2s.  each. 

Leo  the  Great.     By  the  Rev.  Canon  GORE,  M.  A. 

Gregory  the  Great.     By  the  Rev.  J.  BARMBY,  B.D. 

Saint  Ambrose:  his  Life,  Times,  and  Teaching.  By  the  Ven.  Arch- 
deacon THORNTON,  D.D. 

Saint  Athanasius:  his  Life  and  Times.  By  the  Rev.  R.  WHELER 
BUSH.  2s.  6d. 

Saint  Augustine.     By  the  Rev.  EDWARD  L.  CUTTS,  D.D. 

Saint  Basil  the  Great.     By  the  Rev.  R.  T.  SMITH,  B.D. 

Saint  Bernard,  Abbot  of  Clairvaux,  A.D.  1091—1153.  By  the  Rev. 
S.  J.  EALES,  M.A.,  D.C.L.  as.  6d. 

Saint  Hilary  of  Poitiers  and  Saint  Martin  of  Tours.  By  the  Rev. 

Saint  Jerome.     By  the  Rev.  EDWARD  L.  CUTTS,  D.D. 

Saint  John  of  Damascus.     By  the  Rev.  J.  H.  LUPTON,  M.A. 

Saint  Patrick ;  his  Life  and  Teaching.  By  the  Rev.  E.  J.  NEWELL, 
M.A.  as.  6d. 

Synesius  of  Gyrene,  Philosopher  and  Bishop.     By  ALICE  GARDNER. 

The  Apostolic  Fathers.     By  the  Rev.  Canon  SCOTT  HOLLAND. 

The  Defenders  of  the  Faith;  or,  the  Christian  Apologists  of  the 

The  Venerable  Bede.     By  the  Right  Rev.  G.  F.  BROWNE,  B.D. 

Publications  of  the  Society  for 


Crown  8vo.     Cloth  boards.     3*.  6d.  each. 
Black  and  White.     Mission  Stories.    By  H.  A.  FORDE. 
Charlemagne.     By  the  Rev.  E.  L.  CUTTS,  D.D.    With  Map. 
Constantino  the  Great.     The  Union  of  the  Church  and  State. 

By  the  Rev.  E.  L.  CUTTS,  D.D. 
Great    English    Churchmen;    or,    Famous    Names    in 


H.  D.  ADAMS. 
John    Hus.     The   Commencement    of   the   Resistance    to    Papal 

Authority  on  the  Part  of  the  Inferior  Clergy.     By  the  Rev.  A.  H. 

Judaea    and  her   Rulers,  from  Nebuchadnezzar  to  Vespasian. 

By  M.  BRAMSTON.     With  Map. 
Mazarin.    By  the  late  GUSTAVE  MASSON. 
Military    Religious    Orders    of    the    Middle    Ages :    the 

Hospitallers,  the  Templars,  the  Teutonic  Knights,  and  others. 

By  the  Rev.  F.  C.  WOODHOUSE,  M.A. 
Mitslav;  or,  the  Conversion  of  Pomerania.      By  the  late 

Right  Rev.  R.  MILMAN,  D.D.    With  Map. 
Narcissus  :   a  Tale  of  Early  Christian  Times.     By  the  Right  Rev. 

W.  BOYD  CARPENTER,  Bishop  of  Ripon. 
Richelieu.  By  the  late  GUSTAVE  MASSON. 
Sketches  of  the  Women  of  Christendom.  Dedicated  to 

the  Women  of  India.      By  the  late  MRS.    RUNDLE  CHARLES, 

author  of  "The  Chronicles  of  the  Schonberg-Cotta  Family." 
The   Church   in   Roman  Gaul.     By  the  Rev.  R.  TRAVERS 

SMITH.     With  Map. 
The  Churchman's  Life  of  Wesley.    By  R.  DENNY  URLIN, 

Esq.,  F.S.S. 
The   House  of    God  the   Home    of    Man.      By  the  Rev. 

Canon  JELF. 
The  Inner  Life,  as  Revealed  in  the  Correspondence  of  Celebrated 

Christians.     Edited  by  the  late  Rev.  T.  ERSKINE. 
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Dangers,  Sorrows,  Aids,  and  Joys.     By  the  Rev.  F.  C.  WOOD- 
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E55  collection  of  his  writings  on